Singapore vs. Cambodia

Cambodia0r Singapore 1. ) The health social conditions of Cambodia using the human development indicator were; their life expectancy at birth is 62. 2. Its prevalence of undernourishment in total population (% of population) is 25. The country’s expenditure on health, public (% of GDP) is 1. 7 and under-five mortality (per 1,000 live births) is 90. 1. ) According to the Human Development Indicator of Singapore their Life expectancy at birth (years) is 80. 7. Its mortality rate is 3 (per 1,000 live births) and their Expenditure on health, public (% of GDP) is 1. . Singapore is focusing more in the health of their people. | 2. ) Based on the data given, we may interpret that Cambodia has a poor health condition due to its poor political, economic, and social conditions. It is likely this further deterioration of Cambodia’s health conditions will directly and severely impact their people and eventually their nation. Apparently, Cambodia has a low life expectancy of 62. 2% compare to Singapore with 80. 7%, and has a mortality rate of 90 per 1000 live births.

That’s why they have the higher spending on public health with 1. 7% compared to Singapore. Moreover, it simply means that the country’s current healthcare systems has a lack of sufficient personnel, services, and information to effectively control and prevent disease outbreaks and improve their health conditions. 2. ) As what in the data had shown, we can say that Singapore has a good health condition compared to Cambodia. Singapore has the highest life expectancy rate which has 80. 7% while Cambodia has only 62. % life expectancy rate, Singapore has also the lowest Mortality Rate with 3% per 1000 live births while Cambodia has 90% mortality rate. That’s the reason why Singapore’s expenditure on public health is only 1% compared to Cambodia that has 1. 7%. This simply means that Singapore gives more importance to the health of their population and continues to improve their health system. Therefore the health conditions in Singapore compare favorably with those in other economically developed nations. 3. For us, the state of health of its population maybe contributed by its Cambodia’s poor economy, which is agriculture-dependent, reflects decades of war and internal strife and, as a result, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world and extremely dependent on foreign aid. It is also one of the most corrupt countries in the world, ranking 151 out of 163 countries on Transparency International’s 2006 Corruption Perception Index (scoring 2. 1 out of 10). Cambodia is also an important transportation hub for heroin trafficking, and the country remains a breeding ground for terrorists.

This environment does little to attract further investment in the country. The nationwide spread of disease is also likely to create indirect economic and security impacts due to the regional increase of disease outbreaks. Chronic diseases are likely to intensify Cambodia’s health problems as the widespread tobacco and drug use, high levels of depression, and general malnutrition among the country’s aging population will highly likely increase the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes over the next 10-15 years. . ) Singapore’s state of health is good. Rising standards of living, high standards of education, good housing, safe water supply and sanitation, high quality medical services and the active promotion of preventive medicine, have all helped to significantly boost the health of Singaporeans. The range and quality of medical services is notably high, with a large number of doctors and dentists. There are both government and private hospitals, while nonhospital care is dispensed from numerous outpatient clinics and mobile centers.

The government and voluntary associations, the latter coordinated by the Council of Social Service, provide welfare services for the aged, sick, and unemployed. As a matter of fact, Singapore has one of the most efficient healthcare systems in the world, even with a health expenditure relatively low for developed countries. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people, and there is a high level of immunization and adult obesity is below 10%. 4. If you live in Cambodia, you will know about the health sector of their country, whether it is good or bad. But even though you are not staying there, still it is obvious that they have a poor health status. Moreover, it is not just only they have poor health status but also many comments about their health care system such as: The health service is not available to people especially the poor and the one who live in desert areas because of poverty issue. They don’t have enough ability to provide good care to people whose living is not in a good condition, even if they wanted to because of the same reason-poor.

In addition, the doctors in Cambodia have also a low salary. In this case, we may recommend that Cambodia must rebuild their capacity and medical ethnics for Cambodia’s doctors and they must treat patients equally not the poor treat differently and the rich serve nicely. As a doctor, it is very important to take care of people life. This is their significant role. Thus, Cambodia must also continue promoting sustainable strategies to improve access to health care and unified social health protection measures and develop the systems needed to achieve universal health insurance coverage in their nation’s development. 4. Singapore focuses more to the health of their people and at the same time to its state’s health. They provide high standard of living most especially in their health system. Singapore is promoting itself as a medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year, and Singapore medical services aim to serve one million foreign patients annually by 2012 and generate USD 3 billion in revenue. If you live in Singapore you will benefit a lot of things related to health even you are poor or rich. Singapore also provides more health infrastructures to their citizen which can provide good quality of life.

We recommend that Singapore must continue this kind of health system in order for them to provide good health and high quality of life to their citizens. They must not only focus in their health system but at the same time to their social condition needs which they are now doing and still continuing to improve it for the future of the next generations. They must also continue to provide a safety net for those who could not otherwise afford healthcare and the government must continue to provide healthcare insurances for their people for them to live to the fullest. |

The Foot Binding Of Jimmy Choos English Literature Essay

While beauty is a slayer for males, it literally is for the women-or at least the monetary value of it. Womans of our coevals have grown discontent with their physical visual aspects in footings of how it defines or represents them. Whether in society or in public, they worry most about the feelings and judgements work forces may or may non hold on them both positive and negative. For several, what they fear more than anything is rejection-especially by the opposite sex. Feminist weep, but this is the ground and beginning of thrust for adult females in desiring to reconstruct, to change, and to heighten their expressions and organic structure figure by undergoing surgical use. Cosmetic plastic surgeries ( i.e. chest and cheek augmentations, lip sweetenings, and suction lipectomies ) are more prevailing now than of all time, merely to call a few. In other cases, some adolescents would digest the feeling of famishment merely to achieve their desired and ideal weight and beauty. They would see the skin doctor to hold their hickeies removed, a intervention that would go forth cryings in their eyes. Truly, beauty is pain. Of class, all those come with their effects, hindrances, and hazards. Apparently, those things are non taken in consideration, or merely ignored by the incorrect sort of finding. Compulsion could be a word to name it, a hungriness to be acknowledged, to hold the regard of others ( allow ‘s face it, people do judge a book by its screen ) , and to be accepted with the ‘in ‘ crowd-to be at the limelight of amour propre. And a deathly wickedness is precisely what it is because every bit flooring as it may be, adult females would readily give their wellness in exchange for it-even hazard their lives. What makes this political orientation of beauty even more scarred is the field method of torture/ hurting inflicting ( from severe to mild ) it applies. Our coevals have it easy-lying on a comfy bed in air-conditioned installations and province of the art engineering that would do the processs of lodging acerate leafs and skining off your tegument as painless and every bit comfy as possible ( non excessively much of a anguish is it? ) . But to those people who underwent the processs before the coming of anaesthesia, there is that impossible, gut-wrenching hurting that becomes the monetary value sacrificed for beautification ; an illustration of such a hurting and “ beauty ” is foot binding.

Rewinding to the clip of the ancients, for more than a thousand old ages in China, pes binding or “ bound pess ” has been practiced and applied on immature adult females, get downing in the tenth century until the early twentieth century. At the age of three, the pess of a Chinese miss ( normally the “ comfortable ” ) were subjected to this feminine civilization. Foot binding is the act wherein a immature miss ‘s pess are wrapped in tightly stretched strips of fabric or patchs, flexing the toes under the pes, interrupting its castanetss, and coercing the heel toward the forepart of the sole. In this primary procedure, it would impede its ordinary growing development and would non maturate to an extent of four to six inches. The minute they reach a mature age, their pess would still be undersized and non-adaptive ; moreover it would hold the inclination of acquiring clasp of palsy, muscular wasting, and infection.[ 1 ]Any one in the right head would flinch to read the effect of pes binding and would hold it barbarous while frequently branding the people who subjected themselves to such inhuman treatment as saps surrounding mental incapacity! But to put down the gavel instantly would be unjust to the Ancient Chinese adult females because apprehension could merely come when one to the full understands the history of the pattern and what it perchance represented in the lives of the 1000000s of Chinese adult females.

Harmonizing to fable, the pattern of pes binding became prevailing with common common people when it was reported that the Song emperor loved the little “ Lily Feet ” of his courtesan Yao Niang, normally known as Lovely Maiden. Because he had a fetish with bantam pess and found it titillating and attention-getting, the royal Highness would inquire his consort to dance with bound pess atop of a aureate Nelumbo nucifera base to bear a resemblance of the beautiful crescent Moon illuming up in the dark sky. Upon hearing the intelligence, the multitudes and elite allegedly began to pattern pes adhering in order to copy the imperial courtesan ‘s Golden Lotus pess, which had found favour in the Emperor ‘s eyes.[ 2 ]It is ill-defined whether the pattern began in late Tang or during the Song Dynasty, but that information is fiddling compared to the apparent importance of the pattern and its impact. Because “ what began as a tool to ease dance, ” as Holman states, “ was bit by bit adopted as manner among the upper category and a usage that was to last a millenary. ”[ 3 ]

Bing a manner ‘statement, ‘ the pattern of pes binding was bound to alter along the class of clip merely as manner semen and is reformed continuously. The pattern was ab initio ventured into by the female elites and practiced with more laxness ( yet still with hurting ) . Get downing with the Yuan Dynasty onwards, the importance of size and form was stressed upon and the bindings were wrapped more tightly to thoroughly interrupt the castanetss. This was due to the fact that the Mongols who established the Yuan regulation extremely encouraged pes binding among adult females[ 4 ]as it hindered them from accomplishing success.[ 5 ]Along with the strict-er regiments of pes binding, a standardised chart of size was ‘imposed ‘ for all foot bind-ees-the indispensable ‘must-follows ‘ of society. The ‘perfect ‘ lotus pes was three inches, normally called as gold Nelumbo nuciferas. Silver Lotuses ( 4 inches long ) and Iron Lotuses ( more than 4 inches long ) were considered as an abuse to adult females because they failed to accomplish the “ high-toned pes ” and, as therefore, would be fined by their version of the manner constabulary, go the express joying stock of society, and be pitifully shunned. Ideally, the pess should “ look to be extensions of the leg, instead than bases for the organic structure ”[ 6 ].

Another, possibly more humourous penetration to the pes binding pattern would be to see it non merely as a manner but besides as a female athletics. Gone are the yearss of association football during the Han Dynasty and polo equitation of the early Tang Dynasty where adult females were allowed more release. In the succeeding reigns, the competition would be based on the size of the pess ( smallest wins! ) and the reward-of course-would merely be the esteem of work forces and enviousness of adult females to feed her amour propre every bit good as matrimony to a moneymaking adult male. Interestingly plenty, as a flower, the Nelumbo nucifera represents esteemed features and serves as an Asiatic symbol of truth, goodness and beauty, peace, every bit good as enlightenment.[ 7 ]The really same qualities that adult females of Ancient China desired to achieve and go. Besides, in conformity to the Chinese ‘s cosmopolitan truth of Yin and Yang, pes binding was done as a “ manner of turn outing the feminine Yin virtuousness. ” To be compatible with the aggressive and powerful work forces ( Yang ) , the adult females ( Yin ) have to be inactive and submissive ( Yang ) to make harmoniousness in society. And what better act of giving to patriarchal domination that to hold one ‘s pess bound? The act besides trained adult females to portray honest virtuousnesss of self-denial and the hurting they would digest mutely would function as a signifier of ‘training ‘ of the many strivings of life in the ulterior old ages such as child birth and maltreatments by the female parent ( mom-ster ) -in-law.[ 8 ]As such, the term Nelumbo nucifera or lily pess became synonymous with what are beautiful, graceful ( in walk and mode ) , patient ( in times of affliction ) , digesting ( all adversities ) , and-in other words-woman.

Finally, an development took topographic point in Chinese civilization wherein the object of edge pess stopped being merely a manner adult females trifled with for the interest of traveling along with the tendencies but as something that has become ingrained with civilization and a civilisation ‘s ‘way of life ‘ .[ 9 ]But this new civilization had a whole batch more downsides that what was so perceived to be good, and with this new civilization, adult females would confront the full force of subjection under the patriarchal system in a elusive manner that they themselves were unmindful to it. One of the intents of pes binding was to restrict mobility. With pess even smaller or at par with the size of one ‘s custodies, it would be improbably hard to keep balance much less behavior house clasp chores or even alert walk to get away a stealer about to steal one ‘s bag! The limitation impressed upon adult females with bound pess made an art out of day-to-day operation.

Fueling the prevalence of the pattern was that there was a common misconception of society before refering its ‘health benefits’-a oversight on the portion of the doctors. It was believed to advance wellness and birthrate as the pess ‘s inability to equilibrate topographic points a bigger force per unit area on the hips, the most basic threshold of female birthrate, doing it to widen. And, of class, given the of all time so importance of filial responsibility in Chinese society, birthrate is a great plus in order to bring forth kids ( ahem, boies, ahem ) to go on to the household name and carry on the pride of one ‘s sires. A merrily of all time after is far from the image though as hip and bone breaks are common hazards due to excessively much force per unit area on the castanetss. Most complications and wellness hazards brought approximately by pes binding are carried courageously on the shoulders of the older female coevals who has lived many old ages of hurting for the full effects to take toll on the organic structure. To acquire a more accurate step of their agony, UC San Francisco conducted a survey on old Chinese adult females who have had their pess bound and concluded that:

“ . . .women in the 80 old ages or older group with bound pess were more likely to hold fallen during the old old ages than adult females with normal pess ( 38 per centum vs. 19 per centum ) and were less able to lift from a chair without aid ( 43 per centum vs. 26 per centum ) ”[ 10 ]

Of class falling in one ‘s old age is non merely one of those times when one dusts off the soil and walks off as if nil happened. The infirmity of age is what makes the inhuman treatment of pes adhering more compassion stirring as each autumn could potentially be fatal and, if non fatal, mortifying and un-dignifying. This could take a toll psychologically every bit good when the devolution of the organic structure is enhanced by the weakness caused by holding little pess. Besides, added to it would be the bearing of people ‘s commiserations ( particularly the coevals who saw the last of the pattern ) that would merely buffet one ‘s self-respect. It is because of this destiny that these old adult females should be admired — particularly those who have persevered in their Nelumbo nucifera virtuousnesss.

Given an extent of historical background, it would now be in order to explicate the full procedure in a more graphic item to acquire a clearer appreciation of the sheer hurting it inflicted upon guiltless misss ( reader, fix your ears ) . The process of pes binding begins with misss at the age of three to seven. The binding procedure would be done none other than the female parents. This sad truth is frequently a blow against the maternal nature of nurturing and protecting one ‘s kid, but as pes binding had permeated into civilization, the act was considered a fact of life that adult females must undergo through. The female parent would be, on the contrary, giving her kid a opportunity for a better life the tighter the bindings would be. With smaller pess, the small miss will turn to be a adult female accepted into society and will be easier to marry to wealthy work forces ; therefore, procuring the miss ‘s hereafter.

It was an old popular stating that “ a female parent could n’t love her girl and her girl ‘s pess at the same clip. ”[ 11 ]

Chiefly, the girl ‘s pess would be soaked in warm H2O with mixture of carnal blood and herbs to acquire rid of the dead flesh every bit good as to relieve the pes by softening it and to give support to the binding.[ 12 ]Second, the toenails would be cut short so as non to allow them turn into the pes. This would avoid another beginning of hurting ( this is a word that ‘s going more and more inexpensive when discoursing foot adhering ) in the signifier of in-growth nails and infections.[ 13 ]In readying for the important portion of the pattern, the pess of the girl would be massaged finely like a goddess. At a immature age, castanetss are still flexible and stamp so adhering the pess is rather simple. This would be every bit sort as the procedure would be as softening the pess with herbs and rub downing it makes it “ less painful ” . Without the usage of modern anaesthetics that we have today to blunt the senses, the four smallest toes on each pes would be ruptured by curving the toes wrapped with silk or white cotton patchs of changing length ( hapless folks used darker sunglassess to conceal the shadiness of blood for less changing and cleansing modus operandis ) , compacting them downwards with huge force, and squashing them tightly into the sole of the pes. The large toe is spared and is left ‘relatively ‘ unbroken so that the adult females will non lose the complete map of their pess: mobility.[ 14 ]

Because the arch of the pes has non yet been to the full developed at this clip, it would cut down the pang suffered by the girl particularly if it was set up during autumn or winter season for the pes would turn asleep due to the cosy clime. Equally shortly as the entangling was finished, the fabric would be stitched steadfastly to queer the miss from taking the patchs. In add-on, it would be necessary for the girl to stand on her freshly shattered and lumped pess to compress them into construction. Every twosome of yearss, the binding would be unwrapped and would be recovered with fresh patchs, pulled even tighter doing long permanent anguish.[ 15 ]The bound pess would besides be squeezed into smaller and smaller sized places to farther stump growing. Equally shortly as the girl ‘s pess reaches three to four inches long, this binding procedure would be prolonged to ten more old ages of agonising hurting.[ 16 ]Because of this, jump pess adult females could non even walk in short distances and are unable to bear themselves entirely. The consequences of the pes adhering were extremely deformed pess that were highly painful to walk on.

