Shia-Sunni Paper

Shi’a-Sunni relations during and after the reign of Saddam Hussein SOC 300-Sociology of Developing Countries April 24, 2011 Discuss the effects of Saddam Hussein’s government on Shi’a-Sunni relations in Iraq. The Sunni, Shi’a conflict in Iraq (and other parts of the Muslim world) started long before the reign of Saddam Hussein in Iraq, but when Saddam became Prime Minister of the country the conflict between the two religious sects was taken to a new level. As soon as Hussein gained full power, under his control, began years and years of persecution of the Shi’a Muslims in the country.
write an essay my best food
With Saddam’s newly gained power, he had the full support of the Sunni’s, supporting his long standing hatred of the Shi’a. He then set out to show the nation who was ultimately in control and to rid the nation of any opposition. Shi’ites were persecuted under the Ba’ath party rule. Many Shi’a religious traditions were banned throughout the country, such as the Shi’a Ashoura religious festival, stating “the last thing he wanted was that many Shi’as together” (www. associatedcontent. com). It is said that every Shi’a clerical family of note in Iraq had tales of torture and murder to recount. (www. wikipedia. rg) from the years 1979- 1983. Under Saddam’s regime, 48 Shi’a clerics were executed, in Iraq. During his reign, Saddam mercilessly persecuted, tortured and executed several Shi’a leaders and followers alike (www. associatedcontent. com). After the United States beat Iraq in the Gulf War (1990-1991) the persecution intensified (Handleman, 2011). Saddam believed that the United States under George W. Bush called the Iraqi people to overthrow Hussein and that the United States would support any uprising of the people to overthrow him. This primarily meant the Shi’a in the southern part of the country and the Kurds in the northern part.

When U. S. assistance failed to materialize, Shi’a towns all throughout the south were leveled and thousands of Shi’a people massacred. What effect did Saddam’s fall from power have on relations between these two religious communities? After the relentless persecution and torture of the Shi’ites under Saddam’s rule, the Shi’a reveled in his fall from power in 2003. America took down Saddam’s ever ruling Ba’ath party and at the time had the support of the Shi’ites. They favored a peaceful negotiation with the occupying authorities, meanwhile anticipating the new country they would eventually rule.

Within a year after Saddam’s fall from power, the Sunni’s were almost waging a full scale war against the Shi’ites. They were using primarily roadside bombs and suicide bombings, directed at major sites throughout crowded Shi’a neighborhoods. This was the start of the Sunni insurgency, 2003. As it stands, this is some of the worst Shi’a-Sunni strife that has ever occurred, since the U. S. invasion of Iraq, it has built up steadily since then and to present, this Sunni-Shi’a revenge cycle, where suicide bombings are often used by the Sunni, the Shi’a favors death squads.

On the Shi’a side the militia dominated government death squads were reportedly torturing to death, or executing “hundreds of Sunni’s” every month in Baghdad alone (www. wikipedia. org). According the BBC, from 2005 to present, the commandos of the Ministry of Interior are controlled by the Badr Organization, the military wing of The Supreme Islamic Iraqi Council (SIIC) and are almost exclusively Shi’a Muslims and have been implicated in killing thousands of Sunni citizens (www. wikipedia. org). What do you feel is likely to happen to Shi’a-Sunni relations after the U.

S. and allied troops withdrew from Iraq? When the U. S. completely withdraws from Iraq the Shi’a-Sunni relations, as they stand currently, will continue to deteriorate. The U. S. supported Shi’ites are in place, politically now, but once the U. S. withdraws more civil unrest will rage between the two sects and although the Shi’ite Muslims (around 65% of the population) outnumber the Sunni Muslims (around 32% of the population), I believe it will be a war of who has the strongest backers (for arms, supplies,etc), being other Muslim nations, Al Qaeda, etc.

The country will continue to grow more and more unstable and the unrest will continue to escalate. Ultimately who ends up in control, is anyone’s guess. The nation of Iraq could ultimately end up with another leader like Saddam Hussein, or worse. The current Prime Minister al-Maliki is trying to create a stable government based on sectarian aspirations but his level of success as a ruler will ultimately determine whether Iraq is even capable of having a peaceful future (Handleman 2011).

References Handleman, Howard (2011). The Challenge of Third World Development (pp. 109-113). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Saddam_hussein http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Shi%27a%E2%80%93Sunni_relations http://www. reference. com/browse/sunni http://www. newstatesman. com/world-affairs/2007/02/sunni-shia-iraq-iran-arab http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/2543561/the_shiasunni_conflict_in_iraq_pg1html? cat=37

Huntsville Plant Project Charter

Project Name| Huntsville Plant Project| Project Number| 005| Project Manager| David Myers| Prioritization| High| Owner(s)| Walter Seitz| Start Date:| April 17, 2011| Scheduled Completion Date:| June 30, 2012| Mission| The construction of a new Seitz plant in Huntsville, AL that will be operational by June 30, 2012. | | Scope| 1) Select resources such as architect, real estate consultant and general contractor. ) Recruit and train managers for the new plant 3) Create pre-production and production plans 4) Create building concept and design 5) Procure building site, all required permits and approvals 6) Construct building 7) Landscaping of site 8) Operations personnel recruitment 9) Equipment , materials and fleet purchases 10) Equipment installation 11) Create product distribution and pre-production plans 12) Begin production and distribution| | Objectives| 1) To construct a new plant in Huntsville, Alabama that will be fully operational by June 30, 2012. ) To hire and train qualified management and operations personnel. 3) To procure all new equipment for production. 4) To procure a full fleet of trucks for distribution. | | Assumptions| 1. The labor market in Huntsville, AL is sufficient to meet the requirements of the new plant 2. Acquiring suitable land and obtaining permits will not face any unusual legal requirements. | | Constraints| Construction, staffing, equipment and materials will all be funded from the $2,750,000 allocated for the project. | |

