Gattaca – Why Vincent Has Exceeded His Potential

Gattaca is a science fiction film written and directed by Andrew Niccol. It is about a man’s struggle to follow his dream despite being pre-determined by the society in which he lives to not be able to achieve it. Gattaca shows that people can in fact exceed the potential that society and their genes place on them. This is seen in the characters of Vincent and Director Joseph who both exceed their expected potential. Director Joseph’s claim that humans cannot exceed their potential when referring to the navigators at Gattaca is clearly false because Vincent and has infact exceeded his potential.

Vincent is concieved naturally without the help of genetic engineering technology which gives geneticists the ability to choose, what genes they want to keep in the fetus and what genes they want to eliminate based on the parent’s choice and budget. Because he is concieved naturally which is considered an unorthodox form of reproduction by Vincent’s society, he is born with a high probability of many genetic problems and defects such as manic depression, attention deficit disorder, heart disorder, myopia and is born with a life expectancy of 30. years. As Vincent grows older he falls in love with the cosmos and decides to pursue a career in space but is quickly rebuked by his parents because of his inferior genetic characteristics specifically his heart disorder. Despite this negative feedback from his parents he decides to apply at Gattaca hoping that he won’t be discriminated against because of his genetic profile. However Vincent’s hope shatters as his application is declined, and is forced to work as a cleaner at Gattaca.

When his fellow workmate asks him why he cleans the screen immacutely he responds arrogantly by saying “If the glass is clean, it’ll be easier for you to see me when im on the other side of it”. Because he is not following his dream, Vincent decides to become a ‘barrowed ladder’ which is a person who uses the genetic identity of another for a purpose such as getting a particular job or in Vincent’s case getting into Gattaca. Vincent borrows the indentity of Jerome Morrow a professional swimmer born genetically engineered up to perfection.

Jerome has been hit by a moving vechicle which has paralyzed him from the waist down and thus making him unable to swim anymore. Jerome Morrow supplies Vincent with blood, urine, hair and skin samples so that he is able to get into Gattaca. Vincent passes the interview which is a urine test, and quickly becomes one of Gattaca’s elite navigators and achieves his dream of going to space, despite being born with genes that pre-determined him to be lower and inferior member of society, he manages to chieve the impossible – getting into a prestigious space academy and achieves his dream of becoming a space navigator.

Vincent however is not the only one who has exceeded his genetic potential. In the society in which Vincent lives, the elite or the people with the perfect genome are considered to be not only genetically perfect but also morally perfect. An example of this is depicted vividly in the movie when Vincent’s eyebrow sample containing invalid genes is found near the crime of the murderer mission director. Vincent is quickly regarded as the main suspect in the crime simply because is an invalid – a person born naturally through sexual intercourse.

The assumption that is made is that people who are valids or people who have “perfect” genes cannot commit an imperfect immoral act such as murder and therefore the main suspect has to be by definition an invalid. This assumption however is false because the person responsible for the murder turns out to be Director Joseph himself. Director Joseph is a good example of a person who exceeds his potential by comiting an act of murder.

Before Joseph is convincted of murder and while he was being questioned he told the detectives that “There isn’t a violent bone in my body” which is a classic manifestation of what how Vincent’s society views people with perfect genes as morally perfect people. Because Direct Joseph has in a sense rebelled against his genes (assuming that morality is a genetic characteristic) he has exceeded his potential and proves that ‘perfect’ genes does not necessarily equal high rectitude.

In conclusion, the film Gattaca shows that people can and do exceed their potential. This is seen in the characters of Director Joseph and Vincent who both exceed the potential that society has given them. Vicent exceed his potential by getting into Gattaca even though he is born genetically inferior and considered a lower class member of society while Director Joseph exceeds his potential by commiting the act of murder which is not expected and not ‘programmed’ in his genes.

Philippine Literature


Breaking Bad News to Family and Friends

Assessment item 3: Reflective Journal Part B – Death & Dying; Breaking bad news & SIDS 5/9/2011 Word count 500 ? Health professionals have the task of informing family and friends of their loved ones death or terminal illnesses this process occurs daily in the pre hospital environment, emergency departments and doctors rooms. A Sudden, unexpected death or impending death is a crisis for the patient family and emergency medical staff.