“ A privileged immature miss from a affluent household would frequently have a organic structure retainer at the clip of her initial binding, to look after her personal demands during argus-eyed darks of hurting and transport her into the garden when her pess were excessively painful to walk on. This frequently developed into a life-long relationship, which provided common psychological dependence, every bit good as comfort, fondness and company. ”[ 17 ]

To certain extremes, and if the pess were n’t go to to with all right item, the toes can really fall off because the patchs had been wrapped so tightly that blood could no longer go around, rendering the pess utterly dead and useless.[ 18 ]Besides, to do the destiny of the misss even worse, “ it has been estimated that every bit many as 10 per centum of the misss did non last the ‘treatment ‘ . ”[ 19 ]The procedure is followed by a life long responsibility of taking attention of their pess — another procedure that is boring or, in modern footings, ‘high care ‘ .

As the expression goes, “ Every brace of little pess costs a bath of cryings. ”[ 20 ]; yet, irrespective of the cryings, pes binding had become a ( myocardial infarction ) construct of beauty that is merely excessively prized by Chinese society to be given up. “ To some extent, pes binding was considered an facet of female vesture or adornment, instead than organic structure mutilation. ”[ 21 ]These blinded positions are basically the foundations for which the attempts and doggedness that struggled to maintain the pattern alive for many old ages stand. It is a foundation, nevertheless, that is imbalanced ( wellness wise, human rights wise ) as the pess it supports.

Foot binding had dominated non merely to the comfortable Chinese households but besides to every societal category in China ( with some exclusion to the genuinely destitute ) . The mean size of a adult female ‘s pes so would be between 3-5 inches- an impossible horror to today ‘s customary. To be the Adriana Lim or Megan Fox in Ancient China, a adult female ‘s pes should be three times smaller than the modern regular pes of 8-9 inches. Womans with bound pess and fashionable places dwelling of embellishment, capturing aroma, and bantam bells were deemed greatly attractive and seemingly delighting, much like ( in today ‘s criterion ) that sexy, perfect brace of stilettos. However, due to the ‘delicacy ‘ of edge pess, normal places are non be suited for the Lotus Feet, and so the industry of Lotus places began. As a fact certainly Imelda Marcos and shoe-holics could understand, for affluent edge females, holding an ample set of these luxuriant and expensive pes wear was besides a flattering facet of pes binding where amour propre thrives as society worships her munificent beauty.[ 22 ]The Lotus Shoes were really much decorated and ornamented footwear.[ 23 ]Each brace of places represented plants of art with its symbolic embellishment. The devising of embroidered Nelumbo nucifera places therefore served as a blowhole for imaginativeness and consolation, a adult female ‘s lone beginning of freedom and creativeness as the authoritative character Phoenix Treasure, a fictional version of a kid pleading for her pess non to be bound, describes. The consequence is a satisfaction and a sense of huge pride in being able to make such beautiful things.

“ Repelled at first by the impression of edge pess, ” said Phoenix Treasure, “ I had to submerse myself in the better side because if I dwelled on the hurting I might non hold been able to make the book ( of Nelumbo nucifera shoe embroidering ) . ”[ 24 ]

But the endearing small delimited pess of adult females were more than merely cherished ownerships of work forces ; it became the psyche of feminine exquisiteness and sexual air of secretiveness, her sex entreaty as they were thought of as intimately titillating and an effectual aphrodisiac to see the adult female ‘s mincing walks ; little and adorable stairss, at the same clip. This could easy be relatable to the late fable Marilyn Monroe who serves as an iconic sex symbol of today ‘s clip. She increased her sexual entreaty by doing one of her heel shorter than the other, doing her to walk with a seductive pace of rocking hips.[ 25 ]

Amazingly, the really sight of a edge adult female ‘s ‘catwalk ‘ is progressively appealing to a adult male ‘s libido, said to be good to better sexual intercourse. Ancient sex manuals of the Qing Dynasty were unraveled which demonstrated 48 different places of playing, caressing, and fondling with a adult female ‘s bound pess. It was considered that a adult female ‘s “ jade gate ” would be strengthened and contracted where she could hold on her hubby ‘s “ jade lance ” forcefully and firmly ( enough of the sex talk! ) .[ 26 ]Surely, love was blind as to beauty was in the eyes of the perceiver. Although as a penchant for about all work forces, they should non see the existent pess in flesh, and that it should be ever hidden from their sight and covered with little Nelumbo nucifera places. It was stated by Feng Xun that if a adult female reveals her bound pess with the remotion of the patchs, the avid esthesis will be destroyed for good. Nevertheless, pes binding turned out to be an emblem of influence and luxury for work forces. Exclusive sexual entree to their female consorts was enforced and adult females became easy “ preyed upon ” with their limited mobility. This ensured the work forces of their celibacy and fidelity, which serves as one intent of this tradition. With the limitations imposed by edge pess, the adult females are trained to be mild and modest animals in action while at the same clip appealing in expressions — the best of both universes for the males[ 27 ]while the worst for females.

Work force besides prefer to acquire married with bound pess adult females as his female parent ‘s blessing depends mostly on whether or non the female chance has undergone the procedure.[ 28 ]Harmonizing to history, “ matchers in China were asked non about the beauty of a Chinese adult female but about the size of the pess of the Chinese miss. It is in this instance where size does matter – little size that is. The Chinese of olden times consider the size of the pess as the measuring of indolence. If they are ill bound, it merely goes to demo that the Chinese adult female does non care about grace or beauty. A apparent face may be forgiven, but an unbound pes was non. ”[ 29 ]

Beyond uncertainty, foot-binding pattern was an indicant of female subjugation because adult females were strained by society with the menace of dishonour should the norms non be followed. Because of this, it has segregated the two genders, with the superior work forces on top and the weaker adult females on the underside ( non-sexual connotationi?S ) . Surely, pes binding is deemed a sickening procedure because it connotes a certain inhumaneness on world with the manner sexual pleasance and social credence can be found in an act that is wholly marring and against the nature of human signifier. The otherwise domination or ‘bullying ‘ of the female sex are besides attacked as the act that basically coerces and deludes females to a incorrect ideal and definition of beauty.[ 30 ]However, it becomes easier to digest how adult females could hold endured such hurting for their amour propre when 1 comes to understand that beauty is possibly the lone pride left for a adult female. Hence, what mattered more to a adult female was appearance instead than her ain well-being. In the state where patriarchate is the bosom of the province, it was their lone shield and blade.

In malice of the unfavourable consequences of pes binding, historians trust their judgement that a figure of Chinese people in the seventeenth century held up their support on the tradition of pes binding. One of these partisans is Liu-Hsien, a.k.a P’u Sung-hing, along with a few evidences to warrant support for pess binding:

In conformity to the Chinese, being the most discriminating race, Chinese metropolis inhabitants would laugh at an “ unbound ” adult female, stating that she looks like a adult male. They would badger and would name her impolite names until her parents become ashamed of their girl.

Such public ridicule and shame brought to the household name might every bit good be a life worse than decease in Chinese society where the importance of public face is esteemed and familial pride is respected.

Chinese adult females ‘s pess should be bound so that their bantam pess would be able to maintain them from doing ‘manly ‘ paces. They would alternatively walk daintily and would rock elegantly to portray themselves as adult females of decency and erectness.

Work forces would non inquire the manus of an unbound adult female in matrimony because its pess are unsatisfactory and imperfect. As it was a societal blooper, the shame of being associated with a adult female of shame would non even be conceived in a respectable adult male ‘s ideas.

A adult female whose pess are non bound would be discriminated in the society. She would be asked to make boring work, ne’er be allowed to sit on a sedan chair in public or in marrying ceremonials, and would non be entitled to have on ruddy vesture ( a denial to length of service ) for she is a adult female of shame.

“ Unbound adult females are regarded as faulty and unwanted treasures ” , as quoted from the reading, “ Girls are like gold, like treasures. ” Coming from field and drilling stones, the worth of a pristine and valuable treasure consequences from attempts on polish ( i.e. cutting and smoothing the stones in perfect form and size ) . Without proper cultivation, it is ugly and non deserving anything — much like adult females with large pess.

Finally, in conformity to the concern timeserving character of the Chinese, a figure of would inquire their girls to hold their pes bound so when matrimony prospects arrives, the parents would be able to inquire a immense sum of bride monetary value from the hubby ‘s household to pay the initial disbursal they paid ( and much more ) in procuring their girl ‘s bound pess. An economical alleviation so!

On the other manus, one admirations if money is worth the hurting of holding bound pess for there are many negative effects that were believed to be vastly terrible to a adult female ‘s physical status. Apart from the ceaseless wretchedness of the edge Beta vulgaris, infection was most likely to happen because the ball of the pes would turn up into the heel and that the toenails ( which have grown ) would gyrate into the tegument, doing the decomposing of the flesh and the toe.[ 31 ]Similarly, the adult female would be conveying with her an atrocious malodor all over because of her rotten pess.[ 32 ]This indicates that her pess are dead. Some bound pess women-the lucky ones-never experienced physical quandaries in their formative old ages. However, bulk of the adult females had their fittingness problems by stumbling on the land, non able to lift from a sitting place, and inability to crouch easy[ 33 ]— — a anguish when one lives in a land where lavatories are unluckily but holes on the floor. Having lower lip innominate bone denseness made them prone to enormous hip breaks[ 34 ]as discussed before and along these infections were diseases such as sphacelus and blood toxic condition which were bulwark during so without proper medical engineering[ 35 ]and finally decease.[ 36 ]Even though, pes binding was perceived as a privilege for the adult females, they ne’er realized how tormenting it was to digest all the adversities in their being.

It was at the terminal of the Qing Dynasty ( 1644-1911 ) that pes binding reached its zenith of influence in which 99 per centum of adult females born before 1890 had some signifier of bound pess. By this clip pes binding was being practiced and non merely in the flush parts of China but among dwellers of all societal categories. Founded by the Manchus who overthrew the Ming Dynasty ( 1368-1644 ) to set up a new regulation under an ‘alien ‘ emperor. As the pattern was n’t portion of the Manchu imposts and traditions, the authorities became strictly in opposing to pick binding. Despite being Sinicized throughout the old ages of life beside the most influential civilisation of the universe, the Manchu wanted to retain leftovers of their ain civilization ; therefore enforcing look-altering ‘make overs ‘ for the Chinese in the signifier of waiting lines ( work forces ‘s plaits ) and a prohibition on pes binding for adult females. Leading the illustration would be the female Qing Lords who were possibly one of the first conferences of adult females who escaped the deforming usage. In attempts to control down the pattern, the authorities even began bear downing households who persisted in adhering their adult females ‘s pess with punishment fees although they were ne’er able to to the full hinder the pattern. Regardless of the emperor ‘s disapproval, pes binding had happened to be an built-in constituent of the traditional Chinese households as a dramatic civilization, and it continued even into the early twentieth century.[ 37 ]

As a consequence of the China ‘s black loss over the two Opium Wars, the West was able to infiltrate that chesty walls of the state for trade and spread its influence in footings of western broad doctrines and ( a more minor part ) faith.[ 38 ]The runs against pes binding were already under manner every bit early as 1860s, lance headed by Christian missionaries from the West who inspired a push for reform.[ 39 ]In 1875, Rev. John McGowan of the London Missionary Society, after runing against the pattern for 15 old ages, called an of import meeting in Xiamen, China with a controversial request for adult females to ‘volunteer ‘ to un-bind their ain pess or to halt the chase of the pattern. Change was easy but certainly as more and more adult females were coaxed into abandoning pes binding.

But these reformists merely took up a bantam fraction of the population and were viewed still to be undistinguished against the bulk who still believes in the beauty and necessity of pes binding. And like in the modern universe, the first thing to make to distribute information rapidly is to prosecute in a signifier of advertisement. Respect for China ‘s civilisation became the key ‘slogan ‘ for the motion ; Christian missionaries released their thoughts into print such as in the Review of the Times, founded in 1868, which were read chiefly by the elites to larn thoughts and events from the universe outside China. In 1894, the Unbound Foot Association, which the Confucian bookman and progressive leader Kang Youwei founded aboard other equals became the first official support group in China against pes binding ( excepting the missional groups ) .[ 40 ]This was the start of an existent internal rebellion against the inhumane pattern, indicating to the fact that a smattering of Chinese adult females and work forces were get downing to rouse to the cruel and ‘ugly ‘ worlds of their imposts — the first measure for alteration.

In 1898, Kang Youwei opted for the boldest move yet in the battle against pes binding to travel every bit far as directing a missive to the emperor stating:

“ All states have international dealingss, and they compare their political establishments with one another, so that if one commits the slightest mistake, the others ridicule and look down upon it. . . . There is nil which makes us objects of ridicule so much as foot-binding. ”[ 41 ]

When the Qing Dynasty collapsed after the Taiping Rebellion in 1911, a new epoch was ushered into the economically down and distressingly humbled Chinese province — the outgrowth of the New Republic of China in 1912. Finally educated Chinese came to see that the usage made them look “ barbarian ” to aliens.[ 42 ]The new authorities, enlightened with the thoughts of the West, heeded Kang Youwei ‘s blunt advice for reform in hopes of salving the Chinese repute and pride among other states. China officially ‘illegalized ‘ the usage of pes binding to farther set up gender equality and to make a new visual aspect globally. Ironically, when before it was the Chinese naming the aliens ‘barbarians ‘ and viewed them in all the vilest adjectives, it was now the Western Powers who had the upper manus ; China was given a gustatory sensation of its ain medical specialty. Such is the turning of the wheel of life.

Aligned with the New Republic ‘s desire to purge itself from the humiliation of international lingua wagging, the adult females were asked to take their edge pess in menace of an executing if it was non done ( a harsher penalty compared to Qing punishment fees ) . After the revolution of Sun Yat Sen, the Establishing Father of Republican China, the patriot commenced the suppression of the pes binding pattern followed with anti-foot binding protests.[ 43 ]The motion ‘s purpose was to do the hurting of a adult female the centre of attending as it was an obstruction to adult female ‘s instruction. Subsequently, Darwinists and Feminists had attacked against it with ardor and had disputed that pes binding was an obstructor to the economic and political development of the state ( apologizing that weak adult females produced weak boies ) and was an facet of a adult female ‘s torment, severally.

A redefinition of beauty was needed in order to psychologically change by reversal the misled mentality of an full race. Knowing that the pattern lies on a criterion of values and — an even tougher weed — on civilization itself, the reformation of the construct of beauty was done by the go throughing off of the coevals subjected to the civilization. In short “ what was beautiful had to be rendered ugly, and what was ugly became beautiful. ”[ 44 ]As adult females ‘s edge pess and places ( though we can still associate with this one ) became the kernel of feminine beauty, a “ overzealous aesthetic ” and “ sexual mystique ” developed around them. The bound pes was understood to be the most intimate and titillating portion of the female anatomy, and married womans, consorts, and cocottes were chosen entirely on the size and form of their pess.[ 45 ]But the calamity of it all was that adult females were ne’er told that the pattern was non merely harmful to their ain physical and emotional wellness, but besides a dearly-won disablement to the state with respects to its political and economic development.[ 46 ]

At the development of the modern-day century, China grasped the pragmatism that pes binding had sketched them a face of savages to emerging states. The bulk of the upper and in-between category society became cognizant of the foreign influences and the labeling of the pattern as a barbarian behaviour. With the new tide of norms came the new demand for credence ( the same rhythm that created foot-binding ) ; China turned its dorsum on the tradition every bit fleetly as they had one time embraced it. When the triumph of Communist Party of China ( CPC ) , headed by Mao Zedong was proclaimed in 1949 along with the People ‘s Republic of China, the austere bar of pes binding was effected as can be seen by the extinction of the pattern in modern twenty-four hours China.

Human civilisations offered eccentric and atrocious traditions as a manner of their life. Some imposts like the Eunuchs from Sumer would take their sex variety meats ( i.e. the phallus ) before pubescence to achieve high pitched voices for a societal map. In Japan, Harakiri is a ritual wherein a Samurai would utilize a knife to cut and draw out his bowels without shouting or shouting in hurting as a cogent evidence of commitment to the brotherhood. Another distinctive feature would be the tradition of Sati in India. Sati is a Hinduism rule wherein work forces burn themselves alive as a symbol of piousness, or faithfulness illustrating adult females ‘s ownership of work forces.[ 47 ]

Historically, China ‘s pes binding was more than merely a tendency and look ; it was a manner of life for every individual during its epoch. The observation of this certain civilization was cardinal in the society because it was engraved under the Chinese norms. It became a footing of attraction, higher societal category, and even for matrimony. For centuries, it crippled the function of adult females in the Chinese society and subjugated them under male domination and brought about tormenting enduring. As its history is reviewed, the terminal of the indurate rite of foot-binding Markss an terminal of a important chapter in Chinese history and the start of a new epoch with the morning of female emancipation in patriarch China. One can state that our clip is genuinely a fortunate one, because finally, at the terminal of it all, coevalss of Chinese females are saved from the unforgettable experience, the tragic misconceptions of beauty by society, and the wholly barbarous destiny that pays for being the lesser gender.

Capitalization of Gender in Edna Millay’s Essay

The sonnet has experienced many alterations and inventions throughout the ages. Edna St. Vincent Millay’s “I. Being Born a Woman and Distressed” and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “Sonnet 43” . both Petrarchan sonnets. have diversified and helped pave the manner for future female poets. In order to turn to and capitalise on thoughts of gender connected to sonnet signifier and content. Edna Millay and Elizabeth Browning both revolutionize the traditional male-dominated sonnet signifier as females. Browning expresses excessively sentimental and passionate emotion through content and Millay contradicts the societal norm of female gender every bit good through content.