write essay my favorite book

Time/Decision Points| 1) Start Date: April 17, 2011 2) Architectural Drawings Complete: May 15, 2011 3) Land purchased and permits obtained: June 01, 2011 4) Construction begins: July 01, 2011 5) Building construction complete: January 15, 2012 6) Equipment purchase and installation complete: February 15, 2012 7) Personnel hiring and training complete: March 31, 2012 8) Equipment tests complete: April 15, 2012 9) Facility begins operation May 15, 2012| | Cost/Financial Assumptions| 1) We assume the total cost of construction and beginning operation to be no more than $2,750,000| |

User Acceptance Criteria/Quality| 1) All products will meet quality standards of the Seitz coporation| | Major Risks| 1) Financial risk due to possibility of construction and staffing cost over runs. | | KEY STAKEHOLDERS| | Name| Project Core Team:| Steve PokorskiJoe DownsRhonda SmithMary Doonan | Subject Matter Experts (SME) (Include company & channel designations if applicable)| | APPROVALS| Type Name| Signature| Date| Project Manager Approval:| David Myers| February 1, 2010| Owner/Sponsor Approval:| Walter Seitz| February 1, 2010|

Incorporation of Snake Cult in Indian Religion

Evolution Deities Aspect Introduction: India has seen the birth of many cults and religions. A lot of factor governs the beginning of these cults. It is common knowledge that many deities in Indian religion were began to worship out of fear. As humans it is soothing for us to believe in a super power which is capable of giving as well as ridding us off our problems. This principle applied for animals too and it became the basis of animal worship in India, as all the existing creatures are either useful of harmful to humans so it is better to worship them.

Naga clan of ancient India were the first clan to begin the snake worship. Not only Hinduism but also Buddhism and Jainism are worshiper of snakes. Worshiping the deities of natural elements like water, springs and rivers also are symbolized by the waving form of snakes. Snakes are mostly depicted as gigantic cobras with many hoods or human upper torsos and serpent body and are believed to live in patal loka. Different religions have adopted snake worship for their own reasons.

best write my essay

But there has always been a fear of snakes in human beings as they were the reason of many deaths. People also believed that if angered and disrespected snakes will course them and that action may result in sickens or death, and so they started worshiping and offering milk to snakes to please them. Evolution: Worshiping sun and snake with prayers and rituals have been practised in India even before the Vedic times. Snake or serpent worship is one of the oldest “denominations” of Hinduism. There are various myths associated with the beginning of the snake worship in India.

It is believed that the custom of worshiping snakes was incorporated from the “Naga clan” of ancient India, and the Indo-Aryans carried forward the tradition by continuing to worship various snake deities. According to Puranas, snakes were believed to be offspring of Sage Kashyapa and Kadru. Whereas according Brahmanda Purana snakes were produced from water. The Linga Purana has totally different say on this, it believes that the snakes were produced from the first tear Brahma shaded after realising his inability to create universe single-handedly.

Having such a close contact of snakes with varies sages and deities can also be one of the reason of worshiping snakes and association it with mainstream deities. There is mention of snake worship in Atharva Veda too. In Rig Veda, there are hints of snake worship, where earth is considered as the Sarpa-rajni or “the queen of the serpents or the queen of all that moves”. On the walls of temples of Medieval era were founded the engraved paintings of snakes. This shows the existence of snake worship from early medieval era and in fact it started 500 years before Buddha’s birth.

This tradition is still alive in India and in its religions as well as it got spread across different countries of the world. There are eight pre-eminent snakes mentioned in Hindu mythology having their association with one or the other god or goddess. Sheshnaga, a snake with 1000 heads and a messive hood is believed to have been born of what was left after the universe had been created. She is the couch of Vishnu on which lord rests. It is even believed that earth rests on him. This snake is worshiped as manifestation of lord Vishnu.

Ananta, a very long snake, and dark blue in colour is also considered as manifestation of lord Vishnu. This snake is endless, and believed to encircle the whole earth. Vasuki is also considered as one amongst the royal snakes and Naga king with 7 heads. Vasuki means the divine being. He was used as a Churning rope for sumndra manthan. Mansadevi is considered as a queen of snake. She is sister of snake king vasuki. She is goddess who can save mortals from snake bite. Takshaka, saffron coloured snake with 9 hoods is worshiped as lord of nagas.

Kaliya, was a five headed demon serpent living in river yamuna. He was a curse for people of vrindavan and have had also troubled Krishna in childhood. But later Krishna subdued him. Padmaka and padmanabha are two snakes believed to guard the south side of the country. And the last snake kulia is a dusky brown snake with half moon crescent on his head. Deities: In India, snake gods are linked with health, wealth and great securities when one is in difficulty as believed by Hindus. Snake gods are believed to live in their separate world.

Large numbers of deities like lord Shiva and Vishnu are associated with holy snakes or snake gods in one or the other ways, and so are many temples dedicated to the worshiping of snake. Abul Fazal (the court historian of Akbar) stated that there are 700 places sacred to serpents. Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva has many associations with snakes. According to Puranas, Lord Shiva was associated with Naga cult. Shiva has snakes around his neck, arms, hair and sometimes around his body, symbolizing the yogic power of him for destruction and creation.

