• ENGINEERING AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND

• TERM PAPER REPORT
ON
INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE IN CLOUD COMPUTING
Submitted to
Amity University Uttar Pradesh
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree
Of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Computer Science and Engineering
By
Shivam Choudhary (A12405217089)
Under the guidance of
Ms Neha Aggarwal
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH
2018

Declaration
• I, Shivam Choudhary , student of B.Tech (C.S.E. -12(X)) hereby declare that the project titled ” Infrastructure as a
service ” which is submitted by me to Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Amity School of Engineering
Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfilment of requirement for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering, has not been previously formed the basis for the award
of any degree, diploma or other similar title or recognition.
• The Author attests that permission has been obtained for the use of any copyrighted material appearing in the
Dissertation / Project report other than brief excerpts requiring only proper acknowledgement in scholarly writing
and all such use is acknowledged.
• Date: __________________
• Shivam Choudhary
• A12405217089
• CSE -12(X) (2017 -21)

CERTIFICATE
• This is to certify that Mr Shivam Choudhary , student of B.Tech in
Computer Science and Engineering has carried out work
presented in the project of the Term paper entitle
“Infrastructure as a service ” as a part of First year program of
Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering
from Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida under my
supervision.
_________________________
• Ms Neha Aggarwal
• Department of Computer Science and Engineering
• ASET, Noida

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
• The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would
be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it
possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with
success. I would like to thank Prof (Dr) , Head of Department -CSE, and Amity
University for giving me the opportunity to undertake this project. I would like to
thank my faculty guide Ms Neha Aggarwal who is the biggest driving force behind
my successful completion of the project. She has been always there to solve any
query of mine and also guided me in the right direction regarding the project.
Without her help and inspiration, I would not have been able to complete the
project. Also I would like to thank my batch mates who guided me, helped me and
gave ideas and motivation at each step.
• Shivam Choudhary

INDEX
• INTRODUCTION
• Overview
• Virtualization
• Properties and Characteristics
• Scalability & Elasticity
• Availability & Reliability
• Manageability & Interoperability
• Performance & Optimization
• Accessibility & Portability
• IaaS Architecture
• Virtualization Overview
• Refrences

INTRODUCTION
• Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is one of the three dominant cloud
computing services. It is used to provide access to virtualised computing
resources via the web. Windows Azure, Amazon Web Services, Rackspace
Open Cloud, Google Compute Engine, and IBM Smartcloud Enterprise are
all leading IaaS providers.
• IaaS platforms have scalable components and can be adjusted as needed.
They are therefore ideal for changeable, experimental and temporary
workloads. The model works as follows: a third -party hosts users’
software, storage, hardware, and other infrastructure components. User
applications are also hosted by IaaS providers, and they also manage tasks
such as backup, system maintenance, and resiliency plans. Other features
of IaaS comprise automated administration tasks, desktop virtualisation,
agile scaling, and policy -based services.

OVERVIEW
Why do we need IaaS ?

Overview
• What is the problems in conventional case ?
? Companies IT investment for peak capacity
? Lack of agility for IT infrastructure
? IT maintain cost for every company
? Usually suffered from hardware failure risk
? …etc
• These IT complexities force company back !!

Overview
• How to solve these problem ?
? Let’s consider some kind of out -sourcing solution
• Somebody will handle on demand capacity for me
• Somebody will handle high available resource for me
• Somebody will handle hardware management for me
• Somebody will handle system performance for me
• Somebody will …
? Frankly, that would be a great solution IF there were “somebody”.
? But who can be this “somebody”, and provide all these services ?

Overview
• Infrastructure as a Service will be the salvation.
? IaaS cloud provider takes care of all the IT infrastructure complexities.
? IaaS cloud provider provides all the infrastructure functionalities.
? IaaS cloud provider guarantees qualified infrastructure services.
? IaaS cloud provider charges clients according to their resource usage.
• But, what make all of these happen so magically ?

Virtualization
• Assume that you are going to be an IaaS cloud provider.
? Then, what are the problems you are facing ?
• Clients will request different operating systems.
• Clients will request different storage sizes.
• Clients will request different network bandwidths.
• Clients will change their requests anytime.
• Clients will …
? Is there any good strategy ?
• Allocate a new physical machine for each incomer.
• Prepare a pool of pre -installed machines for different requests.
• or …

Virtualization
• What if we allocate a new physical machine for each
incomer ?
I want
Windows 7
I want
Linux
Windows Linux
Customer A Customer B
I want … I want …
I want … I want …

Virtualization
• How about preparing a pool of pre -installed physical
machines for all kinds of request ?
Windows + Office Windows Server Linux + OpenOffice Linux Server
Somebody may want
Somebody
might want…
Somebody may want
Somebody
might want…
I want
Mac OS

Virtualization
• Obviously, neither of previous strategies will work.
• We need more powerful techniques to deal with that.
• Virtualization techniques will help.
? For computation resources
• Virtual Machine technique
? For storage resources
• Virtual Storage technique
? For communication resources
• Virtual Network technique

OVERVIEW
How IaaS meets cloud properties ?

Properties and Characteristics
• As a cloud provider, all of the fundamental properties and
characteristics stated in previous lectures should be
concerned and implemented.

Scalability & Elasticity
• What do scalability and elasticity mean in IaaS ?
? Clients should be able to dynamically increase or decrease the
amount of infrastructure resources in need.
? Large amount of resources provisioning and deployment should be
done in a short period of time, such as several hours or days.
? System behavior should remain identical in small scale or large one.