Millay and Browning rebellion against the male-dominated sonnet. Popular among outstanding male poets. the sonnet was deemed unworthy for females. as work forces were far more educated and capable of carry throughing its high criterions and rigorous guidelines. Both poets proved common beliefs incorrect by stand outing in the sonnet signifier. They used the Petrarchan sonnet. playing close attending to rime strategy and utilizing iambic pentameter.

They even incorporated the Volta between the octave and six. while utilizing the first three lines in the six to present the alteration in tone and the last three lines in the six to reason. constantly indistinguishable to the traditional Italian sonnet. At a clip where adult females did non even have the right to vote. Millay and Browning both struggled to happen a topographic point in poesy authorship. particularly the sonnet signifier in which their predecessors were all male. The literary cannon and the Romantic Era consisted of all male poets who directed the sonnets to their lovers in respect to show their profound grasp.

Love has been the preferable sonnet subject since the 1300’s when the sonnet was created and both. Millay and Browning. stuck with the same traditional construct of love and lecherousness as their subject. Bing one of the most popular. sought out signifiers of poesy. the sonnet was the perfect manner for nineteenth-century adult females to acquire out into the spotlight and get down a feminist motion. Or perchance. adult females poets stumbled toward the sonnet signifier due to its oppressive regulations of rhyme strategy. structural displacements. metre and syllable count. it provided them a ready-made metaphor. proposing troubles in communicating.

Highly restrained. the sonnet signifier helped do inexpressibility apparent. it hence presented adult females sonneteers with an sarcasm that revealed their fortunes of restricted address and forced silence. Female poets. who incorporated the rigorous sonnet signifier. at a clip hard for adult females to freely ship in the lyric tradition. did so merely to advance gender discrepancy. Elizabeth Browning uses extremely sentimental emotions in her “Sonnet 43” . She either does so for ridicule or freedom for adult females to show themselves.

By the usage of such enunciation she is utilizing sarcasm and jeer of excessively melodramatic reactions and feelings of a typical adult female. “… With my lost saints! -I love thee with the breath. / Smiles. cryings. of all my life! … ( 12-13 ) ” . even with the use of several exclaiming Markss. she creates accent on the over hyperbole. In her Sonnet 43. Browning proclaims the pleasance love brings and pleads for a complete resignation to love. which seems far excessively bromidic. Or possibly. she is merely being herself. showing to fellow females to be confident and fearless of jointing and pass oning your feelings.

Following the thematic convention of rhyme strategy and iambic pentameter. Browning either wants to stand for stereotyped females with her portraiture of unrealistic esthesiss or she wants to turn out that even a wholly feminine sonnet can make heed to gender difference. Edna Millay challenges the societal criterions of female gender. Millay’s verse form explores a female-centred position which opposes the widespread male-dominated givens of adult females.

It is so a really sexual verse form. uncovering her sexual attractive force and purposes to a peculiar adult male. Female gender was silenced in those times and seldom did adult females talk so openly and dauntlessly of personal affairs. She created a new kingdom of capable affairs to adult females writers and helped back up a liberated attack to life. The manner of her poesy is formal with typical metre and rhyme strategy. Critics have repeatedly pointed out her eccentric connexion of conventional poetic signifiers and constructions with completely unconventional thoughts and looks.

We must acknowledge and appreciate Millay for uncovering the love ’em and leave ’em tactic usually exercised by males. However. because of the poet’s reversed gender. this scheme seems more modern. harmless and well humourous. There is irony and originality in a female utilizing such rebellious content. possibly she is size uping normal male purposes. as it is on a regular basis the adult females who are hurt in the terminal because they long for a relationship while the work forces are merely looking for sex.

The signifier may have cogency of tradition while the content at the same time mocks tradition. With the aid of this verse form she gained a repute of a free-spirited and radical societal figure whose work followed her memorialization of life. Edna Millay’s verse form battles for sexual freedom originally claimed by work forces. it fights for equality of the dual criterion that exists. which inhibits female gender and encourages male gender.

Writing as adult females has led them to run “counter to” their civilization and “against the grain of time” to repeat Pounds’ words. Edna St. Vincent Millay’s “I. Being Born a Woman and Distressed” and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “Sonnet 43” redefine the criterions of genre and gender norms. Millay and Browning both rebellion against the regularly male sonnet signifier. they were attracted to its structural affinity to advance gender discrepancy. Browning creates accent utilizing ordinary female emotions. while Millay challenges normalcy of female gender.

However at the same clip there are distinguishable contrasts evident. Browning’s poesy has a feminine quality with such passion and mawkishness while Millay’s poesy has a masculine quality. as it resists mawkishness with her ability to look beyond the position quo and her wholly opposite life style of love personal businesss. However. both poets attempt to accommodate with convention while lending to gender capitalisation. trusting to set up variegation every bit valid for females. Both are icons for muliebrity. both are Masterss of the sonnet signifiers and both are nurturers of aspiration. independency. frankness and flaunting gender.

Struggles Facing Black Youths English Literature Essay

James Baldwin ‘ “ Sonny ‘s Blues ” is a narrative that basically describes a deep misinterpretation between two brothers. The narrative is about Sonny and his inability to get away the force per unit areas of his Harlem community to do something great of himself. Unlike his brother, his brother, the storyteller, Sonny struggles to happen his topographic point in the society. Therefore, “ Sonny ‘s Blues ” is a narrative of the coming together of two universes ; the universe of his brother, which represents societal mobility and success, and a universe of Sonny and most black young persons in Harlem, who represents moral degeneracy and failure. Though the storyteller provides a glance of his ain life, Sonny is the chief character because the narrative is basically about Sonny ‘s battle to get the better of those elements in his community that prevents him from accomplishing his dream of going a piano player. In a sense, Sonny ‘s life is used as a mirror for the challenges that face most black young persons in economically down inner-city vicinities across America.

The subject of “ Sonny ‘s Blues ” is one of two brothers ‘ inability to understand each other, which is based on the fact that they represent two really distinguishable societal category within the black community. Harmonizing to Suzy Bernstein Goldman in “ James Baldwin ‘s ‘Sonny ‘s Bluess ‘ : A Message in Music, ” in the narrative, “ subject, signifier, and image blend into perfect harmoniousness and rise to a thundering crescendo. . . [ it ] Tells of two black brothers ‘ battle to understand one another ” ( Goldstein 231 ) . In the oncoming of the narrative, the storyteller, a school instructor is believing about what has become of his brother Sonny who “ had been picked up, the eventide before, in a foray on an flat business district, for mongering and utilizing diacetylmorphine ” ( 43 ) . Here we are presented with two really different images of the brothers: one is a school instructor who seems to be rational, and is the image of success, and the other a drug trader and nut, whose future seems to get down with drugs and ends with gaol clip. The storyteller is presented as a concerned brother, nevertheless, who worries about the black mentality of Sonny ‘s hereafter. He reminds himself, “ I did n’t desire to believe that I ‘d of all time see my brother traveling down, coming to nil ” ( 43 ) , a powerful disclosure which causes him to flush inquiry whether his instruction of algebra will salvage the young persons in his category from coming to destroy like Sonny.

“ Sonny ‘s Blues ” is chiefly about Sonny because his experience as a fighting black young person is used as a contemplation of the battle most black young persons face mundane and fail to get the better of. In a sense, the narrative reflects the guilt of successful inkinesss at the fact that they achieve some grade of success in their lives while the bulk of people they know, including close relations, are unable to get away the force per unit areas of drugs and other signifiers of enticement and debasement impacting the inkinesss in inner-city America where chances for societal upward mobility are thin. In “ Wordss and Music: Narrative Ambiguity in ‘Sonny ‘s Bluess, ” Keith E. Byeman “ Tells of the developing relationship between Sonny, a musician and drug nut, and the storyteller, his brother, who feels a struggle between the security of his middle-class life and the emotional hazards of brotherhood with Sonny ” ( Byerman 367 ) . Therefore, Baldwin uses the narrative to show how the person can be made a slave by his ain community and its life styles. The storyteller negotiations about how the worlds of the black community frequently limit the potency of black young persons, such as Sonny. As the storyteller teaches his pupils, he compares their lives to the life of the mean black young person in the community where he grew up: “ These male childs, now, were populating as we ‘d been populating so, they were turning up with a haste and their caputs bumped suddenly against the low ceiling of their existent possibilities ” ( 44 ) . The storyteller ‘s choler and defeat with how the universe is divided in categories is seen by his choler at the drug nut who peers into the school courtyard and finally tells him about Sonny ‘s blues. His visual aspect reminds the storyteller of Sonny, but goes to demo how many black young persons with limited chances to acquire out of the ghetto, can merely woolgather about mainstream America ‘s cultural life style and accomplishments, a ground why the storyteller argues that these young persons are angry and full of fury. Before Sonny got his piano, his universe was limited to utilizing and selling drugs.

By the way, the comparing between the slave trade and Sonny ‘s deep down dependence to drugs is elusive but apparent. His changeless physical and mental battle to get away his habit-forming and deathly society is similar to the torment a victim of bondage must hold felt in his pursuit for rescue from his torture. This is expressed in Sonny ‘s missive to the storyteller, where he says, “ I wanted to compose you many a clip but I dug how much I must hold hurt you and so I did n’t compose. But no I feel like a adult male who ‘s been seeking to mount up out of some deep, existent deep and fetid hole and merely saw the Sun up at that place, outside. I got to acquire outside ” ( 46 ) . This explains why Donald C. Murray in “ James Baldwin ‘s ‘Sonny ‘s Bluess ‘ : Complicated and Simple, ” points out that this narrative “ trades with adult male ‘s demand to happen his individuality in a hostile society and, in a societal state of affairs which invites fatalistic conformity, his ability to understand himself though artistic creative activity, which is both single and communal ” ( Murray 353 ) . This thought is revealed in Sonny ‘s missive to the storyteller, where he says, “ I ca n’t acquire anything directly in my caput down here and I tried non to believe about what ‘s traveling to go on to me when I get outside once more. Sometime I think I ‘m traveling to toss and ne’er acquire outside, and sometimes I think I ‘ll come directly back. I tell you one thing, though, I ‘d instead blow my encephalons out than travel through this once more ” ( 47 ) . Therefore, while the storyteller has seen the visible radiation of success, Sonny remains in the darkness, non because he wants to but because his society clouds and impairs his vision of success. Sonny and the storyteller are two strong-minded brothers who had different motives as kids: Sonny was non an boisterous kid by virtuousness ; “ but it was as though he were all wrapped up in some cloud, some fire, some vision all his ain ; and there was n’t any manner to make him ” ( 55 ) . Therefore, while the storyteller takes to school, Sonny seems to happen an flight in playing the piano, but non even Sonny ‘s artistic thrust could hold saved him.

To reason, Sonny and the storyteller are like two different universes revolving in different orbital formation and with different social gravitative pull. Though they are so much alike in their enterprises, failure to pass on increased their consciousness of how different they were. Their obvious ignorance about each other ‘s beliefs and motives was the major cause of their disfavor for each other.

Agamemnon by Aeschylus (the Full Text)

AGAMEMNON CHARACTERS IN THE PLAY AGAMEMNON, son of Atreus and King of Argos and Mycenae; Commander-in-Chief of the Greek armies in the War against Troy. CLYTEMNESTRA, daughter of Tyndareus, sister of Helen; wife to Agamemnon. AIGISTHOS, son of Thyestes, cousin and blood-enemy to Agamemnon lover to Clytemnestra find more . CASSANDRA, daughter of Priam, King of Troy, a prophetess; now slave to Agamemnon. A WATCHMAN. A HERALD. CHORUS of Argive Elders, faithful to AGAMEMNON. CHARACTERS MENTIONED IN THE PLAY MENELAUS, brother to Agamemnon, husband of Helen, and King of Sparta.

The two sons of Atreus are called the Atreidae. HELEN, _most beautiful of women; daughter of Tyndareus, wife to MENELAUS; beloved and carried off by Paris. _ PARIS, son of Priam, King of Troy, lover of Helen. Also called ALEXANDER. PRIAM, the aged King of Troy. The Greeks are also referred to as Achaians, Argives, Danaans; Troy is also called Ilion. The play was produced in the archonship if Philocles (458 B. C. ). The first prize was won by Aeschylus with the “Agamemnon”, “Libation-Bearers”, “Eumenides”, and the Satyr Play “Proteus”. THE AGAMEMNON

The Scene represents a space in front of the Palace of Agamemnon in Argos, with an Altar of Zeus in the centre and many other altars at the sides. On a high terrace of the roof stands a WATCHMAN. It is night. WATCHMAN. This waste of year-long vigil I have prayed God for some respite, watching elbow-stayed, As sleuthhounds watch, above the Atreidae’s hall, Till well I know yon midnight festival Of swarming stars, and them that lonely go, Bearers to man of summer and of snow, Great lords and shining, throned in heavenly fire. And still I await the sign, the beacon pyre That bears Troy’s capture on a voice of flame

Shouting o’erseas. So surely to her aim Cleaveth a woman’s heart, man-passioned! And when I turn me to my bed—my bed Dew-drenched and dark and stumbling, to which near Cometh no dream nor sleep, but alway Fear Breathes round it, warning, lest an eye once fain To close may close too well to wake again; Think I perchance to sing or troll a tune For medicine against sleep, the music soon Changes to sighing for the tale untold Of this house, not well mastered as of old. Howbeit, may God yet send us rest, and light The flame of good news flashed across the night. [He is silent, watching.

Suddenly at a distance in the night there is a glimmer of fire, increasing presently to a blaze. Ha! 0 kindler of the dark, O daylight birth Of dawn and dancing upon Argive earth For this great end! All hail! —What ho, within! What ho! Bear word to Agamemnon’s queen To rise, like dawn, and lift in answer strong To this glad lamp her women’s triumph-song, If verily, verily, Ilion’s citadel Is fallen, as yon beacons flaming tell. And I myself will tread the dance before All others; for my master’s dice I score Good, and mine own to-night three sixes plain. [Lights begin to show in the Palace. Oh, good or ill, my hand shall clasp again

My dear lord’s hand, returning! Beyond that I speak not. A great ox hath laid his weight Across my tongue. But these stone walls know well, If stones had speech, what tale were theirs to tell. For me, to him that knoweth I can yet Speak; if another questions I forget. [Exit into the Palace. The women’s “Ololuge” or triumph-cry, is heard within and then repeated again and again further off in the City. Handmaids and Attendants come from the Palace, bearing torches, with which they kindle incense on the altars. Among them comes CLYTEMNESTRA, who throws herself on her knees at the central Altar in an agony of prayer.

Presently from the further side of the open space appear the CHORUS of ELDERS and move gradually into position in front of the Palace. The day begins to dawn. CHORUS. Ten years since Ilion’s righteous foes, The Atreidae strong, Menelaus and eke Agamemnon arose, Two thrones, two sceptres, yoked of God; And a thousand galleys of Argos trod The seas for the righting of wrong; And wrath of battle about them cried, As vultures cry, Whose nest is plundered, and up they fly In anguish lonely, eddying wide, Great wings like oars in the waste of sky, Their task gone from them, no more to keep Watch o’er the vulture babes asleep.