Snake is compared as yogi living on mountains and forests, who carries nothing, builds nothing, can stay without eating for months living just on air. The Vasuki snake shown curled 3 times around the neck of Shiva symbolizes the time cycle- past present and future. Shiva lingam is also associated with snake and covered with snake hood. In the text of Mahabharata Harivamsa, sheshnaga was connected with Shiva rather than Vishnu as son of him. Lord Vishnu: SheshNaga also called AnantaNag having 1000 heads is the couch of Vishnu, and is also worshiped as a manifestation of Vishnu.

Lord is believed to rest on the Nag during the process of destruction and recreation. Earth is believed to respite on SheshNaga. The snake is believed to be a representation of time and symbol of eternity. This snake is manly worship during the sacred Hindu festival of Nagpanchmi. Balram: Balram, elder brother of lord Krishna, is believed to be personification of the snake Ananta. MansaDevi: MansaDevi is sister of Vasuki and snake king Shesha, and she herself is also considered as queen of the snakes, possessing the special powers over the snake venom.

Her body is ornamented with snakes. She possesses the power of both destruction and recreation almost like the snake shedding its skin and being reborn. If believed some legends, she is daughter of Lord Shiva with a beautiful mortal woman. MansaDevi is worshiped all across the country as a snake Goddess, and is mainly worshiped during rainy season when snakes are most active, to prevent snakebites. She is believed to be a pre Aryan Goddess worshiped commonly in different parts of West Bengal. Lord Buddha: Snake has always been a vital part of Buddhist icons.

The Buddha with naga is called naga Buddha. He is depicted with the coiled up snake serving as cushion with seven heads covering the head of Buddha. Snakes have vital association with Buddha, cause it is believed that during the initial days of Buddha, snake saved the life of lord. According to legend the cobra once tried to harm Buddha but instead saved his life and became his disciple. Parshwanath Parshwanath, the 23rd tirthankar of Jain is most of the time depicted with snake hood over his head. This deity has association with snake before his birth.

He is named Parshwanath after his mother saw a black snake crawling by the side of her bed. Parshwanath had soft corner for snakes since childhood. Nagarajan and Nagarani: Nagarajan and Nagarani are the male and female snake gods. Most of the Hindu temples have idols of both Nagarajan and Nagarani. Sarpa yakshi and Naga yakshi are the consorts of Nagaraja. In villages of southern side of India people worship them in their live form. These gods are offered milk and raw eggs to please them. Mannarasala temple is ancient shrine and internationally renowned pilgrimage centre located near Harippad. .

Shri Rahu and Shri Ketu: Planetary deities of Hinduism Rahu and Ketu are also worshiped as snake Gods and are mostly have their icons in Lord Vinayaka temple next to him. These deities are associated with the accidents and adversity in the life of people as Shri Rahu is both averter and creator of these adversities, whereas shri Ketu is deity of gnan (knowledge). Some people worship these deities out of fear and to maintain their distance from any hardship in life. If worshiped Rahu and Ketu, one can obtain all the desirable things and fortune in life as they are also associated with horoscopic conditions.

Vasuki Vasuki, one of the great kings of Naga with a human head and a gem engraved in his forehead is considered auspicious in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology. According to Hindu mythology, Vasuki served as a rope wrapped around the mountain Mandara, to churn the ocean of milk to decide the victor of immortality between Devas and Asuras. This caused him immense pain which resulted in the exhale of his venom, considered most intoxicating venom ever and enough to destroy all the beings of the universe. To protect everyone from this lord Shiva had to swallow the venom keeping it in his throat.

After which Shiva was named Nilkantha too. Vasuki with eight other snake kings were first one to be present during the first preaching of Lord Buddha and have always been even after that. They are considered responsible to save the life of Lord Buddha and are part of many of the Buddhist icons. Talking about snake gods, Sushavas and Padma Nagas were some tutelary snake deities associated with Wular Lake. Nila who is considered as lord of naga is worshiped in Kashmir (Muslim-Dominated city), specially during festivals and snowfalls.

There are almost 527 Nagasworshiped in Kashmir itself. Vairoti devi, parshva yaksha, Janguli are some deities from Jainism showed with snakes. Kerala has many temples exclusively for snakes. Mpummaikatu and Mannarsala are some 2 main temples of Kerala worshiping snake gods. In some part of Karnataka and Kerala, Snakes are not associated with particular deities but have their own shrine under a neem tree, in corner of the garden. Killing snakes intentionally, especially cobra results in curse by snake till eternity. Sources: http://www. ecoheritage. cpreec. org/Viewcontall. hp? $mFiHPEyWNks6UXr4nWU http://www. indiancultureonline. com/details/Snake-Worship. html http://www. festivalsofindia. in/nagpanchami/Celebrations. aspx http://zenatrophy. blogspot. com/2010/06/buddha-and-snake-king. html http://www. koausa. org/Gods/God9. html http://hubpages. com/hub/THE-SNAKE-GODS-OF-HINDUISM http://www. bibliotecapleyades. net/sumer_anunnaki/reptiles/reptiles15. htm http://www. theholidayspot. com/nag_panchami/nag_panchami_history. htm http://www. indiamike. com/india/yoga-spirituality-and-religion-in-india-f54/snake-worship-in-india-t8470/

Chap 3 Fred R David

THE EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT – Summary| The External Assessment or External Audit is a very essential part of the Strategic Management Process. Due to the turbulent situation around the globe, it is very much necessary for organizations to conduct an effective and efficient External Audit. The purpose of external audit is to develop a list of possible opportunities and threats that an organization can face in its outer/external environment.