The emergency clinician has multiply responsibilities when dealing with the challenge of death or dying patients these including the physiological needs of the patient, family and medical staff (Gary & Wasserberger 1986). Deaths is a part of life. Most deaths that occur in the pre hospital environment will be beyond the ability of the EMS provider to prevent. Dealing with death is one of the most profound challenges an EMS provider will face (Soreff, & Cadigan 2003).

Disclosing the bad news is difficult and most professionals who have the task of delivering bad news do it badly there is no training manuals for these circumstances and every situation is different. The people who broke the news included doctors, nurses and the police. Police were thought to be the most sympathetic; doctors and nurses the least (Finlay, 1991). As an ambulance officer, I have attended many patients with terminals illnesses and have had the tasks of dealing with sudden death.

My first actions will normally include dealing with the clinical side of the case and leaving my senior most experienced partner with the family’s physiological care. When I have found myself looking after the family in crisis and on reflection, I find myself going thru the processes of what occurs next with the family, the attendance of police, doctors and funeral directors. Each case I have attended is different and requires a different approach and thou we read documents and study on the best practice each case plays out in its own way.

First impressions are crucial as a representative of emergency services you are granted a certain amount of the public’s trust at each new scene. You have to earn the rest by putting the patient or the family’s if the patient is deceased at ease by letting them know you are on their side you respect their comments and you want to help (Bledsoe, Porter, & Cherry 2006). Understanding my own emotions and personal growth with in pre-hospital care and dealing with death and dying patients has forced me to undergo and develop a respect for death and how it effect people in different ways.

Thru ongoing study and experience on the job I challenge myself everyday to arm myself with knowledge and develop skills to prepare myself with the inevitable tasks and cases involving death and dying patients. Studies show evidence that good communication skills are a prerequisite of patient care, acquisition of these skills are something we develop as we gain experience in our respective field of medicine (Del Mar, & Henderson 1997).

Forming a relationship with a person in a crisis may be particularly difficult; the routine elements of etiquette still need to be observed. You should introduce yourself to the patient and or relatives and friends. It’s worth obtaining some information during the conversation if possible. what the patient or family are concerned about, who is related to whom, what they already know, history leading up until the arrival of EMS and most importantly what the news might mean to the family, specifically when deal with sudden death (Del Mar, & Henderson 1997).

On reflection I have actively chosen to arm myself with qualities such as warmth and unconditional positive regard, empathy and genuineness to help me provide a professional positive experience for each of the patients I attend as an advocate for the ambulance service. References Bledsoe, B. E. , Porter, R. S. & Cherry, R. A. (2006). Therapeutic communications. In Paramedic care, Principles & Practice: Introduction to advanced prehospital care (2nd ed. ). (pp. 464-480). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Brady, Pearson, Prentice Hall. Del Mar, C. & Henderson, M. (1997).

Communicating bad news to patients and relatives. Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. London: Tavistock Publications. Ordog, G. j. & Wasserberger, J. (1986). Dealing with sudden death of the emergency patient. Canadian family physician, Vol 32, 797-802. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2327621/pdf/canfamphys00194-0003. pdf Sanders, M. J. (2001). Mosby’s paramedic textbook. (2nd ed. ). St. Louis: Mosby-Elsevier. Soreff, S. M. & Cadigan, R. T. (2003). EMS Street Strategies: Effective patient interaction. Clifton Park NY: Delmar Learning.

Philippine Education

Philippine Education: Child Labor in Relation to Education Gabrielle Campos Veloso Dr. Elineth Suarez Coomunication in English II 23 January 2009 Gabrielle Campos Veloso Dr. Suarez Communication in English II 23 January 2009 Philippine Education: Child Labor in Relation to Education The Philippines faces the issue of child labor because the state has failed to exercise the proper actions in order to take control of the situation. It has, like the US, set a minimum age of employment under the circumstances that the work hours be limited and the undertakings not be hazardous (DOL).