But One there is who heareth on high Some Pan or Zeus, some lost Apollo— That keen bird-throated suffering cry Of the stranger wronged in God’s own sky; And sendeth down, for the law transgressed, The Wrath of the Feet that follow. So Zeus the Watcher of Friend and Friend, Zeus who Prevaileth, in after quest For One Beloved by Many Men On Paris sent the Atreidae twain; Yea, sent him dances before the end For his bridal cheer, Wrestlings heavy and limbs forespent For Greek and Trojan, the knee earth-bent, The bloody dust and the broken spear. He knoweth, that which is here is here, And that which Shall Be followeth near;

He seeketh God with a great desire, He heaps his gifts, he essays his pyre With torch below and with oil above, With tears, but never the wrath shall move Of the Altar cold that rejects his fire. We saw the Avengers go that day, And they left us here; for our flesh is old And serveth not; and these staves uphold A strength like the strength of a child at play. For the sap that springs in the young man’s hand And the valour of age, they have left the land. And the passing old, while the dead leaf blows And the old staff gropeth his three-foot way, Weak as a babe and alone he goes, A dream left wandering in the day. Coming near the Central Altar they see CLYTEMNESTRA, who is still rapt in prayer. But thou, O daughter of Tyndareus, Queen Clytemnestra, what need? What news? What tale or tiding hath stirred thy mood To send forth word upon all our ways For incensed worship? Of every god That guards the city, the deep, the high, Gods of the mart, gods of the sky, The altars blaze. One here, one there, To the skyey night the firebrands flare, Drunk with the soft and guileless spell Of balm of kings from the inmost cell. Tell, O Queen, and reject us not, All that can or that may be told, And healer be to this aching thought,

Which one time hovereth, evil-cold, And then from the fires thou kindlest Will Hope be kindled, and hungry Care Fall back for a little while, nor tear The heart that beateth below my breast. [CLYTEMNESTRA rises silently, as though unconscious of their presence, and goes into the House. The CHORUS take position and begin their first Stasimon, or Standingsong, CHORUS. (The sign seen on the way; Eagles tearing a hare with young. ) It is ours to tell of the Sign of the War-way given, To men more strong, (For a life that is kin unto ours yet breathes from heaven A spell, a Strength of Song:) How the twin-throned Might of Achaia, one Crown divided

Above all Greeks that are, With avenging hand and spear upon Troy was guided By the Bird of War. ‘Twas a King among birds to each of the Kings of the Sea, One Eagle black, one black but of fire-white tail, By the House, on the Spear-hand, in station that all might see; And they tore a hare, and the life in her womb that grew, Yea, the life unlived and the races unrun they slew. Sorrow, sing sorrow: but good prevail, prevail! (How Calchas read the sign; his Vision of the Future. ) And the War-seer wise, as he looked on the Atreid Yoke Twain-tempered, knew Those fierce hare-renders the lords of his host; and spoke,

Reading the omen true. “At the last, the last, this Hunt hunteth Ilion down, Yea, and before the wall Violent division the fulness of land and town Shall waste withal; If only God’s eye gloom not against our gates, And the great War-curb of Troy, fore-smitten, fail. For Pity lives, and those winged Hounds she hates, Which tore in the Trembler’s body the unborn beast. And Artemis abhorreth the eagles’ feast. ” Sorrow, sing sorrow: but good prevail, prevail! (He prays to Artemis to grant the fulfilment of the Sign, but, as his vision increases, he is afraid and calls on Paian, the Healer, to hold her back. ) Thou beautiful One, thou tender lover Of the dewy breath of the Lion’s child; Thou the delight, through den and cover, Of the young life at the breast of the wild, Yet, oh, fulfill, fulfill The sign of the Eagles’ Kill! Be the vision accepted, albeit horrible…. But I-e, I-e! Stay her, O Paian, stay! For lo, upon other evil her heart she setteth, Long wastes of wind, held ship and unventured sea, On, on, till another Shedding of Blood be wrought: They kill but feast not; they pray not; the law is broken; Strife in the flesh, and the bride she obeyeth not, And beyond, beyond, there abideth in wrath reawoken—

It plotteth, it haunteth the house, yea, it never forgetteth— Wrath for a child to be. ” So Calchas, reading the wayside eagles’ sign, Spake to the Kings, blessings and words of bale; And like his song be thine, Sorrow, sing sorrow: but good prevail, prevail! (Such religion belongs to old and barbarous gods, and brings no peace. I turn to Zeus, who has shown man how to Learn by Suffering. ) Zeus! Zeus, whate’er He be, If this name He love to hear This He shall be called of me. Searching earth and sea and air Refuge nowhere can I find Save Him only, if my mind Will cast off before it die The burden of this vanity.

One there was who reigned of old, Big with wrath to brave and blast, Lo, his name is no more told! And who followed met at last His Third-thrower, and is gone. Only they whose hearts have known Zeus, the Conqueror and the Friend, They shall win their vision’s end; Zeus the Guide, who made man turn Thought-ward, Zeus, who did ordain Man by Suffering shall Learn. So the heart of him, again Aching with remembered pain, Bleeds and sleepeth not, until Wisdom comes against his will. ‘Tis the gift of One by strife Lifted to the throne of life. (AGAMEMNON accepted the sign. Then came long delay, and storm while the fleet lay at Aulis. )

So that day the Elder Lord, Marshal of the Achaian ships, Strove not with the prophet’s word, Bowed him to his fate’s eclipse, When with empty jars and lips Parched and seas impassable Fate on that Greek army fell, Fronting Chalcis as it lay, By Aulis in the swirling bay. (Till at last Calchas answered that Artemis was wroth and demanded the death of AGAMEMNON’S daughter. The King’s doubt and grief. ) And winds, winds blew from Strymon River, Unharboured, starving, winds of waste endeavour, Man-blinding, pitiless to cord and bulwark, And the waste of days was made long, more long, Till the flower of Argos was aghast and withered;

Then through the storm rose the War-seer’s song, And told of medicine that should tame the tempest, But bow the Princes to a direr wrong. Then “Artemis” he whispered, he named the name; And the brother Kings they shook in the hearts of them, And smote on the earth their staves, and the tears came. But the King, the elder, hath found voice and spoken: “A heavy doom, sure, if God’s will were broken; But to slay mine own child, who my house delighteth, Is that not heavy? That her blood should flow On her father’s hand, hard beside an altar? My path is sorrow wheresoe’er I go. Shall Agamemnon fail his ships and people,

And the hosts of Hellas melt as melts the snow? They cry, they thirst, for a death that shall break the spell, For a Virgin’s blood: ’tis a rite of old, men tell. And they burn with longing. —O God may the end be well! ” (But ambition drove him, till he consented to the sin of slaying his daughter, Iphigenia, as a sacrifice. ) To the yoke of Must-Be he bowed him slowly, And a strange wind within his bosom tossed, A wind of dark thought, unclean, unholy; And he rose up, daring to the uttermost. For men are boldened by a Blindness, straying Toward base desire, which brings grief hereafter, Yea, and itself is grief;

So this man hardened to his own child’s slaying, As help to avenge him for a woman’s laughter And bring his ships relief! Her “Father, Father,” her sad cry that lingered, Her virgin heart’s breath they held all as naught, Those bronze-clad witnesses and battle-hungered; And there they prayed, and when the prayer was wrought He charged the young men to uplift and bind her, As ye lift a wild kid, high above the altar, Fierce-huddling forward, fallen, clinging sore To the robe that wrapt her; yea, he bids them hinder The sweet mouth’s utterance, the cries that falter, —His curse for evermore! — With violence and a curb’s voiceless wrath.

Her stole of saffron then to the ground she threw, And her eye with an arrow of pity found its path To each man’s heart that slew: A face in a picture, striving amazedly; The little maid who danced at her father’s board, The innocent voice man’s love came never nigh, Who joined to his her little paean-cry When the third cup was poured…. What came thereafter I saw not neither tell. But the craft of Calchas failed not. —’Tis written, He Who Suffereth Shall Learn; the law holdeth well. And that which is to be, Ye will know at last; why weep before the hour? For come it shall, as out of darkness dawn.

Only may good from all this evil flower; So prays this Heart of Argos, this frail tower Guarding the land alone. [As they cease, CLYTEMNESTRA comes from the Palace with Attendants. She has finished her prayer and sacrifice, and is now wrought up to face the meeting with her husband. The Leader approaches her. LEADER. Before thy state, O Queen, I bow mine eyes. ‘Tis written, when the man’s throne empty lies, The woman shall be honoured. —Hast thou heard Some tiding sure? Or is it Hope, hath stirred To fire these altars? Dearly though we seek To learn, ’tis thine to speak or not to speak. CLYTEMNESTRA.

Glad-voiced, the old saw telleth, comes this morn, The Star-child of a dancing midnight born, And beareth to thine ear a word of joy Beyond all hope: the Greek hath taken Troy. LEADER. How? Thy word flies past me, being incredible. CLYTEMNESTRA. Ilion is ours. No riddling tale I tell. LEADER. Such joy comes knocking at the gate of tears. CLYTEMNESTRA. Aye, ’tis a faithful heart that eye declares. LEADER. What warrant hast thou? Is there proof of this? CLYTEMNESTRA. There is; unless a God hath lied there is. LEADER. Some dream-shape came to thee in speaking guise? CLYTEMNESTRA. Who deemeth me a dupe of drowsing eyes? LEADER.

Some word within that hovereth without wings? CLYTEMNESTRA. Am I a child to hearken to such things? LEADER. Troy fallen? —But how long? When fell she, say? CLYTEMNESTRA. The very night that mothered this new day. LEADER. And who of heralds with such fury came? CLYTEMNESTRA. A Fire-god, from Mount Ida scattering flame. Whence starting, beacon after beacon burst In flaming message hitherward. Ida first Told Hermes’ Lemnian Rock, whose answering sign Was caught by towering Athos, the divine, With pines immense—yea, fishes of the night Swam skyward, drunken with that leaping light, Which swelled like some strange sun, till dim and far

Makistos’ watchmen marked a glimmering star; They, nowise loath nor idly slumber-won, Spring up to hurl the fiery message on, And a far light beyond the Euripus tells That word hath reached Messapion’s sentinels. They beaconed back, then onward with a high Heap of dead heather flaming to the sky. And onward still, not failing nor aswoon, Across the Asopus like a beaming moon The great word leapt, and on Kithairon’s height Uproused a new relay of racing light. His watchers knew the wandering flame, nor hid Their welcome, burning higher than was bid. Out over Lake Gorgopis then it floats, To Aigiplanctos, waking the wild goats,

Crying for “Fire, more Fire! ” And fire was reared, Stintless and high, a stormy streaming beard, That waved in flame beyond the promontory Rock-ridged, that watches the Saronian sea, Kindling the night: then one short swoop to catch The Spider’s Crag, our city’s tower of watch; Whence hither to the Atreidae’s roof it came, A light true-fathered of Idaean flame. Torch-bearer after torch-bearer, behold The tale thereof in stations manifold, Each one by each made perfect ere it passed, And Victory in the first as in the last. These be my proofs and tokens that my lord From Troy hath spoke to me a burning word. LEADER.

Woman, speak on. Hereafter shall my prayer Be raised to God; now let me only hear, Again and full, the marvel and the joy. CLYTEMNESTRA. Now, even now, the Achaian holdeth Troy! Methinks there is a crying in her streets That makes no concord. When sweet unguent meets With vinegar in one phial, I warrant none Shall lay those wranglers lovingly at one. So conquerors and conquered shalt thou hear, Two sundered tones, two lives of joy or fear. Here women in the dust about their slain, Husbands or brethren, and by dead old men Pale children who shall never more be free, For all they loved on earth cry desolately.

And hard beside them war-stained Greeks, whom stark Battle and then long searching through the dark Hath gathered, ravenous, in the dawn, to feast At last on all the plenty Troy possessed, No portion in that feast nor ordinance, But each man clutching at the prize of chance. Aye, there at last under good roofs they lie Of men spear-quelled, no frosts beneath the sky, No watches more, no bitter moony dew…. How blessed they will sleep the whole night through! Oh, if these days they keep them free from sin Toward Ilion’s conquered shrines and Them within Who watch unconquered, maybe not again The smiter shall be smit, the taker ta’en.

May God but grant there fall not on that host The greed of gold that maddeneth and the lust To spoil inviolate things! But half the race Is run which windeth back to home and peace. Yea, though of God they pass unchallenged, Methinks the wound of all those desolate dead Might waken, groping for its will…. Ye hear A woman’s word, belike a woman’s fear. May good but conquer in the last incline Of the balance! Of all prayers that prayer is mine. LEADER. O Woman, like a man faithful and wise Thou speakest. I accept thy testimonies And turn to God with praising, for a gain Is won this day that pays for all our pain. CLYTEMNESTRA returns to the Palace. The CHORUS take up their position for the Second Stasimon. AN ELDER. 0 Zeus, All-ruler, and Night the Aid, Gainer of glories, and hast thou thrown Over the towers of Ilion Thy net close-laid, That none so nimble and none so tall Shall escape withal The snare of the slaver that claspeth all? ANOTHER. And Zeus the Watcher of Friend and Friend I also praise, who hath wrought this end. Long since on Paris his shaft he drew, And hath aimed true, Not too soon falling nor yet too far, The fire of the avenging star. CHORUS. (This is God’s judgement upon Troy. May it not be too fierce!

Gold cannot save one who spurneth Justice. ) The stroke of Zeus hath found them! Clear this day The tale, and plain to trace. He judged, and Troy hath fallen. —And have men said That God not deigns to mark man’s hardihead, Trampling to earth the grace Of holy and delicate things? —Sin lies that way. For visibly Pride doth breed its own return On prideful men, who, when their houses swell With happy wealth, breathe ever wrath and blood. Yet not too fierce let the due vengeance burn; Only as deemeth well One wise of mood. Never shall state nor gold Shelter his heart from aching Whoso the Altar of Justice old

Spurneth to Night unwaking. (The Sinner suffers in his longing till at last Temptation overcomes him; as longing for Helen overcame Paris. ) The tempting of misery forceth him, the dread Child of fore-scheming Woe! And help is vain; the fell desire within Is veiled not, but shineth bright like Sin: And as false gold will show Black where the touchstone trieth, so doth fade His honour in God’s ordeal. Like a child, Forgetting all, he hath chased his winged bird, And planted amid his people a sharp thorn. And no God hears his prayer, or, have they heard, The man so base-beguiled They cast to scorn. Paris to Argos came;

Love of a woman led him; So God’s altar he brought to shame, Robbing the hand that fed him. (Helen’s flight; the visions seen by the King’s seers; the phantom of Helen and the King’s grief. ) She hath left among her people a noise of shield and sword, A tramp of men armed where the long ships are moored; She hath ta’en in her goings Desolation as a dower; She hath stept, stept quickly, through the great gated Tower, And the thing that could not be, it hath been! And the Seers they saw visions, and they spoke of strange ill: “A Palace, a Palace; and a great King thereof: A bed, a bed empty, that was once pressed in love:

And thou, thou, what art thou? Let us be, thou so still, Beyond wrath, beyond beseeching, to the lips reft of thee! ” For she whom he desireth is beyond the deep sea, And a ghost in his castle shall be queen. Images in sweet guise Carven shall move him never, Where is Love amid empty eyes? Gone, gone for ever! (His dreams and his suffering; but the War that he made caused greater and wider suffering. ) But a shape that is a dream, ‘mid the phantoms of the night, Cometh near, full of tears, bringing vain vain delight: For in vain when, desiring, he can feel the joy’s breath —Nevermore! Nevermore! —from his arms it vanisheth,

On wings down the pathways of sleep. In the mid castle hall, on the hearthstone of the Kings, These griefs there be, and griefs passing these, But in each man’s dwelling of the host that sailed the seas, A sad woman waits; she has thoughts of many things, And patience in her heart lieth deep. Knoweth she them she sent, Knoweth she? Lo, returning, Comes in stead of the man that went Armour and dust of burning. (The return of the funeral urns; the murmurs of the People. ) And the gold-changer, Ares, who changeth quick for dead, Who poiseth his scale in the striving of the spears, Back from Troy sendeth dust, heavy dust, wet with tears,

Sendeth ashes with men’s names in his urns neatly spread. And they weep over the men, and they praise them one by one, How this was a wise fighter, and this nobly-slain— “Fighting to win back another’s wife! ” Till a murmur is begun, And there steals an angry pain Against Kings too forward in the strife. There by Ilion’s gate Many a soldier sleepeth, Young men beautiful; fast in hate Troy her conqueror keepeth. (For the Shedder of Blood is in great peril, and not unmarked by God. May I never be a Sacker of Cities! ) But the rumour of the People, it is heavy, it is chill; And tho’ no curse be spoken, like a curse doth it brood;

And my heart waits some tiding which the dark holdeth still, For of God not unmarked is the shedder of much blood. And who conquers beyond right … Lo, the life of man decays; There be Watchers dim his light in the wasting of the years; He falls, he is forgotten, and hope dies. There is peril in the praise Over-praised that he hears; For the thunder it is hurled from God’s eyes. Glory that breedeth strife, Pride of the Sacker of Cities; Yea, and the conquered captive’s life, Spare me, O God of Pities! DIVERS ELDERS. —The fire of good tidings it hath sped the city through, But who knows if a god mocketh? Or who knows if all be true? Twere the fashion of a child, Or a brain dream-beguiled, To be kindled by the first Torch’s message as it burst, And thereafter, as it dies, to die too. —’Tis like a woman’s sceptre, to ordain Welcome to joy before the end is plain! —Too lightly opened are a woman’s ears; Her fence downtrod by many trespassers, And quickly crossed; but quickly lost The burden of a woman’s hopes or fears. [Here a break occurs in the action, like the descent of the curtain in a modern theatre. A space of some days is assumed to have passed and we find the Elders again assembled. LEADER. Soon surely shall we read the message right;

Were fire and beacon-call and lamps of light True speakers, or but happy lights, that seem And are not, like sweet voices in a dream. I see a Herald yonder by the shore, Shadowed with olive sprays. And from his sore Rent raiment cries a witness from afar, Dry Dust, born brother to the Mire of war, That mute he comes not, neither through the smoke Of mountain forests shall his tale be spoke; But either shouting for a joyful day, Or else…. But other thoughts I cast away. As good hath dawned, may good shine on, we pray! —And whoso for this City prayeth aught Else, let him reap the harvest of his thought! [Enter the HERALD, running.

His garments are torn and war-stained. He falls upon his knees and kisses the Earth, and salutes each Altar in turn. HERALD. Land of my fathers! Argos! Am I here … Home, home at this tenth shining of the year, And all Hope’s anchors broken save this one! For scarcely dared I dream, here in mine own Argos at last to fold me to my rest…. But now—All Hail, O Earth! O Sunlight blest! And Zeus Most High! [Checking himself as he sees the altar of Apollo. And thou, O Pythian Lord; No more on us be thy swift arrows poured! Beside Scamander well we learned how true Thy hate is. Oh, as thou art Healer too, Heal us!