Scalability & Elasticity
• How to approach scalability and elasticity in IaaS ?
? For computation resources :
• Dynamically create or terminate virtual machines for clients on demand.
• Integrate hypervisors among all physical machines to collaboratively
control and manage all virtual machines.
? For storage resources :
• Dynamically allocate or de -allocate virtual storage space for clients.
• Integrate all physical storage resources in the entire IaaS system
• Offer initial storage resources by thin provisioning technique.
? For communication resources :
• Dynamically connect or disconnect the linking state of virtual networks for
clients on demand.
• Dynamically divide the network request flow to different physical routers
to maintain access bandwidth.

Availability & Reliability
• What do availability and reliability mean in IaaS ?
? Clients should be able to access computation resources without
considering the possibility of hardware failure.
? Data stored in IaaS cloud should be able to be retrieved when
needed without considering any natural disaster damage.
? Communication capability and capacity should be maintained
without considering any physical equipment shortage.

Availability & Reliability
• How to approach availability and reliability in IaaS ?
? For computation resources :
• Monitor each physical and virtual machine for any possible failure.
• Regularly backup virtual machine system state for disaster recovery.
• Migrate virtual machine among physical machines for potential failure
prevention.
? For storage resources :
• Maintain data pieces replication among different physical storage devices.
• Regularly backup virtual storage data to geographical remote locations for
disaster prevention.
? For communication resources :
• Built redundant connection system to improve robustness.

Manageability & Interoperability
• What do manageability and interoperability mean in IaaS ?
? Clients should be able to fully control the virtualized infrastructure
resources which allocated to them.
? Virtualized resources can be allocated by means of system control
automation process with pre -configured policy.
? States of all virtualized resource should be fully under monitoring.
? Usage of infrastructure resources will be recorded and then billing
system will convert these information to user payment.

Manageability & Interoperability
• How to approach manageability and interoperability in IaaS ?
? For computation resources :
• Provide basic virtual machine operations, such as creation, termination,
suspension, resumption and system snapshot.
• Monitor and record CPU and memory loading for each virtual machine.
? For storage resources :
• Monitor and record storage space usage and read/write data access from
user for each virtual storage resource.
• Automatic allocate/de -allocate physical storage according to space utilization.
? For communication resources :
• Monitor and record the network bandwidth consumption for each virtual
link.
• Automatically reroute the data path when computation and storage are
duplicated.

Performance & Optimization
• What do performance and optimization mean in IaaS ?
? Physical resources should be highly utilized among different clients.
? Physical resources should form a large resource pool which provide
high computing power through parallel processing.
? Virtual infrastructure resources will be dynamically configured to
an optimized deployment among physical resources.

Performance & Optimization
• How to approach performance and optimization in IaaS ?
? For computation resources :
• Deploy virtual machine with load balancing consideration.
• Live migrate virtual machines among physical ones to balance the system
loading.
? For storage resources :
• Deploy virtual storage with hot spot access consideration.
• Live migrate virtual storage among physical ones with different
performance level.
? For communication resources :
• Consider network bandwidth loading when deploying virtual machines
and storage.
• Dynamically migrate virtual machines or storage to balance network flow.

Accessibility & Portability
• What do accessibility and portability mean in IaaS ?
? Clients should be able to control, manage and access infrastructure
resources in an easy way, such as the web -browser, without
additional local software or hardware installation.
? Provided infrastructure resources should be able to be reallocated
or duplicated easily.

Accessibility & Portability
• How to approach accessibility and portability in IaaS ?
? For computation resources :
• Cloud provider integrates virtual machine management and access
through web -based portal.
• Comply the virtual machine standard for portability.
? For storage resources :
• Cloud provider integrates virtual storage management and access through
web -based portal.
? For communication resources :
• Cloud provider integrates virtual network management and access
through web -based portal.

IaaS Architecture
• Infrastructure as a Service ( IaaS ) delivers computer infrastructure
for cloud user, typically a platform virtualization environment as a
service.
• Virtualization is an e nabling technique to provide an abstraction of
logical resources away from underlying physical resources.

Virtualization Overview
• What is virtualization ?
? Virtualization is the creation of a virtual (rather than physical)
version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a
storage device or network resources.
? It hides the physical characteristics of a resource from users,
instead showing another abstract resource.
• But, where does virtualization come from ?
? Virtualization is NOT a new idea of computer science.
? Virtualization concept comes from the component abstraction of
system design, and it has been adapted in many system level.
? Now, let’s take a look of our original system architecture !!

Virtualization Overview
• System abstraction :
? Computer systems are built on
levels of abstraction.
? Higher level of abstraction
hide details at lower levels.
? Designer of each abstraction
level make use of the functions
supported from its lower level,
and provide another
abstraction to its higher one.
? Example
• files are an abstraction of a disk

Virtualization Overview
• Machine level abstraction :
? For OS developers, a machine
is defined by ISA (Instruction
Set Architecture).
? This is the major division
between hardware and
software.
? Examples :
• X86
• ARM
• MIPS

Virtualization Overview
• OS level abstraction :
? For compiler or library
developers, a machine is
defined by ABI (Application
Binary Interface).
? This define the basic OS
interface which may be used
by libraries or user.
? Examples :
• User ISA
• OS system call

Virtualization Overview
• Library level abstraction :
? For application developers, a
machine is defined by API
(Application Programming
Interface).
? This abstraction provides the
well -rounded functionalities.
? Examples :
• User ISA
• Standard C library
• Graphical library

REFRENCES
• From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• All resources of the materials and pictures were partially
retrieved from the Internet.
• Julisch K, Hall M. Security and control in the cloud.
Information Security Journal
• A combined approach to ensure data security in cloud
computing -Sandeep K. Sood