The minimum age of employment in the Philippines has been set at age 15(IPEC- Philippines). Yet although certain policies have been made to improve the condition of child labor in the Philippines, none of these involve the educational requirements of the child. It is evident that the educational sector in terms of child labor has been neglected, as seen in studies indicating that the education of these child laborers have been placed in jeopardy. Statistics show that 41. 1 % in Angono and 56. % in Taytay among the working youth are out of school. These people are working in agriculture and manufacturing services, researched by Del Rosario in 1989. Also, KDC recorded in 1994 that all children in Navotas, Metro Manila, Quezon City and Bulacan involved in prostitution, domestic work, a sardine’s factory and a textile factory are out of school as well. (Bonga 94-95) Oosternout observed that in Cebu, during the year 1986, “50 percent of the males who dropped out of school after grade four and five were found in Muro-Ami ships. The employment of children by the Muro-Ami could be the cause of the increased number of student dropouts in that same year (Bonga 100). Also, as studied by Orense in 1992, children in Masbate work everyday of the week for over ten hours a day (Bonga 97) and according to Magno (1986), most of the child prostitutes or vendors in the Philippines work at least eight hours a day every day of the week (Bonga 92). These facts hint the possible causes of why a number of students, in public schools, especially, are unable to attend their classes often, if they even attend school at all.

Although the working hours are said to have been limited since 2006, these child laborers could go to the extent of working under more than one employer, just to attain a decent income. Therefore, these children are still employed nonetheless, and their education suffers for it (speaking in terms of work that circulates throughout the school year and not just a summer job). Even among Member countries of the OECD, which is said to be a class of well developed countries, only the US population from ages 15 to 19 find it possible to be employed full-time while studying (Beyond 14).

The inability to balance one’s job and schooling forces the students to pick between the two, and, choosing the more urgent need, these students are most likely to drop their studies to pursue their labor. Their decision is also influenced by the parents of these students who find it difficult to sustain their family with their income alone. As a result, some of them turn to their children to enter a world of labor in order to help support the family financially. It is said that students who have left their schooling to enter the world of the paid labor force are ill-equipped and under-qualified to meet standards of the economic world. Compulsory 13) I believe that the state of the Philippines should not permit individuals under eighteen years of age to be employed in any labor whatsoever during the school year, without a high school diploma. This will be more beneficial to each of these individuals and to the country as a whole. First of all, I chose the age of eighteen to be the minimum age because at is at this age wherein an individual is expected to have a sense of understanding on what his or her purpose and civil duties might be. It is at this age wherein one is ‘legalized’ and is trusted by society to responsibilities such as career, vocational studies and voting.

They are considered to be adults who are supposed to know what is expected of them by society and that is why I feel that these people, regardless if they have accomplished secondary school or not, should have the right to be employed if they wish. Those under eighteen years of age however, such as the young people from ages twelve to about seventeen, are at a crucial stage wherein they are easily influenced and should be educated properly in order to instill in them the knowledge that will enable them to keep up with society.

It is at this stage that one reflects on his or her person and future. (Compulsory 13) That is why guidance and a certain level of education, in my opinion, an accomplished secondary schooling, is necessary for those who wish to embark on the paid labor force before the age of eighteen. This is because under education not only affects the lives of the laborers who find themselves unqualified and unready to take on careers, but it also affects the economy negatively because it is being deprived of well-equipped, qualified and well-educated laborers . (Compulsory 9)

If even those who have completed their compulsory education are having trouble finding permanent and decent paying jobs because of under-qualification (Beyond 37), what more those who haven’t? Among the Member countries of the OECD, majority of these countries are burdened with the case of the youth who have terminated their studies embarking on the paid labor force having trouble seeking and maintaining their first job. (Beyond 35) This is because, according to Terranti (2002), the economy is in demand more for mental than physical labor (Farrell and Fenwick 14).

Most child laborers undertake physical labor rather than mental labor because they are not mentally skilled enough. Yet what will become of them after they have left their studies to do physical labor, thus leaving them under-qualified? Eventually they will get older and weaker and their employers will seek out younger and fitter child laborers to replace them. These people will be left with nowhere to turn to because the more stable jobs require the mental skill that they have forgone the moment they decided to neglect their education to become a child laborer.

That is why it is getting harder and harder to afford to be under-educated in the ever-evolving world of economics. “Developing countries risk being further marginalized in the competitive global knowledge economy because their education systems are not equipping laborers with the skills they need. ” (Farrell and Fenwick 14) If the education systems are already said to be insufficient enough to equip the people with the intelligence needed to cope with the fast paced globalization, what more for those who embark on their careers without finishing their secondary school at all?