As thou art Saviour of the Lost, Save also us, Apollo, being so tossed With tempest! … All ye Daemons of the Pale! And Hermes! Hermes, mine own guardian, hail! Herald beloved, to whom all heralds bow…. Ye Blessed Dead that sent us, receive now In love your children whom the spear hath spared. O House of Kings, O roof-tree thrice-endeared, O solemn thrones! O gods that face the sun! Now, now, if ever in the days foregone, After these many years, with eyes that burn, Give hail and glory to your King’s return! For Agamemnon cometh! A great light Cometh to men and gods out of the night. Grand greeting give him—aye, it need be grand—

Who, God’s avenging mattock in his hand, Hath wrecked Troy’s towers and digged her soil beneath, Till her gods’ houses, they are things of death; Her altars waste, and blasted every seed Whence life might rise! So perfect is his deed, So dire the yoke on Ilion he hath cast, The first Atreides, King of Kings at last, And happy among men! To whom we give Honour most high above all things that live. For Paris nor his guilty land can score The deed they wrought above the pain they bore. “Spoiler and thief,” he heard God’s judgement pass; Whereby he lost his plunder, and like grass Mowed down his father’s house and all his land;

And Troy pays twofold for the sin she planned. LEADER. Be glad, thou Herald of the Greek from Troy! HERALD. So glad, I am ready, if God will, to die! LEADER. Did love of this land work thee such distress? HERALD. The tears stand in mine eyes for happiness. LEADER. Sweet sorrow was it, then, that on you fell. HERALD. How sweet? I cannot read thy parable. LEADER. To pine again for them that loved you true. HERALD. Did ye then pine for us, as we for you? LEADER. The whole land’s heart was dark, and groaned for thee. HERALD. Dark? For what cause? Why should such darkness be? LEADER. Silence in wrong is our best medicine here.

HERALD. Your kings were gone. What others need you fear? LEADER. ‘Tis past! Like thee now, I could gladly die. HERALD. Even so! ‘Tis past, and all is victory. And, for our life in those long years, there were Doubtless some grievous days, and some were fair. Who but a god goes woundless all his way? …. Oh, could I tell the sick toil of the day, The evil nights, scant decks ill-blanketed; The rage and cursing when our daily bread Came not! And then on land ’twas worse than all. Our quarters close beneath the enemy’s wall; And rain—and from the ground the river dew—Wet, always wet! Into our clothes it grew,

Plague-like, and bred foul beasts in every hair. Would I could tell how ghastly midwinter Stole down from Ida till the birds dropped dead! Or the still heat, when on his noonday bed The breathless blue sea sank without a wave! …. Why think of it? They are past and in the grave, All those long troubles. For I think the slain Care little if they sleep or rise again; And we, the living, wherefore should we ache With counting all our lost ones, till we wake The old malignant fortunes? If Good-bye Comes from their side, Why, let them go, say I. Surely for us, who live, good doth prevail Unchallenged, with no wavering of the scale;

Wherefore we vaunt unto these shining skies, As wide o’er sea and land our glory flies: “By men of Argolis who conquered Troy, These spoils, a memory and an ancient joy, Are nailed in the gods’ houses throughout Greece. ” Which whoso readeth shall with praise increase Our land, our kings, and God’s grace manifold Which made these marvels be. —My tale is told. LEADER. Indeed thou conquerest me. Men say, the light In old men’s eyes yet serves to learn aright. But Clytemnestra and the House should hear These tidings first, though I their health may share. [During the last words CLYTEMNESTRA has entered from the Palace.

CLYTEMNESTRA. Long since I lifted up my voice in joy, When the first messenger from flaming Troy Spake through the dark of sack and overthrow. And mockers chid me: “Because beacons show On the hills, must Troy be fallen? Quickly born Are women’s hopes! ” Aye, many did me scorn; Yet gave I sacrifice; and by my word Through all the city our woman’s cry was heard, Lifted in blessing round the seats of God, And slumbrous incense o’er the altars glowed In fragrance. And for thee, what need to tell Thy further tale? My lord himself shall well Instruct me. Yet, to give my lord and king All reverent greeting at his homecoming—

What dearer dawn on woman’s eyes can flame Than this, which casteth wide her gate to acclaim The husband whom God leadeth safe from war? — Go, bear my lord this prayer: That fast and far He haste him to this town which loves his name; And in his castle may he find the same Wife that he left, a watchdog of the hall, True to one voice and fierce to others all; A body and soul unchanged, no seal of his Broke in the waiting years. —No thought of ease Nor joy from other men hath touched my soul, Nor shall touch, until bronze be dyed like wool. A boast so faithful and so plain, I wot, Spoke by a royal Queen doth shame her not. Exit CLYTEMNESTRA. LEADER. Let thine ear mark her message. ‘Tis of fair Seeming, and craves a clear interpreter…. But, Herald, I would ask thee; tell me true Of Menelaus. Shall he come with you, Our land’s beloved crown, untouched of ill? HERALD. I know not how to speak false words of weal For friends to reap thereof a harvest true. LEADER. Canst speak of truth with comfort joined? Those two Once parted, ’tis a gulf not lightly crossed. HERALD. Your king is vanished from the Achaian host, He and his ship! Such comfort have I brought. LEADER. Sailed he alone from Troy? Or was he caught By storms in the midst of you, and swept away?

HERALD. Thou hast hit the truth; good marksman, as men say! And long to suffer is but brief to tell. LEADER. How ran the sailors’ talk? Did there prevail One rumour, showing him alive or dead? HERALD. None knoweth, none hath tiding, save the head Of Helios, ward and watcher of the world. LEADER. Then tell us of the storm. How, when God hurled His anger, did it rise? How did it die? HERALD. It likes me not, a day of presage high With dolorous tongue to stain. Those twain, I vow, Stand best apart. When one with shuddering brow, From armies lost, back beareth to his home Word that the terror of her prayers is come;

One wound in her great heart, and many a fate For many a home of men cast out to sate The two-fold scourge that worketh Ares’ lust, Spear crossed with spear, dust wed with bloody dust; Who walketh laden with such weight of wrong, Why, let him, if he will, uplift the song That is Hell’s triumph. But to come as I Am now come, laden with deliverance high, Home to a land of peace and laughing eyes, And mar all with that fury of the skies Which made our Greeks curse God—how should this be? Two enemies most ancient, Fire and Sea, A sudden friendship swore, and proved their plight By war on us poor sailors through that night

Of misery, when the horror of the wave Towered over us, and winds from Strymon drave Hull against hull, till good ships, by the horn Of the mad whirlwind gored and overborne, One here, one there, ‘mid rain and blinding spray, Like sheep by a devil herded, passed away. And when the blessed Sun upraised his head, We saw the Aegean waste a-foam with dead, Dead men, dead ships, and spars disasterful. Howbeit for us, our one unwounded hull Out of that wrath was stolen or begged free By some good spirit—sure no man was he! — Who guided clear our helm; and on till now Hath Saviour Fortune throned her on the prow.

No surge to mar our mooring, and no floor Of rock to tear us when we made for shore. Till, fled from that sea-hell, with the clear sun Above us and all trust in fortune gone, We drove like sheep about our brain the thoughts Of that lost army, broken and scourged with knouts Of evil. And, methinks, if there is breath In them, they talk of us as gone to death— How else? —and so say we of them! For thee, Since Menelaus thy first care must be, If by some word of Zeus, who wills not yet To leave the old house for ever desolate, Some ray of sunlight on a far-off sea Lights him, yet green and living … we may see His ship some day in the harbour! ‘Twas the word Of truth ye asked me for, and truth ye have heard! [Exit HERALD. The CHORUS take position for the Third Stasimon. CHORUS. (Surely there was mystic meaning in the name HELENA, meaning which was fulfilled when she fled to Troy. ) Who was He who found for thee That name, truthful utterly— Was it One beyond our vision Moving sure in pre-decision Of man’s doom his mystic lips? — Calling thee, the Battle-wed, Thee, the Strife-encompassed, HELEN? Yea, in fate’s derision, Hell in cities, Hell in ships, Hell in hearts of men they knew her, When the dim and delicate fold Of her curtains backward rolled,

And to sea, to sea, she threw her In the West Wind’s giant hold; And with spear and sword behind her Came the hunters in a flood, Down the oarblade’s viewless trail Tracking, till in Simois’ vale Through the leaves they crept to find her, A Wrath, a seed of blood. (The Trojans welcomed her with triumph and praised Alexander till at last their song changed and they saw another meaning in Alexander’s name also. ) So the Name to Ilion came On God’s thought-fulfilling flame, She a vengeance and a token Of the unfaith to bread broken, Of the hearth of God betrayed, Against them whose voices swelled Glorying in the prize they held

And the Spoiler’s vaunt outspoken And the song his brethren made ‘Mid the bridal torches burning; Till, behold, the ancient City Of King Priam turned, and turning Took a new song for her learning, A song changed and full of pity, With the cry of a lost nation; And she changed the bridegroom’s name: Called him Paris Ghastly-wed; For her sons were with the dead, And her life one lamentation, ‘Mid blood and burning flame. (Like a lion’s whelp reared as a pet and turning afterwards to a great beast of prey,) Lo, once there was a herdsman reared In his own house, so stories tell, A lion’s whelp, a milk-fed thing And soft in life’s first opening

Among the sucklings of the herd; The happy children loved him well, And old men smiled, and oft, they say, In men’s arms, like a babe, he lay, Bright-eyed, and toward the hand that teased him Eagerly fawning for food or play. Then on a day outflashed the sudden Rage of the lion brood of yore; He paid his debt to them that fed With wrack of herds and carnage red, Yea, wrought him a great feast unbidden, Till all the house-ways ran with gore; A sight the thralls fled weeping from, A great red slayer, beard a-foam, High-priest of some blood-cursed altar God had uplifted against that home. (So was it with Helen in Troy. )

And how shall I call the thing that came At the first hour to Ilion city? Call it a dream of peace untold, A secret joy in a mist of gold, A woman’s eye that was soft, like flame, A flower which ate a man’s heart with pity. But she swerved aside and wrought to her kiss a bitter ending, And a wrath was on her harbouring, a wrath upon her friending, When to Priam and his sons she fled quickly o’er the deep, With the god to whom she sinned for her watcher on the wind, A death-bride, whom brides long shall weep. (Men say that Good Fortune wakes the envy of God; not so; Good Fortune may be innocent, and then there is no vengeance. A grey word liveth, from the morn Of old time among mortals spoken, That man’s Wealth waxen full shall fall Not childless, but get sons withal; And ever of great bliss is born A tear unstanched and a heart broken. But I hold my thought alone and by others unbeguiled; ‘Tis the deed that is unholy shall have issue, child on child, Sin on sin, like his begetters; and they shall be as they were. But the man who walketh straight, and the house thereof, tho’ Fate Exalt him, the children shall be fair. (It is Sin, it is Pride and Ruthlessness, that beget children like themselves till Justice is fulfilled upon them. )

But Old Sin loves, when comes the hour again, To bring forth New, Which laugheth lusty amid the tears of men; Yea, and Unruth, his comrade, wherewith none May plead nor strive, which dareth on and on, Knowing not fear nor any holy thing; Two fires of darkness in a house, born true, Like to their ancient spring. But Justice shineth in a house low-wrought With smoke-stained wall, And honoureth him who filleth his own lot; But the unclean hand upon the golden stair With eyes averse she flieth, seeking where Things innocent are; and, recking not the power Of wealth by man misgloried, guideth all To her own destined hour. Here amid a great procession enter AGAMEMNON on a Chariot. Behind him on another Chariot is CASSANDRA. The CHORUS approach and make obeisance. Some of AGAMEMNON’S men have on their shields a White Horse, some a Lion. Their arms are rich and partly barbaric. LEADER. All hail, O King! Hail, Atreus’ Son! Sacker of Cities! Ilion’s bane! With what high word shall I greet thee again, How give thee worship, and neither outrun The point of pleasure, nor stint too soon? For many will cling. To fair seeming The faster because they have sinned erewhile; And a man may sigh with never a sting Of grief in his heart, and a man may smile

With eyes unlit and a lip that strains. But the wise Shepherd knoweth his sheep, And his eyes pierce deep The faith like water that fawns and feigns. But I hide nothing, O King. That day When in quest of Helen our battle array Hurled forth, thy name upon my heart’s scroll Was deep in letters of discord writ; And the ship of thy soul, Ill-helmed and blindly steered was it, Pursuing ever, through men that die, One wild heart that was fain to fly. But on this new day, From the deep of my thought and in love, I say “Sweet is a grief well ended;” And in time’s flow Thou wilt learn and know The true from the false,

Of them that were left to guard the walls Of thine empty Hall unfriended. [During the above CLYTEMNESTRA has appeared on the Palace steps, with a train of Attendants, to receive her Husband. AGAMEMNON. To Argos and the gods of Argolis All hail, who share with me the glory of this Home-coming and the vengeance I did wreak On Priam’s City! Yea, though none should speak, The great gods heard our cause, and in one mood Uprising, in the urn of bitter blood, That men should shriek and die and towers should burn, Cast their great vote; while over Mercy’s urn Hope waved her empty hands and nothing fell. Even now in smoke that City tells her tale;

The wrack-wind liveth, and where Ilion died The reek of the old fatness of her pride From hot and writhing ashes rolls afar. For which let thanks, wide as our glories are, Be uplifted; seeing the Beast of Argos hath Round Ilion’s towers piled high his fence of wrath And, for one woman ravished, wrecked by force A City. Lo, the leap of the wild Horse in darkness when the Pleiades were dead; A mailed multitude, a Lion unfed, Which leapt the tower and lapt the blood of Kings! Lo, to the Gods I make these thanksgivings. But for thy words: I marked them, and I mind Their meaning, and my voice shall be behind Thine.

For not many men, the proverb saith, Can love a friend whom fortune prospereth Unenvying; and about the envious brain Cold poison clings, and doubles all the pain Life brings him. His own woundings he must nurse, And feels another’s gladness like a curse. Well can I speak. I know the mirrored glass Called friendship, and the shadow shapes that pass And feign them a King’s friends. I have known but one— Odysseus, him we trapped against his own Will! —who once harnessed bore his yoke right well … Be he alive or dead of whom I tell The tale. And for the rest, touching our state And gods, we will assemble in debate

A concourse of all Argos, taking sure Counsel, that what is well now may endure Well, and if aught needs healing medicine, still By cutting and by fire, with all good will, I will essay to avert the after-wrack Such sickness breeds. Aye, Heaven hath led me back; And on this hearth where still my fire doth burn I will go pay to heaven my due return, Which guides me here, which saved me far away. O Victory, now mine own, be mine alway! [CLYTEMNESTRA, at the head of her retinue, steps forward. She controls her suspense with difficulty but gradually gains courage as she proceeds. CLYTEMNESTRA. Ye Elders, Council of the Argive name

Here present, I will no more hold it shame To lay my passion bare before men’s eyes. There comes a time to a woman when fear dies For ever. None hath taught me. None could tell, Save me, the weight of years intolerable I lived while this man lay at Ilion. That any woman thus should sit alone In a half-empty house, with no man near, Makes her half-blind with dread! And in her ear Alway some voice of wrath; now messengers Of evil; now not so; then others worse, Crying calamity against mine and me. Oh, had he half the wounds that variously Came rumoured home, his flesh must be a net, All holes from heel to crown! And if he met

As many deaths as I met tales thereon, Is he some monstrous thing, some Geryon Three-souled, that will not die, till o’er his head, Three robes of earth be piled, to hold him dead? Aye, many a time my heart broke, and the noose Of death had got me; but they cut me loose. It was those voices alway in mine ear. For that, too, young Orestes is not here Beside me, as were meet, seeing he above All else doth hold the surety of our love; Let not thy heart be troubled. It fell thus: Our loving spear-friend took him, Strophius The Phocian, who forewarned me of annoy Two-fronted, thine own peril under Troy, And ours here, if the rebel multitude

Should cast the Council down. It is men’s mood Alway, to spurn the fallen. So spake he, And sure no guile was in him. But for me, The old stormy rivers of my grief are dead Now at the spring; not one tear left unshed. Mine eyes are sick with vigil, endlessly Weeping the beacon-piles that watched for thee For ever answerless. And did I dream, A gnat’s thin whirr would start me, like a scream Of battle, and show me thee by terrors swept, Crowding, too many for the time I slept. From all which stress delivered and free-souled, I greet my lord: O watchdog of the fold, O forestay sure that fails not in the squall,

O strong-based pillar of a towering hall; O single son to a father age-ridden; O land unhoped for seen by shipwrecked men; Sunshine more beautiful when storms are fled; Spring of quick water in a desert dead …. How sweet to be set free from any chain! These be my words to greet him home again. No god shall grudge them. Surely I and thou Have suffered in time past enough! And now Dismount, O head with love and glory crowned, From this high car; yet plant not on bare ground Thy foot, great King, the foot that trampled Troy. Ho, bondmaids, up! Forget not your employ, A floor of crimson broideries to spread For the King’s path.

Let all the ground be red Where those feet pass; and Justice, dark of yore, Home light him to the hearth he looks not for! What followeth next, our sleepless care shall see Ordered as God’s good pleasure may decree. [The attendants spread tapestries of crimson and gold from the Chariot to the Door of the Palace. AGAMEMNON does not move. AGAMEMNON. Daughter of Leda, watcher of my fold, In sooth thy welcome, grave and amply told, Fitteth mine absent years. Though it had been Seemlier, methinks, some other, not my Queen, Had spoke these honours. For the rest, I say, Seek not to make me soft in woman’s way;

Cry not thy praise to me wide-mouthed, nor fling Thy body down, as to some barbarous king. Nor yet with broidered hangings strew my path, To awake the unseen ire. ‘Tis God that hath Such worship; and for mortal man to press Rude feet upon this broidered loveliness … I vow there is danger in it. Let my road Be honoured, surely; but as man, not god. Rugs for the feet and yonder broidered pall … The names ring diverse! … Aye, and not to fall Suddenly blind is of all gifts the best God giveth, for I reckon no man blest Ere to the utmost goal his race be run. So be it; and if, as this day I have done, I shall do always, then I fear no ill.