Identifying and evaluating external opportunities and threats enables organizations to develop a clear mission, to design strategies to achieve long term objectives, and to develop policies to achieve annual objectives. The process of performing an external audit should include as many managers and employees as possible. This creates understanding and commitment from organizational members. There are a few external forces that an organization should take into account while making strategies. These forces can be divided into five categories: * Economic Forces:

how to write my biography essay

Economic factors have a direct impact on the potential attractiveness of various strategies. For example, as interest rates rise, funds needed for capital expansion becomes costly or unavailable. In such cases, the organization’s strategies should be amended in such a way to get hold of any such Economic change that can overall affect the working of an organization. Some other key economic factors are Inflation rates, GDP trend, Stock market trends, Currency valuation, Monetary policies, Fiscal policies, Tax rates, Government Budget Deficits, and Price fluctuations etc.

State Corruption can also lead to economic downfall and can act as a potential threat to organizations. For instance, in Russia, political bureaucracy demoralizes economic progress and entrepreneurship. Russian businesspersons who do not favour local government are targeted with extensive taxes, tariffs, fines, and intrusive inspections. So far, Russia is not considered the suitable place for business due to political corruption. * Social, Cultural, Demographic, and Environmental Forces: Social, Cultural, Demographic, and Environmental changes are directly related to almost all products, services, markets, and customers.

Every organization is challenged by the opportunities and threats arising from these changes. Changes in social, cultural, demographic, and environmental aspects of any country shapes the way they live, work, produce, and consume. New trends are creating new kinds of consumers and similarly new type of products and services are required. For example; people in US are now increasing with households having people living alone or unrelated people are living together. Similarly, people are moving towards fast growing states in order to gain more in terms of money.

This type of information can be essential for successful strategy formulation, including where to locate new plants and distribution centres and where to focus marketing efforts. * Political, Governmental, and Legal Forces: In every country, there are organizations that rely on government contracts or subsidies. For such organizations, political forecast can be most important part of an external audit. For example, changes in taxation policy, patent laws, or lobbying activities can badly affect any organization. In such cases, companies may have to alter or abandon strategies due to political or government actions.

Therefore, companies should examine the potential threats that can come through these sources, and should utilize the opportunities in the best possible ways to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Some of the political, governmental, and legal variables which an organization should take into consideration while doing external audit are changes in tax laws, changes in patent laws, number of patents, number of protests against government, level of defense expenditure, fiscal and monetary policies, lobbying activities, and national elections etc. Technological Forces: Technological Forces are creating great impact on organizations. The internet is acting as a national and global economic engine that is increasing productivity, and is helping in saving billions of dollars in distribution and transaction cost from direct sales to self – service systems. In today’s world, organizations need to be technology advanced in order to work together with other organizations in the market. To effectively capitalize on Information Technology, organizations now hire Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Chief Technology Officer (CTO).

They work together to ensure that information needed to formulate, implement, and evaluate strategies is available where and when required. * Competitive Forces: It is the most important part of the external evaluation of an organization. It refers to the identification of rival firms and determining their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is vital in the Strategic Management process because by evaluating the SWOT of a competitor, a particular organization would be able to formulate strategies that are better than the competitor.

Such evaluation can provide the organization with competitive advantage, if properly analyzed. For example, Italian car maker Fiat had troubles with its finances; suddenly Ford Motor increased its marketing in Italy to increase its market share in Italy. Organizations should opt the Competitive Intelligence programs; a systematic and ethical process for gathering and analyzing information about the competition. Competitive information is equally applicable for strategy formulation, implementation, and evaluation decisions.

In today’s competitive world, competitors are even working in cooperation with each other. Firms are moving to compete as groups within alliances more and more as it becomes increasingly difficult to survive alone in some industries. For example, Air Canada, Mexicana, Spanair, and United work under Star Alliance along with 12 other Air Companies. The Industrial organization (I/O) approach to competitive advantage advocates that external factors are more important than internal factors in a firm achieving competitive advantage.

So, it is essential for an organization to conduct a proper external assessment in order to achieve its targets and competitive edge over its competitors. The intensity of competition among firms varies widely across industries. According to Michael Porter, the nature of competitiveness in a given industry can be viewed as a composite of five forces: 1. Rivalry among Competing Firms: The intensity of rivalry among competing firms increase by the increase in competitors and consumers can easily shift from one organization to another. 2.

Potential Entry of New Competitors: The degree of competitiveness increases with the inception of new firms in a particular industry. Numerous barriers exist in every industry for the entrance of new organizations, but still there are firms that enter industries with higher quality products, and lower prices. Such organizations can be a threat for already existing organizations in that particular industry. 3. Potential Development of Substitute Products: Competitive pressure increases with the decline in prices of substitute products that can be used in place of other.

For example, people in Pakistan are now using more Compressed Natural Gas as compared to Petroleum due to prices differences. Apart from prices, quality betterment can also be factor which can be a potential threat for any company from its competitors. 4. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Suppliers play a vital role for any organization to gain competitive edge. It is in the best interest of both suppliers and producers to assist each other with reasonable prices and high quality raw material.

Relationship between a supplier and a producer should be long lasting in order to maintain same quality and pricing for a longer period of time. 5. Bargaining Power of Consumers: Many organizations provide warranties or special customer services in order to gain customer loyalty. Organizations should negotiate with customers over their choice of pricing or warranty packages in order to attain a good relationship level between themselves and its customers. External competitive information can be obtained through various published or unpublished sources.