CLYTEMNESTRA. Tell me but this, nowise against thy will … AGAMEMNON. My will, be sure, shall falter not nor fade. CLYTEMNESTRA. Was this a vow in some great peril made? AGAMEMNON. Enough! I have spoke my purpose, fixed and plain. CLYTEMNESTRA. Were Priam the conqueror … Think, would he refrain? AGAMEMNON. Oh, stores of broideries would be trampled then! CLYTEMNESTRA. Lord, care not for the cavillings of men! AGAMEMNON. The murmur of a people hath strange weight. CLYTEMNESTRA. Who feareth envy, feareth to be great. AGAMEMNON. ‘Tis graceless when a woman strives to lead. CLYTEMNESTRA. When a great conqueror yields, ’tis grace indeed,

AGAMEMNON. So in this war thou must my conqueror be? CLYTEMNESTRA. Yield! With good will to yield is victory! AGAMEMNON. Well, if I needs must … Be it as thou hast said! Quick! Loose me these bound slaves on which I tread, And while I walk yon wonders of the sea God grant no eye of wrath be cast on me From far! [The Attendants untie his shoes. For even now it likes me not To waste mine house, thus marring underfoot The pride thereof, and wondrous broideries Bought in far seas with silver. But of these Enough. —And mark, I charge thee, this princess Of Ilion; tend her with all gentleness. God’s eye doth see, and loveth from afar,

The merciful conqueror. For no slave of war Is slave by his own will. She is the prize And chosen flower of Ilion’s treasuries, Set by the soldiers’ gift to follow me. Now therefore, seeing I am constrained by thee And do thy will, I walk in conqueror’s guise Beneath my Gate, trampling sea-crimson dyes. [As he dismounts and sets foot on the Tapestries CLYTEMNESTRA’S women utter again their Cry of Triumph. The people bow or kneel as he passes. CLYTEMNESTRA. There is the sea—its caverns who shall drain? — Breeding of many a purple-fish the stain Surpassing silver, ever fresh renewed, For robes of kings. And we, by right indued,

Possess our fill thereof. Thy house, O King, Knoweth no stint, nor lack of anything. What trampling of rich raiment, had the cry So sounded in the domes of prophesy, Would I have vowed these years, as price to pay For this dear life in peril far away! Where the root is, the leafage cometh soon To clothe an house, and spread its leafy boon Against the burning star; and, thou being come, Thou, on the midmost hearthstone of thy home, Oh, warmth in winter leapeth to thy sign. And when God’s summer melteth into wine The green grape, on that house shall coolness fall Where the true man, the master, walks his hall. Zeus, Zeus!

True Master, let my prayers be true! And, oh, forget not that thou art willed to do! [She follows AGAMEMNON into the Palace. The retinues of both King and Queen go in after them. CASSANDRA remains. CHORUS. What is this that evermore, [Strophe 1. A cold terror at the door Of this bosom presage-haunted, Pale as death hovereth? While a song unhired, unwanted, By some inward prophet chanted, Speaks the secret at its core; And to cast it from my blood Like a dream not understood No sweet-spoken Courage now Sitteth at my heart’s dear prow. Yet I know that manifold Days, like sand, have waxen old Since the day those shoreward-thrown

Cables flapped and line on line Standing forth for Ilion The long galleys took the brine [Antistrophe 1. And in harbour—mine own eye Hath beheld—again they lie; Yet that lyreless music hidden Whispers still words of ill, ‘Tis the Soul of me unbidden, Like some Fury sorrow-ridden, Weeping over things that die. Neither waketh in my sense Ever Hope’s dear confidence; For this flesh that groans within, And these bones that know of Sin, This tossed heart upon the spate Of a whirpool that is Fate, Surely these lie not. Yet deep Beneath hope my prayer doth run, All will die like dreams, and creep To the unthought of and undone. Strophe 2. —Surely of great Weal at the end of all Comes not Content; so near doth Fever crawl, Close neighbour, pressing hard the narrow wall. —Woe to him who fears not fate! ‘Tis the ship that forward straight Sweepeth, strikes the reef below; He who fears and lightens weight, Casting forth, in measured throw, From the wealth his hand hath got … His whole ship shall founder not, With abundance overfraught, Nor deep seas above him flow. —Lo, when famine stalketh near, One good gift of Zeus again From the furrows of one year Endeth quick the starving pain; [Antistrophe 2. —But once the blood of death is fallen, black

And oozing at a slain man’s feet, alack! By spell or singing who shall charm it back? —One there was of old who showed Man the path from death to day; But Zeus, lifting up his rod, Spared not, when he charged him stay. —Save that every doom of God Hath by other dooms its way Crossed, that none may rule alone, In one speech-outstripping groan Forth had all this passion flown, Which now murmuring hides away, Full of pain, and hoping not Ever one clear thread to unknot From the tangle of my soul, From a heart of burning coal. [Suddenly CLYTEMNESTRA appears standing in the Doorway. CLYTEMNESTRA. Thou likewise, come within!

I speak thy name, Cassandra; [CASSANDRA trembles, but continues to stare in front of her, as though not hearing CLYTEMNESTRA. seeing the Gods—why chafe at them? — Have placed thee here, to share within these walls Our lustral waters, ‘mid a crowd of thralls Who stand obedient round the altar-stone Of our Possession. Therefore come thou down, And be not over-proud. The tale is told How once Alcmena’s son himself, being sold, Was patient, though he liked not the slaves’ mess. And more, if Fate must bring thee to this stress, Praise God thou art come to a House of high report And wealth from long ago. The baser sort,

Who have reaped some sudden harvest unforeseen, Are ever cruel to their slaves, and mean In the measure. We shall give whate’er is due. [CASSANDRA is silent. LEADER. To thee she speaks, and waits … clear words and true! Oh, doom is all around thee like a net; Yield, if thou canst…. Belike thou canst not yet. CLYTEMNESTRA. Methinks, unless this wandering maid is one Voiced like a swallow-bird, with tongue unknown And barbarous, she can read my plain intent. I use but words, and ask for her consent. LEADER. Ah, come! Tis best, as the world lies to-day. Leave this high-throned chariot, and obey! CLYTEMNESTRA.

How long must I stand dallying at the Gate? Even now the beasts to Hestia consecrate Wait by the midmost fire, since there is wrought This high fulfilment for which no man thought. Wherefore, if ’tis thy pleasure to obey Aught of my will, prithee, no more delay! If, dead to sense, thou wilt not understand… Thou show her, not with speech but with brute hand! [To the Leader of the CHORUS. LEADER. The strange maid needs a rare interpreter. She is trembling like a wild beast in a snare. CLYTEMNESTRA. ‘Fore God, she is mad, and heareth but her own Folly! A slave, her city all o’erthrown, She needs must chafe her bridle, till this fret

Be foamed away in blood and bitter sweat. I waste no more speech, thus to be defied. [She goes back inside the Palace. LEADER. I pity thee so sore, no wrath nor pride Is in me. —Come, dismount! Bend to the stroke Fate lays on thee, and learn to feel thy yoke. [He lays his hand softly on CASSANDRA’S shoulder. CASSANDRA (moaning to herself). Otototoi … Dreams. Dreams. Apollo. O Apollo! SECOND ELDER. Why sob’st thou for Apollo? It is writ, He loves not grief nor lendeth ear to it. CASSANDRA. Otototoi … Dreams. Dreams. Apollo. O Apollo! LEADER. Still to that god she makes her sobbing cry Who hath no place where men are sad, or die.

CASSANDRA. Apollo, Apollo! Light of the Ways of Men! Mine enemy! Hast lighted me to darkness yet again? SECOND ELDER. How? Will she prophesy about her own Sorrows? That power abides when all is gone! CASSANDRA. Apollo, Apollo! Light of all that is! Mine enemy! Where hast thou led me? … Ha! What house is this? LEADER. The Atreidae’s castle. If thou knowest not, I Am here to help thee, and help faithfully. CASSANDRA (whispering). Nay, nay. This is the house that God hateth. There be many things that know its secret; sore And evil things; murders and strangling death. ‘Tis here they slaughter men…A splashing floor.

SECOND ELDER. Keen-sensed the strange maid seemeth, like a hound For blood. —And what she seeks can sure be found! CASSANDRA. The witnesses … I follow where they lead. The crying … of little children … near the gate: Crying for wounds that bleed: And the smell of the baked meats their father ate. SECOND ELDER (recognizing her vision, and repelled). Word of thy mystic power had reached our ear Long since. Howbeit we need no prophets here. CASSANDRA. Ah, ah! What would they? A new dreadful thing. A great great sin plots in the house this day; Too strong for the faithful, beyond medicining … And help stands far away.

LEADER. This warning I can read not, though I knew That other tale. It rings the city through. CASSANDRA. O Woman, thou! The lord who lay with thee! Wilt lave with water, and then … How speak the end? It comes so quick. A hand … another hand … That reach, reach gropingly…. LEADER. I see not yet. These riddles, pierced with blind Gleams of foreboding, but bemuse my mind. CASSANDRA. Ah, ah! What is it? There; it is coming clear. A net … some net of Hell. Nay, she that lies with him … is she the snare? And half of his blood upon it. It holds well…. O Crowd of ravening Voices, be glad, yea, shout

And cry for the stoning, cry for the casting out! SECOND ELDER. What Fury Voices call’st thou to be hot Against this castle? Such words like me not. And deep within my breast I felt that sick And saffron drop, which creepeth to the heart To die as the last rays of life depart. Misfortune comes so quick. CASSANDRA. Ah, look! Look! Keep his mate from the Wild Bull! A tangle of raiment, see; A black horn, and a blow, and he falleth, full In the marble amid the water. I counsel ye. I speak plain … Blood in the bath and treachery! LEADER. No great interpreter of oracles Am I; but this, I think, some mischief spells.

What spring of good hath seercraft ever made Up from the dark to flow? ‘Tis but a weaving of words, a craft of woe, To make mankind afraid. CASSANDRA. Poor woman! Poor dead woman! … Yea, it is I, Poured out like water among them. Weep for me…. Ah! What is this place? Why must I come with thee…. To die, only to die? LEADER. Thou art borne on the breath of God, thou spirit wild, For thine own weird to wail, Like to that winged voice, that heart so sore Which, crying alway, hungereth to cry more, “Itylus, Itylus,” till it sing her child Back to the nightingale. CASSANDRA. Oh, happy Singing Bird, so sweet, so clear!

Soft wings for her God made, And an easy passing, without pain or tear … For me ’twill be torn flesh and rending blade. SECOND ELDER. Whence is it sprung, whence wafted on God’s breath, This anguish reasonless? This throbbing of terror shaped to melody, Moaning of evil blent with music high? Who hath marked out for thee that mystic path Through thy woe’s wilderness? CASSANDRA. Alas for the kiss, the kiss of Paris, his people’s bane! Alas for Scamander Water, the water my fathers drank! Long, long ago, I played about thy bank, And was cherished and grew strong; Now by a River of Wailing, by shores of Pain, Soon shall I make my song.

LEADER. How sayst thou? All too clear, This ill word thou hast laid upon thy mouth! A babe could read thee plain. It stabs within me like a serpent’s tooth, The bitter thrilling music of her pain: I marvel as I hear. CASSANDRA. Alas for the toil, the toil of a City, worn unto death! Alas for my father’s worship before the citadel, The flocks that bled and the tumult of their breath! But no help from them came To save Troy Towers from falling as they fell! … And I on the earth shall writhe, my heart aflame. SECOND ELDER. Dark upon dark, new ominous words of ill! Sure there hath swept on thee some Evil Thing,

Crushing, which makes thee bleed And in the torment of thy vision sing These plaining death-fraught oracles … Yet still, still, Their end I cannot read! CASSANDRA. [By an effort she regains mastery of herself, and speaks directly to the Leader. ‘Fore God, mine oracle shall no more hide With veils his visage, like a new-wed bride! A shining wind out of this dark shall blow, Piercing the dawn, growing as great waves grow, To burst in the heart of sunrise … stronger far Than this poor pain of mine. I will not mar With mists my wisdom. Be near me as I go, Tracking the evil things of long ago, And bear me witness.

For this roof, there clings Music about it, like a choir which sings One-voiced, but not well-sounding, for not good The words are. Drunken, drunken, and with blood, To make them dare the more, a revelling rout Is in the rooms, which no man shall cast out, Of sister Furies. And they weave to song, Haunting the House, its first blind deed of wrong, Spurning in turn that King’s bed desecrate, Defiled, which paid a brother’s sin with hate…. Hath it missed or struck, mine arrow? Am I a poor Dreamer, that begs and babbles at the door? Give first thine oath in witness, that I know Of this great dome the sins wrought long ago.

ELDER. And how should oath of mine, though bravely sworn, Appease thee? Yet I marvel that one born Far over seas, of alien speech, should fall So apt, as though she had lived here and seen all. CASSANDRA. The Seer Apollo made me too to see. ELDER (in a low voice). Was the God’s heart pierced with desire for thee? CASSANDRA. Time was, I held it shame hereof to speak. ELDER. Ah, shame is for the mighty, not the weak. CASSANDRA. We wrestled, and his breath to me was sweet. ELDER. Ye came to the getting of children, as is meet? CASSANDRA. I swore to Loxias, and I swore a lie. ELDER. Already thine the gift of prophecy? CASSANDRA.

Already I showed my people all their path. ELDER. And Loxias did not smite thee in his wrath? CASSANDRA. After that sin … no man believed me more. ELDER. Nay, then, to us thy wisdom seemeth sure. CASSANDRA. Oh, oh! Agony, agony! Again the awful pains of prophecy Are on me, maddening as they fall…. Ye see them there … beating against the wall? So young … like shapes that gather in a dream … Slain by a hand they loved. Children they seem, Murdered … and in their hands they bear baked meat: I think it is themselves. Yea, flesh; I see it; And inward parts…. Oh, what a horrible load To carry! And their father drank their blood.

From these, I warn ye, vengeance broodeth still, A lion’s rage, which goes not forth to kill But lurketh in his lair, watching the high Hall of my war-gone master … Master? Aye; Mine, mine! The yoke is nailed about my neck…. Oh, lord of ships and trampler on the wreck Of Ilion, knows he not this she-wolf’s tongue, Which licks and fawns, and laughs with ear up-sprung, To bite in the end like secret death? —And can The woman? Slay a strong and armed man? … What fanged reptile like to her doth creep? Some serpent amphisbene, some Skylla, deep Housed in the rock, where sailors shriek and die, Mother of Hell blood-raging, which doth cry

On her own flesh war, war without alloy … God! And she shouted in his face her joy, Like men in battle when the foe doth break. And feigns thanksgiving for his safety’s sake! What if no man believe me? ‘Tis all one. The thing which must be shall be; aye, and soon Thou too shalt sorrow for these things, and here Standing confess me all too true a seer. LEADER. The Thyestean feast of children slain I understood, and tremble. Aye, my brain Reels at these visions, beyond guesswork true. But after, though I heard, I had lost the clue. CASSANDRA. Man, thou shalt look on Agamemnon dead. LEADER. Peace, Mouth of Evil! Be those words unsaid!

CASSANDRA. No god of peace hath watch upon that hour. LEADER. If it must come. Forefend it, Heavenly Power! CASSANDRA. They do not think of prayer; they think of death. LEADER. They? Say, what man this foul deed compasseth? CASSANDRA. Alas, thou art indeed fallen far astray! LEADER. How could such deed be done? I see no way. CASSANDRA. Yet know I not the Greek tongue all too well? LEADER. Greek are the Delphic dooms, but hard to spell. CASSANDRA. Ah! Ah! There! What a strange fire! It moves … It comes at me. O Wolf Apollo, mercy! O agony! … Why lies she with a wolf, this lioness lone, Two-handed, when the royal lion is gone?

God, she will kill me! Like to them that brew Poison, I see her mingle for me too A separate vial in her wrath, and swear, Whetting her blade for him, that I must share His death … because, because he hath dragged me here! Oh, why these mockers at my throat? This gear Of wreathed bands, this staff of prophecy? I mean to kill you first, before I die. Begone! [She tears off her prophetic habiliments; and presently throws them on the ground, and stamps on them. Down to perdition! … Lie ye so? So I requite you! Now make rich in woe Some other Bird of Evil, me no more! [Coming to herself. Ah, see! It is Apollo’s self, hath tore

His crown from me! Who watched me long ago In this same prophet’s robe, by friend, by foe, All with one voice, all blinded, mocked to scorn: “A thing of dreams,” “a beggar-maid outworn,” Poor, starving and reviled, I endured all; And now the Seer, who called me till my call Was perfect, leads me to this last dismay…. ‘Tis not the altar-stone where men did slay My father; ’tis a block, a block with gore Yet hot, that waits me, of one slain before. Yet not of God unheeded shall we lie. There cometh after, one who lifteth high The downfallen; a branch where blossometh A sire’s avenging and a mother’s death.

Exiled and wandering, from this land outcast, One day He shall return, and set the last Crown on these sins that have his house downtrod. For, lo, there is a great oath sworn of God, His father’s upturned face shall guide him home. Why should I grieve? Why pity these men’s doom? I who have seen the City of Ilion Pass as she passed; and they who cast her down Have thus their end, as God gives judgement sure…. I go to drink my cup. I will endure To die. O Gates, Death-Gates, all hail to you! Only, pray God the blow be stricken true! Pray God, unagonized, with blood that flows Quick unto friendly death, these eyes may close!

LEADER. O full of sorrows, full of wisdom great, Woman, thy speech is a long anguish; yet, Knowing thy doom, why walkst thou with clear eyes, Like some god-blinded beast, to sacrifice? CASSANDRA. There is no escape, friends; only vain delay. LEADER. Is not the later still the sweeter day? CASSANDRA. The day is come. Small profit now to fly. LEADER. Through all thy griefs, Woman, thy heart is high. CASSANDRA. Alas! None that is happy hears that praise. LEADER. Are not the brave dead blest in after days? CASSANDRA. O Father! O my brethren brave, I come! [She moves towards the House, but recoils shuddering. LEADER.

What frights thee? What is that thou startest from? CASSANDRA. Ah, faugh! Faugh! LEADER. What turns thee in that blind Horror? Unless some loathing of the mind … CASSANDRA. Death drifting from the doors, and blood like rain! LEADER. ‘Tis but the dumb beasts at the altar slain. CASSANDRA. And vapours from a charnel-house … See there! LEADER. ‘Tis Tyrian incense clouding in the air. CASSANDRA (recovering herself again). So be it! —I will go, in yonder room To weep mine own and Agamemnon’s doom. May death be all! Strangers, I am no bird That pipeth trembling at a thicket stirred By the empty wind. Bear witness on that day

When woman for this woman’s life shall pay, And man for man ill-mated low shall lie: I ask this boon, as being about to die. LEADER. Alas, I pity thee thy mystic fate! CASSAN

Social Etiqutte Essay

Stating thank you to a individual gives you something and stating sorry to the individual you have hurt is one of the basic societal etiquette that each one of us must hold in our society. Etiquette is being polite and holding good mannered with people and society that normally from their parents when they are child. It is of import to hold because holding a good mode and regard to other and by making these you can besides hold the same regard as what you gave to them.

Social Skills

All of us has a societal accomplishment which helps us to hold a good relationship toward other people. Social accomplishment is any skill facilitating interaction and communicating with others. Social regulations and dealingss are created. communicated. and changed in verbal and gestural ways. The procedure of larning such accomplishments is called socialisation.

The principle for this type of an attack to intervention is that people meet a assortment of societal jobs and can cut down the emphasis and penalty from the brush every bit good as increase their support by holding the right accomplishments. [ Social etiquette and good manners will decidedly assist you in your professional every bit good as personal lives and do you calm and matured while managing certain state of affairss. With this really meagre yet strong societal etiquette I am certain you will use them whenever required. Social etiquette is a must if you expect others to act the manner you do. Etiquette will remain with you your whole life and they merely teach you to be good human existences.

The etiquette which involves the society is in short called societal etiquette which are really of import for our endurance in the society. When you are interacting with a group of people as your seniors. co-workers or juniors you need to hold a certain sense of address every bit good as organic structure linguistic communication. This etiquette defines who you are in your hereafter. When you are in a topographic point where there are people around you. irrespective of interaction. you should hold certain behavioural manners with every age group present. Peoples who have societal etiquette have a sense of adulthood on how to act in public and to maintain their composure when there are societal eruptions and related exigencies. You can’t act ignorant and non bothered when there is something traveling on in the societal environment around that needs your aid. Social etiquette should be shown in these state of affairss maintaining in head you could besides be a portion of it.

Dressing is the first thing you need to take attention of when you are in a societal environment is your dressing and garb. Your overall visual aspect shows what sort of individual you are and makes the first feeling about you. If you’re in your school. office. with invitees or even at a carnival or a public topographic point. you need to look civilized and good mannered. It is of import that when you are in a public topographic point. do non hold bad organic structure linguistic communication and positions. Sit with your legs and custodies gathered and together. Your organic structure linguistic communication can give negative marks about you so we have to be careful with it.

If a senior citizen. a kid. or anyone demands help with something. do certain you go in front and assist. you will non repent it. Keep in head you could besides necessitate it someday. Be polite with everyone by stating “please. sorry. thank you. I beg your pardon” . and other such phrases when you interact with them. You should hold good dining etiquette every bit good as workplace etiquette when you are at these societal topographic points. They are really of import in times when you have to go forth an feeling before people.

Bing Polite to yourself

Bing polite is all about being considerate and appreciative. To be polite you must avoid being rude. which can do the people around you feel offended. uncomfortable. or even ache. Being polite is besides a good manner to do friends. Being soft is really of import it is non forceful or repetitive others to make something. It means that when you do something. offer something. or do a petition. you do it without coercing the people around you and doing them experience like they’re being pushed into a corner. If you’re holding a conversation. it’s one thing to inquire a inquiry or offer your sentiment. but it’s rude to force the affair when person has expressed uncomfortableness about the topic. Even if you’re seeking to assist.

If the individual says “No. thank you. I’ve got it” so say “Please. I’d truly love to assist. ” If they still say no. so allow it travel. They evidently want to handle you. so allow them. and return the favour some other clip. We all have to be nice to others and ever be gracious. you might run into this individual once more in another scene and wouldn’t want to hold caused negative memories that would give you a bad standing. If person annoys or even abuses you. don’t get into an statement. It is of import for to be honest so that other people will swear you and at the same clip you can swear them besides.

The Etiquette of Friendship

When you have been friends with person for a long clip. there is a ground for that. If you are loyal. caring. have many things in common and merely hold an arrant regard for one another. you likely have a great friendly relationship. The best portion of that sort of friendly relationship is unconditioned love. If you mess up. they still accept you. If you have an statement. there is forgiveness. No judgement. pure credence. love. and laughter ; that makes a true and womb-to-tomb friendly relationship. If in the center of this “building” procedure. you discover the individual you are being friend is non who you thought they were. You have discovered that they refer to their current friends in a negative facet and rather honestly. are utilizing the people around them to seek to construct upon their successes.

Lysistrata And The Greek Culture English Literature Essay

The word civilization is defined as fundamentally the different beliefs, behaviour forms, values, etc of a peculiar group of people in the same country. There are many many different sorts of civilizations and each civilization has its ain cultural traits. The civilization I became interested in after reading about Antiquity was the Grecian civilization. They do things in a certain manner that I found reasonably flooring and besides could slightly associate to because these certain behaviours are still apparent today in our civilization. The Grecian narrative I liked the best in this subdivision was “ Lysistrata ” . After reading this narrative I wanted to cognize precisely what the Grecian civilization was like back in this clip.

Greece in the 5th century was profoundly involved in faith. They believed in many Gods and thought that they were in human signifier but contained great powers. They looked to the Gods for everything. One in specific was called Zeus who was a divinity at Olympia. Another cultural trait of the ancient Greeks was looks. The adult females took pride in how they looked as did the work forces. Whenever adult females could they would get things such as jewellery, hairpins, chapeaus, and all kinds of accoutrements. I read that adult females and work forces both enjoyed looking at themselves in mirrors and loved hairbrushes. Womans fixed their hair in all kinds of different ways by curving it and traping it up. So it is obvious the Greeks were interested in physical visual aspect. Finally the cultural trait that I found the most interesting was the difference in work forces and adult females ‘s social functions. Grecian work forces wholly ran the authorities and were gone from place rather a spot. Actually the work forces seemed to run everything except for the housekeeping and kids of class. I read that when the work forces entertained their male friends adult females were non allowed to go to. It ‘s non that they did n’t desire to go to because I ‘m certain they truly did n’t it ‘s merely that they did n’t even hold the option of attention because the work forces would n’t “ let ” it. In ancient Greece the work forces ran the show. Outside of the place the adult females had really small freedom. The adult females ‘s occupation was purely to run the house and to hold and take attention of the kids and that was it. They had no say so in any other affairs and they were expected to esteem their hubbies and do as they say. And when the work forces wanted sex the adult females were expected to give it to them when they wanted and they adult female truly was non supposed to object. I was able to happen cases of all of these cultural traits while I was reading the narrative of “ Lysistrata. ”

In the narrative of “ Lysistrata ” you can clearly see grounds that the ancient Greeks were really profoundly into faith and their physical visual aspects. And the grounds of the different social functions between males and females is the most obvious. That ‘s fundamentally what the whole narrative is about. All throughout the narrative you see mentions to the Gods that the Grecian people worship so greatly. On the first page of the narrative Lysistrata herself makes the comment, “ And that we are, by Zeus! ” And so once more a small ways down she makes another mention to Zeus and another even farther down. Zeus is mentioned already three times merely on the first page. Zeus is known as the King of Gods so no admiration they say his name so much. All throughout the narrative they refer to Gods and goddesses. Some others mentioned are the goddess Kypris, who is known as the great female parent goddess, and Aphrodite, who was the God of love and beauty. These are merely a twosome but there are so many more Gods mentioned throughout this narrative. Next we want to concentrate on their involvement in beauty and physical visual aspect. On the first page of the narrative Lysistrata makes a remark to one of the misss stating her non to glower because knitted foreheads are n’t good for her expressions. On the following page Lysistrata is speaking about how they are traveling to halt the war and she says what she things is traveling to halt the war is their fancy frocks, slippers and enticing aromas. This shows us that they have all these accoutrements to do them beautiful and it besides shows us that evidently their physical visual aspects are adequate to carry their work forces. From this we conclude that both parties are infatuated with the physical visual aspect. And eventually we want to look at the difference in the work forces ‘s social functions versus the adult females ‘s social functions. In this narrative we can see that work forces rule the nest while adult females do what they are told by the work forces. The work forces are portrayed as the smarter 1s and the 1s who can really do a difference while all the adult females do is take attention of the house and the childs. Well in this narrative the adult females outwit the work forces and do a immense difference by stoping a whole war. In the beginning of the narrative the adult females all take a piece demoing up to the meeting because they have to do certain everything in their places are in order because that is their occupation and will non acquire done by the work forces under any circumstance. Another case is when Myrrhine is speaking to her hubby and we find out that since she has been gone nil has been done. Their ain babe has non been fed because work forces will non crouch down to a “ adult female ‘s degree ” and make such things like that alternatively he tries to do his married woman experience guilty that she has non been making “ her occupation. ” The work forces in this narrative are in such daze when the adult females revolt against them because the norm is that the adult females obey the work forces and do as they are told but when they adult females take control everything is thrown out of and the work forces are at a loss. Besides the work forces are devastated because they are cut off from holding sex with their married womans and these pathetic work forces act like it ‘s the terminal of the universe merely because they ca n’t hold any sex. The adult females were expected to merely lie down and give their work forces what they wanted when they wanted it and for one time these work forces were being told no. So now the inquiry is have things changed at all? Are any of these cultural traits still apparent in today ‘s civilization?

I decidedly think that some of the ancient Greek ‘s cultural traits are still apparent in our civilization today. In all three of the illustrations I used you can still see these things traveling on. We will get down with faith. The faith may non be as strong for everyone like it was back so but it is decidedly still here. Religion is everyplace and everyone believes otherwise. When I was reading the narrative and the characters made mentions to Zeus like they did, it reminded me of something we do to this twenty-four hours. For illustration when one of the adult females say, “ But I am with kid, by Zeus! “ , this is like person in this twenty-four hours and clip stating “ But I am pregnant, by God! ” They mention their God Zeus merely like we mention our God when we talk. They merely seem to make it more frequently than we do. Just like the Greeks did in antediluvian clip most spiritual people still look to God when they are fighting with something or merely necessitate a small counsel. Religion has been around for all clip and that is one thing that will ever be passed down through clip and civilizations. The following illustration I used was the infatuation with physical visual aspect and beauty. I showed with illustrations how the ancient Greeks put great value in their visual aspects. Our civilization today puts tremendous value on visual aspect. The desire to be beautiful and expression good has non ceased but has gotten greater and greater. Everything in today ‘s clip has an influence on this. Almost all the commercials we see on T.V. have beautiful adult females on them. The film stars inspire us to desire to be as gorgeous or handsome as they are. There is fictile surgery that gives people the opportunity to “ heighten ” their visual aspects. Peoples seem to be more disquieted about their physical visual aspects now than they of all time were. And eventually my last illustration of the civilizations remaining the same is the social functions of males and females. It does non look to be as drastic and in every bit many places as it was back in ancient Greece but is decidedly still about. There are still males out there who believe that their married womans are to take attention of the house and kids and that is it. They think that adult females are non truly capable of making anything else. Of class this is non true because adult females have changed a batch over clip merely as Lysistrata was seeking to make in the narrative. Womans are coming out and are get downing to make more and more things that were ever believed that merely work forces could make. But like I said there are still work forces that think this is incorrect. I even personally know a twosome like this. The married woman is non truly allowed to travel out without her hubby and if she does he must cognize precisely where she is and what she is making and who she is with and every bit shortly as he calls her to come place she is on her manner. Where is the freedom? Its like being in high school all over once more. Womans are non their hubby ‘s slaves but some work forces expect them to be. And job with the sex is the same excessively. There are still some twosomes out at that place that when the hubby wants it the adult female lies down and lets him hold it whether she wants to or non. These work forces have complete control of their married womans and wo n’t allow them make as they want. The solution here is precisely what Lysistrata did and is to take a base. These adult females need to set their pess down and non take it any longer.

The ancient Grecian civilization was really interesting to me. They were really spiritual people and looked to their Gods for everything. They were besides really occupied with their physical visual aspects. The adult females wore beautiful frocks and ever fixed their hair and the work forces even enjoyed things like mirrors and hairbrushes and how their adult females ever looked nice. And eventually the thing about their civilization that bothered me the most was the manner the work forces ruled the family and the adult females ne’er had a say so in anything. These cultural traits were all really evidently shown in the narrative of Lysistrata in how they mentioned their Gods so often and how the adult females ever worried about how they looked. Finally the whole point of this narrative was about the adult females taking a base against their work forces who were so commanding. The adult females were seeking to demo they can do a difference excessively. These cultural traits are besides still apparent in our civilization today. Religion is still and will ever be about and the infatuation with physical visual aspect has merely gotten more intense and there are still work forces out there who think their adult females can non make anything but take attention of the house and kids. As you can see some things ne’er change.

Indian Premier League Essay

Cricket is a really fast-paced. high-energy athletics but it’s besides large concern. Professional squads that belong to the Indian Premier League pay each of their participants. the estimated value that could run from INR 20 hundred thousand ( INR 2 million ) to INR 2 crore ( INR 20 million ) per twelvemonth depending on his experience and stature. For that sum of money. member squads expect a great trade and are invariably on the ticker for ways of bettering their public presentation.

During a 59-game season. every nicety a manager can pick up about a failing in an opponent’s discourtesy or the shootings of one of his ain participants will interpret into more tallies on the scoreboard. more wins. and finally more money for the squad. Traditional cricket game statistics failed to capture all of the inside informations associated with every drama and was non easy related to videotapes of games. As a consequence. determinations about alterations in tactics or how to take advantage of opponents’ failings were based chiefly on intuitions and gut inherent aptitudes.

Coachs could non easy reply inquiries such as “Which types of dramas are aching us? ” Now professional cricket managers and directors are taking their cues from other concerns and larning how to do determinations based on difficult informations. The package available with the Indian Team was really generic and did non bring forth any analytical information. For the same ground. John Wright wanted to hold rather a few studies to assist him do determinations based on the statistical informations. A company called Sports Mechanics has found a manner to roll up and form powdered statistical informations and associate the informations to associated picture cartridge holders.

Sports Mechanics employs merely 5 people to fit up picture of each drama with statistical information about every ball bowled within the lucifer. For illustration. who bowled it. who is the batter. who is the non-striker. where did the ball pitch. what did the ball do. where was the ball hit. how many tallies were scored off it. who fielded it. how did he field it. which terminal did he throw. what was the result of the ball. etc. Once the tagging is done. when the question is done harmonizing to the ticket. so the relevant picture dramas.

Questions can be done by multiple beds of filters by bowler. by batter. by type of ball. etc. Each game is dissected and tagged. drama by drama. utilizing 100s of descriptive classs and these informations are linked to high-resolution picture. Coaches so use an index to turn up the exact picture cartridge holder in which they are interested and entree the picture at a protected Web site. Within seconds they are able to watch streaming picture on the protected site or they can download it to laptops. iPods. drama Stationss. etc.

For illustration. if the Kolkata Knightriders have merely lost to the Rajasthan Royals and gave up excessively many tallies. Knightriders coach can utilize Sports Mechanics’ service to see video cartridge holders of every Rajasthan Royals’ batting public presentation in the game. He can besides see every Kolkata Knightriders transitional state of affairs for the full season to see how that game compared with others. Harmonizing to Kolkata Knightriders proprietor Shahrukh Khan. “the system allows us to look at every drama. in every manner. and tie it back to stats. So we can watch how we played every ball. track our success rate. and see how other squads are making it.