Unpublished sources include customer surveys, market research, and TV programs etc. Whereas, published sources include periodicals, journals, reports, government documents, newspapers, manuals, and competitor itself. Today the world is considered as a Global village, and every country is welcoming more and more foreign investment. A global strategy seeks to meet the needs of customers worldwide with the highest value at lower cost. Organizations should scan relevant information from various sources regarding potential opportunities and threats before entering into a particular international market.

Strategies should be made according to the business scenario in the country where an organization wants to enter. Any organization needs proper assumptions and forecasted future for making proper strategies to achieve its annual goals. No forecast is perfect, and even some forecasts are even wildly inaccurate. But, it is essential for an organization to identify future occurrences that could have a major effect on the firm. Forecasting can be quantitative or qualitative. Qualitative, when historical data is inappropriate or in accessible. Quantitative, when past data is available, uch as Method of Linear Regression. Overall Industry Analysis can be done by two methods: 1. THE EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION (EFE) MATRIX: It allows strategists to evaluate economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, governmental, legal, technological, and competitive information. It involves five steps: * List key external factors identified in external audit process. * Assign weight to each factor that ranges 0. 0 to 1. 0; 1. 0 being very important. * Assign rating between 1 to 4; 4 being superior. * Multiply each factor’s weight by its rating to determine a weighted score. Sum the weighted scores for each variable to determine the total weighted score of the organization. The total weight that any organization can achieve is 4. 0. An organization having 4. 0 weighted score means its strategies are working exactly as required in order to achieve organizational goals. 2. THE COMPETITIVE PROFILE MATRIX: It identifies a firm’s major competitors and its particular strengths and weaknesses in relation to a sample firm’s strategic position. The way to calculate is same as of EFE matrix with a slight difference that ratings refer to the level of strength and weakness i. . rating 4 means major strength. It is of great importance for every firm to analyze its external environment and prepare strategies that can help in achieving strategic goals of an organization. Moreover, managers and employees should take part in such assessment as much as possible. Firms that do not mobilize and empower their managers and employees to identify, monitor, forecast, and evaluate key external factors may fail to anticipate emerging opportunities and threats and, consequently, may pursue ineffective strategies, miss opportunities, and invite organizational demise.

Article Critique-Cost Accounting for Nuclear Energy

Article Critique Costanza, Robert, et al. “A True Cost Accounting Approach to Nuclear. ” Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit. 5 Apr 2011. 6 Aug 2011. In his article, “A True Cost Accounting Approach to Nuclear,” Robert Costanza first presents the example of hidden clean up costs of the nuclear disaster in the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The cost of which are paid in large part by the national government and taxpayers rather than the industry. Costanza explains that this makes judging the value of nuclear power difficult.

The author proposes that all forms of energy incorporate their full costs including climate impacts, risk of accidents and the safe disposal of waste to determine their true value rather than considering them externalities. Robert Costanza is a University Professor of Sustainability and Director of the Institute for Sustainable Solutions at Portland State University. He is also the cofounder and former president of the International Society for Ecological Economics. Costanza is well qualified for the topic and clearly expresses his main purpose in his opening paragraph.

write an essay on my best friend in hindi

The author helps visualize the topic with the recent nuclear disaster in Japan that many of us experienced through the media. Constanza states that “taken as a whole, the safety record of nuclear energy has been relatively good”. Specifically, “France generates approximately 75% of its electricity from nuclear power and has been running plants for decades without major incident”. The author provides information on new plant designs called generation III reactors that have improved safety features over the 1970’s generation II reactors such as the one at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.

Then candidly Constanza points out the plants built before the 1990’s are beginning to show their age and the risk for disaster begins to increase. In detail, he explains the problem of long term waste disposal. Recently a proposal of a storage facility in the Yucca Mountains, Nevada was rejected by President Obama due to the facility’s guarantee that the radioactive material wouldn’t leak for 10,000 years however the minimum safety requirement as established by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 1 million years.

Capacity issues also exist. Costanza continues to demonstrate serious issues. For example, government subsidies make nuclear energy a relatively cheap option by offsetting costs of uranium, insurance and liability, security, water, waste disposal and plant decommissioning. In my opinion, Costanza successfully suggests that the effect of subsidies distorts the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Case in point, the author states the US government requires nuclear power plants to be insured for up to 12. billion dollars. “Although this appears to be a significant amount, the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill damage is estimated at $34 to 670 billion”. The Fukushima disaster cleanup costs could exceed these amounts. Costanza is successfully persuasive in the idea that the approach to evaluating nuclear power needs reform. He references his article by the World Nuclear Association, Environmental Information Coalition, the National Council for Science and Environment as well as other topic related scientists and professors.

The author states, “It is time to make sure the full costs and benefits are clear and that enough information is available for society to make informed decisions” and I agree with his position. Costanza proposes his ideas on approaching cost accounting to nuclear energy. First eliminate subsidies for nuclear power. The author argues that subsidies reduce private cost of capital for new reactors and shift long term risks away from investors to the general public. Although I personally agree with this argument, I disagree with his suggestion.

Costanza does not mention possible subsidies for safer forms of energy such as wind or solar. Secondly, Costanza suggests to require nuclear power plant owners to by full coverage insurance against accidents by specifically repealing the Price Anderson Act which limits nuclear accident liability to 12. 6 billion. In addition, the author adds that if insurance companies are unwilling to insure, then plant operators should be required to maintain an assurance bond adequate to cover nuclear accidents.