The service helps managers analyze the strengths and failings of single participants. For illustration. Sports Mechanics’ system has recorded every violative measure of the Kolkata Knightriders’ Shoaib Akhtar since he joined IPL. The system can demo how successfully he is blowing in either place or off games. with the ability to interrupt games and participant public presentation into progressively finer-grained classs. If a user chinks on any statistic. that individual will happen video cartridge holders from any of the games of any season of IPL that show Shoaib’s peculiar bowling move.

Mr. S. Ramakrishnan. the Indian Cricket Team Analyst and the laminitis of Sports Mechanics has since 2003 helped over 5. 000 cricketers and provided analysis and soft ware to ICC and 21 states. About 7 squads in the IPL ; all except Royal Rivals have already signed up for the Sports Mechanics’ service. and are utilizing it to assist them reconnoiter for promising national and international participants. Although nil will of all time replace the demand to reconnoiter participants in individual. the service has reduced IPL teams’ skyrocketing travel costs.

Beginnings: Sports Mechanicss ; Base 1 USD = 50 INR as of 11. January. 2009 The challenges confronting IPL squads show why information systems are so indispensable today. Like other concerns. professional cricket faces force per unit area from high costs. particularly for team member wages and travel to seek for new endowment. Teams are seeking to increase gross by bettering employee public presentation. particularly the public presentation of cricket squad members. The chapter-opening diagram calls attending to of import points raised by this instance and this chapter.

Management was unable to do good determinations about how to better the public presentation of squads and of single participants because it lacked precise informations about dramas. It had to trust on “best guesses” based on videotapes of games. Management found a new information system to supply better information. The information system is based on a service provided by Sports Mechanics. Sports Mechanics’ staff members break down each game into a series of dramas and so categorise each drama by participants. type of drama. and the result.

These informations are tagged to the picture they describe to do the picture easy to seek. IPL managers and direction can analyse the information to see which violative and defensive moves are the most effectual for each squad participant. Team members themselves can utilize laptops. drama Stationss. iPods. etc to download the picture to assist them fix for games. This advanced solution makes it possible for hoops direction to utilize nonsubjective statistical informations about participants. dramas and results to better their determination doing about what participants should or shouldn’t do to most efficaciously counter their oppositions.

Study On Figuring Out Frankenstein English Literature Essay

Mary Shelley ‘s Frankenstein created a monster, the repeatedly animated Frankenstein with green tegument. Frankenstein is a common civilization who wanders the streets on Halloween. In the book, the supernatural being is nameless, and Victor Frankenstein is the Godhead of this animal, a solemnly sentimental, intangible, and intelligent turning single whose involvement is in doctrine and chemical science. Emotions engulf Mary Shelley ‘s Gothic text ; she enhances melodrama with Victor ‘s esthesias and melancholy, flirtings with insanity, and neurasthenic swoons when world overwhelms him. ( Snodgrass ) Shelley ‘s Frankenstein undertakings a alone focal point: the survey of a wilful, temperamental Swiss lab research worker at the University of Ingolstadt who is interested in metaphysics and unwittingly embracings day of reckoning by go againsting nature. To rise the sarcasm of the experimenter ‘s failure, Shelley names her introverted hero Victor. While prosecuting the synthesis of a life being in the research lab through believable scientific methodological analysis, he ignores the advice of his wise man, Monsieur Krempe, and the warning in M. Waldman ‘s talk. Enveloped in heartache for his late deceased female parent and sunk in changeless purdah, the heady Victor presses into unsafe district, forcing himself without remainder until he compromises his mental and physical wellness, a common component in utmost Gothic scenarios. His frenzied engagement in anatomy is curiously titillating in that his workaholism far outpaces any involvement in Elizabeth, his bride-to-be. ( Green )

There is some statement in the well-known inclination to adhere the monster and his shaper under the rubric of “ Frankenstein ” . As the fresh moves frontward, Frankenstein and his monster compete for the character of supporter. We are expected to side with Frankenstein, whose function is valued by his ethical household and friends and by the captain of the ship who rescues him from the ice floe. The basic secret plan of the novel remains powerful in its simpleness. Most of it appears in flashback, as a defeated, guilt-ridden Victor Frankenstein relates on his deathbed his narrative of horror to a ship ‘s captain, Robert Walton, the first of the novel ‘s three storytellers. He writes letters that relate his contact with Frankenstein, who hunted his human creative activity in the Arctic, where Walton and his crew found him. The letters progress the novel ‘s strongest subject, that of the struggle between scientific discipline and poesy, or art. While Frankenstein represents scientific discipline, his darling cousin Elizabeth Lavenza, who loves poesy, and best friend Henry Clerval, an aficionado of love affair and gallantry whose family name describes his lucidity of vision, represent art.

Victor Frankenstein is a affluent adult male with a promising hereafter who is married to a beautiful and devoted married woman, a member of a respected household. He is driven, unluckily, by an compulsion that grows more powerful with each go throughing day-the desire to make life where it did non antecedently exist, although in pattern he may be recreating instead than making since presumably he is working with organic stuff. He clandestinely gathers the natural stuffs upon which to experiment, hiding his activities from everyone. Finally he achieves his end, after a manner, though his monster varies well from the movie reading in that it is intelligent and more human in visual aspect. Despite Frankenstein ‘s early optimism, nevertheless, there is clearly something incorrect with his creative activity, and it finally escapes and so launches a run of panic and retaliation against its Godhead ‘s household. ( D’Ammassa )

As Mary Shelley ‘s fresh Frankenstein unfolds, Victor is proved to be both right and incorrect in his speculations about community with the animal. He is right in believing that so long as monster and adult male are sworn “ enemies ” and keep nil in common, they can non perchance populate a shared societal brotherhood. But Victor is incorrect to believe that coming up with things to keep in common is an unsurmountable undertaking. He in fact does hear the monster ‘s narrative, and upon its completion animal and Godhead enter into a compact that obliges Victor to piece a female monster. On the footing of the compact they forge, monster and adult male are able to reimagine the nature of their association with each other. Their understanding renders them no longer “ enemies ” but persons who commit themselves to each other for the foreseeable hereafter. In this important scene on Montanvert, Shelley ‘s supporters remake their universe out of necessity and through a procedure of understanding devising. ( Bentley )

As the narrative unfolds, readers learn that Frankenstein sought to make a composite human being from dead organic structure parts. He grounds that those who have died might be restored if the secret to life can be found. Therefore, his focal point is non at foremost on the coevals of life, but instead on regeneration. In what becomes a lunacy to make his end, he isolates himself from Elizabeth and Henry, disregarding their supplications that he abandon the iniquitous undertaking that comes to haunt him. Dismayed by the animal, Frankenstein allows him to get away and finally pursues him after the monster slayings several members of Frankenstein ‘s household, including his darling younger brother William, which leads to the executing of the Frankenstein household ‘s amah, an guiltless unjustly accused of William ‘s slaying. Frankenstein himself acts as the 2nd storyteller, his narrative looking within Walton ‘s ain, while the monster ‘s 3rd narrative appears within Frankenstein ‘s ain. ( Brackett )

Frankenstein absents himself from our universe of ordinary consciousness and relatedness, which recedes from him in much the mode that a dream fades at the blink of an eye of rousing. Severing all contact with his household, other existences, and familiar nature, he is captive on excavating out a zone in world where he can be utterly entirely. This ingressive motion is attended by self-loss, a extremist shrinking of his empirical ego, and self-aggrandisement, a heightening of his isolate selfhood to daemonic position. He becomes a force alternatively of a individual as all the energy of his being dressed ores on his expansive undertaking: “ My head was filled with one idea, one construct, one intent ” ; “ a resistless, and about frenetic, impulse urged me frontward ; I seemed to hold lost all psyche or esthesis but for this one chase ” . The life undertaking, like the object intended by the Freudian libido, is a secondary matter. What matters is that it enkindles in the projector a lecherousness for self-presence so intense that it drives out of consciousness everything except itself. World must give if the ego is to look, and Frankenstein ‘s primary originative act is to arise his ain originative ego. ( Sherwin )

In the monster ‘s quandary, which literalizes Victor ‘s, is exactly that his sympathetic expressions can non be returned. After his forsaking and troubled early roving, he joins the loving De Lacey household merely invisibly, as, from his concealing topographic point, he regards their “ interchanging each twenty-four hours looks of fondness and kindness ” . He reveals himself entirely to the blind male parent, and when the others return, alternatively of repaying his sort expression, they evince “ horror and alarm on visual perception ” . In some sense, Frankenstein takes as its cardinal capable the yearning to be genuinely seen, every bit good as the desperation about whether such acknowledgment is possible ; and Alphonse ‘s “ casual glimpse ” epitomizes the self-giving “ lessons ” that construction Victor ‘s early experience. ( Zimmerman ) The scenes with the De Lacey ‘s demonstrate the monster ‘s capacity to transform his multiplex perceptual experiences of group kineticss into meaningful societal action. They besides reveal the development of his uneasiness as he becomes bit by bit attuned to the cottage dwellers ‘ universe. Detecting the cottage dwellers ‘ interactions, the monster comes to understand what it means to do a relevant intercession in their little society. Therefore, even though the monster remains on the physical fringe of the cottage dwellers ‘ universe and is every bit yet unacknowledged by them, he is shown to be progressively expert at hold oning the manners and features-that is, the signifiers and activities-of group life. ( Bentley )

The animal displays the same sort of exciting comfort every bit good as panic in people who hear this narrative. He needs our humanity to the fullest that we notice ourselves in his being and being so entirely. Denied by his interior decorator and wholly abandoned, he attains what he can of world by supervising on a household of inhabitants, and he schools himself by reading a twosome of books that have by the way came his manner, among them Paradise Lost. He besides learns to decode some Hagiographas which he carried off from the research lab in which he was designed. By these documents, he becomes familiar with the name and abode of Frankenstein and his household, and as his instruction has given him so good of a gustatory sensation to contemn himself, he has besides the good sense to loathe his maker for burthening upon him such a awful penalty as witting being, and he launches an agreement of natural onslaughts against the saddened Frankenstein-he kills his babe brother, his early bride, his fond friend ; even the really nursery amahs of the household are non safe from his retribution, for he contrives that they shall be hanged for robbery and slaying which he himself commits. ( Crocker )

Although the monster is unsafe, physically dashing at eight pess in tallness, and lacks a psyche, it is hard non to experience some understanding for its predicament, and when the novel concludes with it floating off entirely to an unknown destiny, it is non a minute of victory for the reader. It is Frankenstein who is the true scoundrel, because he acted without thought, took hazards without sing the effects, and brought decease and bad luck to the inexperienced persons around him while non straight enduring himself. Even as he nears his ain decease at last, he refuses to show sorrow for what he has accomplished, keeping out hope that others will retroflex and go on his work to carry through even greater accomplishments. ( D’Ammassa )

Noting their records, Frankenstein and the animal both start with generous waies and become slayers. The animal may look and move more affectionate because he is by description an foreigner, whereas Frankenstein deliberately extracts himself from society. When Frankenstein chiefly becomes occupied in his effort to make life, roll uping equipment from the abattoir and dissecting room, he breaches his ties with household and friends, going more and more privy. His male parent lectures him for this, reding Frankenstein to inquire himself what his shockable research for intelligence has cost him, and if it is candidly legitimate. Thinking back, he closes that it is non, opposite to his theory at the clip.

Frankenstein ‘s monster, alluring his vindictive Godhead on through a universe of ice, is another Emanation pursued by a Spectra, with the tremendous difference that he is an Emanation flawed, a incubus of actuality, instead than dream of desire. Though abhorred instead than loved, the monster is the entire signifier of Frankenstein ‘s originative power and is more inventive than his Godhead. The monster is at one time more rational and more emotional than his shaper ; so he excels Frankenstein as much ( and in the same ways ) as Milton ‘s Adam excels Milton ‘s God in Paradise Lost. The greatest paradox and most amazing accomplishment of Mary Shelley ‘s novel is that the monster is more human than his Godhead. This unidentified being, as much a Modern Adam as his Godhead is a Modern Prometheus, is more loveable than his Godhead and more hateful, more to be pitied and more to be feared, and above all more able to give the attentive reader that daze of added consciousness in which aesthetic acknowledgment compels a heightened realisation of the ego. For like Blake ‘s Spectre and Emanation or Shelley ‘s Alastor and Epipsyche, Frankenstein and his monster are the solipsistic and generous halves of the one ego. Frankenstein is the head and emotions turned in upon themselves, and his animal is the head and emotions turned imaginatively outward, seeking a greater humanisation through a confrontation of other egos. ( Bloom )

Frankenstein is far more than the field chilling narrative a adolescent Shelley set out to author. Frankenstein acquires characteristics of Gothic horror, apprehends scientific discipline fiction, and directs staying inquiries about world and the association between adult male and God. Modern adult male is the animal, antagonized from his originator-frequently accepting his ain motivations to be undistinguished and unexpected, and full of choler at the province of his being. Frankenstein is modern adult male besides, similarly separated from his creator-seizing the abilities of God and carelessly lingering with nature, full of small purpose and destructive consequences. Frankenstein exerts such a strong and challenging clasp on the imaginativeness because it works on so many different interpretative degrees. Beyond its entreaty as a absorbing narrative of intriguing horror, it is a myth of technological haughtiness dramatising what happens when adult male rivals the Torahs of God and nature. Victor ‘s is the prophylactic narrative of the unbridled self-importance whose thrust for command and power is finally suicidal.

On another degree it is the geographic expedition of creative activity itself, both physical birth and the originative act, presenting absorbing inquiries of effect and duty. At a deep, psychological degree Frankenstein and his monster may stand for duplicate facets of a fractured psychic whole, with the monster ordaining homicidal desires that the conventional Victor represses. The novel besides treats society ‘s wickedness in turning off from upseting facets of human nature that ask us to redefine our construct of the monstrous. Does it shack with the animal or with the denial of love and family that he craves? Frankenstein stimulates so many responses that it is clear that the novel is every bit powerful as a vehicle for researching human nature and the modern universe now as it was at the minute of its birth. ( Burt ) Frankenstein is an analysis of world, peculiarly of the human thought of scientific discipline, understanding, proficient advancement and an intensely humanistic work full of empathy for the human fortunes.

Labeling theory and its effects to the society Essay

Labeling theory is a theory that tries to explicate the effects of “labeling” by the society on an person. It shows that: by labeling an person for illustration as insane. that could tag the beginning of the procedure of him being insane. It is hence of import for society to be careful on the labels that they give to persons because of the effects that are likely to come with this “labels” . This paper is traveling to look into the constituents of labeling theory and its effects.

Labeling Theory Labeling theory looks at the influence that the society has on the development of a certain behaviour by an single because of the society’s perceptual experience of him/her. The manner an person has been described and categorized by the populace can greatly impact the behaviour of the said single. It besides brings out the lingual inclination of the bulk in society to label those who are perceived to be minority or with behaviours different from the remainder. negative labels.

Harmonizing to this theory. the stigmatizing or negative labels given to these persons have a important consequence on them such that some of the persons may continue to being aberrant ( Becker. 1964 ) . An illustration is an person who is perceived to be a drug nut. Even if the drugs do non impact his professional life. when persons whom they work with come to cognize that they use drugs. they may get down avoiding and tie ining them with all other offenses that are done by drug nuts.

Because of this stigmatisation. the person may stop up fring the occupation and could non be able to procure a nice occupation in any other topographic point. This will go forth him with no other option other than affecting in offense for endurance. something which he could non hold gotten himself in were it non for stigmatisation and labels that were directed to him/her ( Becker. 1963 ) . Harmonizing to Becker ( 1963 ) . the procedure of labeling can non be assumed to be strictly right because if so. it could hold non considered the general regulation of aberrance which is: it is the society that creates it.

The society may make some societal regulations and use them to some given persons without proper consideration. Their claims can non be justified because there is a possibility that the person may non be what the society perceives him/her to be. Other wrongdoers may be lucky to travel without being noticed by people and you can non state that merely because they were able to get away unobserved. they are clean and can non measure up to be aberrant or those who have been labeled are all the same.

This is because there may be false accusals. The theory may impact the society in many ways. It may take to increased offense rate among persons and society. This is because of the consequence that the theory has on an person like in the illustration above of a drug nut who will be forced to prosecute in unsafe activities because of favoritism by the people around him/her.

It may besides function as an illustration to other persons to avoid perpetrating offenses sing the disapprobation involved after transporting out the offense ( Becker. 1964 ) . Victims of this theory can besides go victims of ego fulfilled prophesy. Because of the perceptual experience that the society has on these persons. they may get down to alter their behaviour to that which the society has labeled them to hold either consciously or unconsciously. An illustration is a homosexual person.

Bing a homophile may non hold an consequence on an individual’s professional life. but if his co-workers become cognizant of that fact. it may be hard for the said individual to comfortably work hence his work will besides endure as a consequence. Poor consequences in the work topographic point have been brought about by favoritism that an person has received from his co-workers because of the label of a “homosexual” that he had acquired. Although the persons may be determined to make things right. it may be hard to stay by that ( Becker. 1963 ) .

Although this theory may convey about positive influences in society such that others may larn from victims. it makes victims to be more aberrant. This could be because of deficiency of support from the persons around the victims doing life more intolerable for them forcing them further into offense. Mentions Becker. H. S. ( 1963 ) . Foreigners: labeling theory. New York. New york: The Free Press Becker. H. S. ( 1964 ) . The Other Side: Positions on Deviance. New York. New york: The Free Press