His reasoning is that cleanup costs would be borne by plant owners rather than by the public. Also the cost of apparent risk in the short term would be part of the true price of nuclear energy. Although Costanza clearly and adequately explains his idea, in my opinion his argument is weak. Although physicians are self insured for high cost liability, it is extremely unlikely that a nuclear operator could be insured for the amount that would be needed to cover a nuclear disaster or that any insurance company would be willing to take on such risk.

Finally, the author suggests plants be required to maintain an assurance bond to cover decommissioning and waste disposal. Costanza provides a good example where this approach is already in use, mining operations, however I find this argument to be weak as well. Popular opinion would agree that nuclear waste is more dangerous than mining waste. Most importantly, Costanza mentions in the beginning of his article that President Obama set up a commission to examine nuclear waste issues and they concluded that no one has found a safe way to store the waste for the required amount of time.

In summary, Costanza believes these steps would internalize costs and the price of electricity from nuclear plants would more accurately reflect full costs to society. The author recommends doing the same for other energy resources. Costanza states, “For example, what consumers pay for electricity produced from fossil fuel sources does not reflect environmental or health externalities. ” He then cites a Harvard study by Paul Epstein that concludes if environmental and health externalities were included in coal, the US public would pay triple the current price of electricity per kilowatt-hour.

Costanza concludes this would make other renewable sources of energy economically more competitive and would allow the market mechanism to determine if nuclear energy should be a part of the energy solution. I agree with Costanza’s idea on the system thinking approach to full costs of nuclear energy versus other forms of energy. His article is well organized with clear language. However, I feel Costanza’s arguments were not strong enough to convince me of his solutions.

Furthermore, I would have preferred if Costanza had included already developed sustainability measurement tools such as the United Nation’s System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting or the economic input output life cycle assessment and how to apply those standards to determine full costs of nuclear energy. I learned a significant amount researching other views on nuclear energy and sustainability measurement and found this to be a fascinating topic to view in a cost accounting approach. Rigid system boundaries can make accounting difficult with sustainability measurement but possible.

Dairy Milk Swot

http://www. allfreeessays. com/topics/cadbury-dairy-milk-competitors-analysis/0 http://www. managementparadise. com/forums/marketing-management-rm-im/137529-cadburys-advertising-strategy. html http://www. scribd. com/doc/46801673/Cadbury-Dairy-Milk-Report Cadbury India SWOT analysis : Strength • Cadbury Schweppes plc is a very profitable organization, generated revenue of more than ? 6,508 billion (2005). • It is a global chocolate brand built upon a reputation for fine products and services. Cadbury Schweppes plc was one of the Fortune Top 100 Companies to Work For in 2005. The company is a respected employer that values its workforce. • The organization has strong ethical values and an ethical mission statement Weaknesses • Cadbury has a reputation for new product development and creativity. However, they remain vulnerable to the possibility that their innovation may falter over time. • The organization has a strong presence in the United States of America, UK and India.

write an essay on my birthday

It is often argued that they need to look for a portfolio of countries, in order to spread business risk. • Cadbury’s recall over 1 million chocolate bars over salmonella fears • The organization is dependant on a main competitive advantage, the retail of coffee. This could make them slow to diversify into other sectors should the need arise. • The company has no apprehensions of cannibalization of its chocolate brands. Opportunities • Cadbury company is very good at taking advantage of opportunities. The company has the opportunity to expand its global operations. New markets with new products which are limited in particular region. • Cadbury has decided to focus on a few of its key brands such as Cadbury Dairy Milk, Bournvita, Eclairs and Halls to drive growth for the company. • Co-branding with other manufacturers of food and drink, and brand franchising to manufacturers of other goods and services both have potential. • Cadbury India is attempting to increase the declining market for chocolate with innovation, one of which is its sweet snack, Bytes. Brand ambassador Amitabh Bachchan for advertising there new products. Threats • Who knows if the market for Cadbury will grow and stay in favour with customers, or whether another type of beverage or leisure activity will replace coffee in the future? • Health organization have so many barriers for new development • Cadbury’s are exposed to rises in the cost of chocolate and dairy products. • Entry into salted snacks was ruled out so it is important to do new innovation and marketing research.

5 Steps to Make Positive Pakistan

5 Steps to a Positive Brand Pakistan 8 COMMENTS(VISITED 72 TIMES, 29 VISITS TODAY) Share this Article * TWITTER * FACEBOOK * DELICIOUS * DIGG * STUMBLE * REDDIT Author: Ramla A. [aka FHK] CNN’s review of the problems of “Brand Pakistan” comes shortly after the Newsweek’s unpleasant award to Pakistan (“Most Dangerous Place…”). After India’s successful Incredible India campaign, minds have thought harder about how to project the prositive image of Pakistan? These are actually five progressive questions: . What does “positive” mean? Q-Zero is philosophical. Generally, positive is “anything that lends hope. ” Some think it means “strictly happy” – to the point of including “falsely cheerful. ” My definition is that positive is something that can be built upon. Right now, it can be half-built, even broken. But it’s positive if something can be made out of it with effort. Simple! 1. What is positive in Pakistan? This requires an active identification and location of subjects.

write an essay on my best friend in french

When Pakistanis look around with the latter definition, we will find more positives than we could see under the previous definitions. Let’s try a few examples: Tourism is a positive area; there are so many unexplored territories in Pakistan that it’s a great place for travelers fatigued by crowded popular destinations. Agriculture is a positive area; there is such great demand for food and efficient delivery that a variety of businesses (seed banks, farmer training, storage, trucking, grocery delivery service) can be built out of it! Then we march into the direction of building that thing, while creating a positive aura about it! ) 2. What is the image of that positive thing? This step requires investigation of facts. Knowing the truth of the matter. Then understanding what’s the image at the moment. Without hiding (from) truth. The subject can be positive, but the image can be negative if our definition is not correct in Q-Zero. Is an empty piece of land an area to build something upon? Or is it “vacant? ” I have a miniature painting – a simple turquoise blue rectangle.

It’s titled “The Vacant Blue. ” While it caught my attention as a purely inspiring blue box good for aiding meditation, the artist told me it’s a “window” where a person would appear to the lady who was dreaming in another painting! I couldn’t secure the painting of the lady, but this description assures me that my blue little box would one day have a character of its own! 3. How to create a positive image? Creative industry kicks into gear here. This is where visualizers and journalists shine.

Where motivators work. Where good thoughts are thought – unapologetic, youthful, and enthusiastic! In Pakistan, our creative industry needs to think fresh and find new positive subjects (see above). Rehashing others’ believes – often truthless – is one problem with information that floats around in our country – so let’s find our own subjects! 4. How to project that image? This is where communication and marketing techniques come in. We can only communicate what we have, and we have to know what we have.

Answering this question first reverses the pyramid; so it’s critical to go through the sequence above. One thing that we can do even as individuals is to post any positive news or idea about Pakistan that we can think of on the Internet, and share it via email with friends in Pakistan and abroad. That’s how the biggest news network also pick news, so don’t underestimate the power! So. I agree with Osama – image comes after the “real thing. ” What real things that can be built upon can you think of in your field of study or work?

Behaviorism: Psychology and B.f. Skinner

Celeste Ramos HS 103 11-29-10 Behaviorism Behaviorism is one of the many schools of theory within psychology developed to explain and explore observable behavior. Its founders describe it as a subject matter of human psychology and the behavior of humans and animals. Behaviorism argued that consciousness is neither definite nor a useable concept. It also states that only the observable behavior of the organism being studied was the basis of psychology. The founders of behaviorism are John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and Ivan Pavlov.

write an essay on my best subject

They experimented with the physical behavior of an organism. They strongly believed that the behavior was the only reasonable response worth studying within the dominions of psychology. They also established the study of behavior with their experiments, and expanded upon the knowledge already existing from previous notable scientists and scholars in the field of psychology which helped develop behaviorism. A theory of human development initiated by American educational psychologist Edward Thorndike, and developed by American psychologists John Watson and B. F. Skinner.

Behaviorism originated from Edward Thorndike’s basic law of operant learning. He initially proposed that humans and animals acquire behaviors through the association of their responses. He created two laws of learning to explain why behaviors occur the way they do. They were the Law of Effect, which specifies that any time a behavior is followed by a positive outcome that behavior is likely to recur. The Law of Exercise states that the more a stimulus is connected with a response. Ivan Pavlov’s work on classical conditioning also provided an observable way to study behavior.

Although most psychologists agree that neither Thorndike nor Pavlov were strict behaviorists, their work has concreted the way for the rise of behaviorism. The birth of modern behaviorism was supported early in the 20th century by John Watson. In his books on Behaviorism, Watson made the many claims that, given a dozen healthy infants, he could determine the adult personalities of each one. While making this claim, Watson was reacting to Freudian psychoanalytical theories of development, which many people found threatening. Later, the behaviorist approach was taken up by B. F.

Skinner. He researched the evolution of human behavior by observing the behavior of rats in a maze. Skinner then wrote a novel called Waiden Two. It was about a Utopian society where human behavior is governed totally by self-interested decisions based on increasing pleasure. The book led many to believe that behaviorism could produce such a society. In the 1950s the reputation of behaviorism began to decline. Noam Chomsky, a renowned linguist, was the first to decline the theory. He demonstrated that the behaviorist model simply could not justify the acquisition of language.

Other psychologists soon began to question the role of cognition in behavior. Today, many psychologists debate the degree to which cognitive learning and behavioral learning affect the development of personality. There are many different types of behavior therapy techniques. Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning. They each describe a different behavioral pattern. Classic conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus.

One of the more common examples of classical conditioning in the educational environment is in situations where students exhibit irrational fears and anxieties like fear of failure, fear of public speaking. Alfred Bandura focused on the modification of personality traits in children and their social learning or modeling. common knowledge tell us that children learn by imitating others, but it was Bandura who is the most responsible for building a solid foundation for the concept of learning through modeling, or imitation. Operant conditioning occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced.

During operant conditioning it is used as feedback system. If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. For example, B. F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and bowl a ball in a mini-alley. The different techniques used to demonstrate operant conditioning are positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Behaviorism is used on many different types of clients. It can be used on children and adults. Many adults that have anxiety issues, depression, and personality disorders use behavior therapy.

Many children with ADHD, autism and behavior problem use this type of therapy. Behavior therapy is useful to all ages, genders, and races. Behaviorism is very popular with the American culture but it has also been used in other parts of the world. In china, there was a study performed on an elderly Chinese woman. Asian beliefs compare mental illness with insanity. This only leads to denial of the existence of a problem but also creates barriers to help-seeking. There is a low rate of Chinese population at mental health facilities. This leads to incorrect assumptions that Chinese people do not experience mental health problems.

Research was revealed in 2003 and studies show that the rate for mental illness of Asian people in New Zealand was no different from that of European New Zealanders. Recent migrants experienced even higher levels of mental health problems. This caused high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms. It also caused clinically diagnosable depressive symptoms, and greater levels of anxiety and emotional distress. Many of these psychological symptoms could be attributed to immigration and the process of adjustment into a foreign culture.

In the end, they concluded that CBT could be used as a conceptual framework in which to help the client develop an understanding of their problems. After doing a little more research on multicultural considerations, I found out that only 30 to 40% of conversations are verbal. Gestures, tones, posture, and eye contact can convey messages. Research stated that one should not stereotype of overgeneralize a client. Counselor should also be aware of individual differences, and that directness of conversation varies among cultures.

Burger King Core Competencies

Question 4 Assess the strategic alternative used by the firm Burger King is the world’s largest flame broiled fast food restaurant chain. As of mid-2009, it operated about 12000 restaurants in all 50 states and in 74 countries and U. S. territories worldwide through a combination of company-owned and franchised operations, which together employed nearly 400,000 people worldwide. Two major ways in which Burger King differentiates itself from competitors are the way it cooks hamburgers by its flame- broiled method as opposed to grills that fry and the options it offers customers as to how they want their burgers.

write an essay about my bedroom

They also differentiated itself with some innovative advertising campaigns through the years, such as its use of a figure of a man who is the Burger “King”. In looking for new countries to enter, Burger King looks most favourably at those with large populations (especially of young people), high consumption of beef, availability of capital to franchisees for growth, a safe pro-business environment and availability of a potential franchisee with experience and resources.

Outside of burger King’s America’s group (United states and Canada), 37. o percent of the countries and 24. 6 percent of the restautants are in Latin American and Caribbean group, yet theses countries accounted for only 13. 5 percent of the non- Americas group revenue in fiscal 2009. This is largely because many of these countries have a very small populations.

So why did Burger King develop a presence in these markets, even though at this writing it is not in countries with much bigger populations such as India,Russia and South Africa. The answer is largely due to a location factor. Burger King remains headquartered in Miami because so many people from Latin American and the Caribbean come to or through Miami, Burger King’s reputation spilled over to that area early on.. This simplified gaining brand recognition and accepatance.

Further, the nearness of the Latin American and Caribbean countries to Miami enhances the ability of Burger King management to visit these countries and for franchisees to visit Burger King’s headquarters. Overall Burger King owns 12 percent of its restaurants and franchises the rest> by owning, Burger King demonstrates market commitment and if the country turns out to be as attractive as anticipated, then the owned operations may be more profitable for Burger King than royalties received from franchisees.

Meralco Issues

Profile Meralco marches on to its 108th year of service in 2011. Consistently in the list of the Philippines’ top five corporations and cited among Asia’s finest, Meralco today serves over 4. 8 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. It is strategically located to serve the country’s center of commerce and industry and its hub of government services and infrastructures. It services about 30 manufacturing economic zones, which also compete in the global market. Likewise, the Company caters to providers of outsourced business processes, both domestic and international.

write my essay coupon

Meralco’s 9,337 sq. km. franchise area covers 31 cities and 80 municipalities including Metro Manila, the entire provinces of Bulacan, Rizal and Cavite; parts of the provinces of Laguna, Quezon, Batangas and Pampanga. Electrification level in the franchise area is 99%. The franchise area is home to 25. 5 million people, roughly a quarter of the entire Philippine population of 94 million, for whom it commits to deliver adequate, reliable, quality and affordable electric service 24 hours a day, seven days a week, year-round. Mission To provide our customers the best value in energy, products and services.

Vision To be a world-class company and the service provider of choice. Objective To protect and enhance the interests of its stakeholders by committing itself to the following principles: 1. The Customers are its reason for being, and therefore, they should always be treated with dignity. The Company must be fully responsive to their needs. The Company has the responsibility to: 2. The Employees are its most valued asset, and therefore, they should always be treated with dignity and with full consideration of their interest. The Company has the responsibility to: 3.

Its Investors are its principals, and therefore, the trust they have placed in the company must be honored. The Company has the responsibility to: 4. The Suppliers and Creditors are its business partners and, therefore, the relationship with them must be based on mutual respect and benefit. The Company has the responsibility to: 5. The Competitors are its catalyst toward continuing service excellence and, therefore, the competition with them should be fair and honest, a basic requirement for national development in the distribution of products and services to the community.

The Company has the responsibility to: 6. The Community is its business environment and the society it serves. The Company has the responsibility to: 7. Employ proactive measures and cooperate with the government and non-government institutions in activities to serve society towards a collective benefit. Crisis Management Overcharging Costumers MERALCO is said to have been overcharging its consumers for two reasons: 1) To get sky-high profits, 2) the company is passing on charges it has from multinational deals to its consumers. Be transparent and show the public that the company is giving just and reasonable considering the high taxes, operational expenses and other costs the company entails. •Produce TVC using prominent personalities to persuade the consumers to listen to MERALCO. •The company must do what it can to lower down the rates as long as the company will still be financially stable. Unregulated Monopoly MERALCO is the largest supplier of electricity in the country. It is given a congressional franchise to exclusively distribute power in Luzon. Show the public that even without the government’s regulatory provisions, the company has and always will give in to the public interest and will not dare create balloon profit out of overcharging the public. Government Overtake The government have been trying to take control of MERALCO because of the aforementioned issues. •Battle with the government and contest their reason as to why they must do the former. •Provide press releases to different media. •Exchange Open letters with government officials •The company owners and high officials must be present in meetings. •Conduct press conferences. References: •http://www. meralco. com. ph