They are most likely to end up with temporary, low paying jobs, and their under qualification and lack of skills training will cause them career instability, most probably for the rest of their lives unless they decide to go back to their studies or skills training in order to be better qualified. I feel that if the youth does not jump into the world of labor without the proper secondary and preferably tertiary education, the country will flourish as a whole socially, politically, economically and obviously intellectually.

Studies have proven that countries that prioritize the education of its citizens have had the most well developed economies. For example, among the reason behind the economic success behind the East Asian Tigers is that their governments give much focus on strengthening the educational aspect. Because their educational system is given much attention, they are well-equipped to tackle the changing world and globalization (Mok and Tan 1).

The people will be better informed of the new scientific and technological ideas needed to boost the development of out economy and apply these concepts to their given fields. Although some countries such as Pakistan and Uganda with low income rates have low primary school participation (22 percent and 32 percent, respectively), the Four Tigers, which also had low income rates back in 1960, had a participation level that ranged from 57 to 67 percent. It is said that the these countries rose from their economic state because of the well-educated citizens and their growth in skill formation. Ashton 1) This just proves that the Philippines too, with low income rates as well, can afford to focus on education and not neglect it in order to emerge from its economic situation. According to Barro-Lee’s human capital dataset on the average years of schooling attained by the population over fifteen years of age, by 1990, an increased amount of people have attained over nine years of education in South Korea and Hong Kong, which are now at level with the well developed OECD countries because of this (Ashton 1).

The Meiji government, initially focused on the establishment of universal primary education, has now been giving more attention to the development of vocational education in order to mold skilled laborers. It is believed that the focus on educational development of the government is among the key factors that contribute to the very developed Japanese industry (Bowman 5). What do all these countries have in common? An educated people and a government that supports the need a higher educational level.

This is especially important before one embarks on his or her career. According to Muhammad Shamsul Huq in his book; Education, Manpower and Development in South and Southeast Asia, “…The education sector influences economic and social development by inducing change in technology through the systematic application of scientific and other knowledge as a consequence of their division and differentiation, and in values and attitudes to provide the necessary incentives for increasing productive efficiency. (Huq 53) The World Bank supports a higher education by stating in 2003 that, “By improving people’s ability to function as members of their communities, education and training increase social cohesion, reduce crime and improve income allocation” (Farrell and Fenwick 17). It is not only the individual lives of the people that will be improved if those under eighteen years of age will have attained a high school degree by the time they enter into work, but many other sectors of the country as well, because the laborers will be better skilled and better informed on their civil responsibilities.

I feel that with my proposal, child labor will be finally put to an end because those under 18 years of age, which most would consider as the country’s youth, will either be forced to finish high school before working or not work at all and continue their education instead until they have reached the age of legalization. So either way, the youth will be better informed by their educators in their either complete or lengthened course of study. An educated people is the core of the country’s political and economic stability because these people are made aware if their civil responsibilities and work towards the good of their country. Bilodeau at al. 62) Therefore, those who are properly educated in such aspects should have the right to work and contribute to the country’s welfare. The last thing this country needs are people- under educated children, who are not informed of the common good of their country seeking out whatever job they can find weather it be illegal, demeaning, hazardous or hindering to their studies. They do not work towards the development of their country, but towards their own insufficient income. An income that can never compare to how much they would be receiving in the future if they had pursued their studies.

And this way, as mentioned, they would not only be receiving, but contributing, as well. I believe that only when individuals can actually contribute to the country and are set in doing so, the nation can flourish. The Director General of UNESCO said in 1952 that, “Ignorance is one of the factors in the tragic vicious circle of under-production, under-development, and endemic disease” (Bilodeau et al. 147). I believe that it is the state’s responsibility to take control and to fight this ignorance. Works Cited Ashtom, David and Green, Fancis and James, Donna and Sung, Johnny.

Education and Training for Development in East Asia. London:Routledge, 1999. Beyond Compulsory Schooling. France:OECD,1976. Bilodeau, Pathammavong and Quang Hong. Cumpolsory Education in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Paris:United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,1955. Bonga, Melinda and Del Rosario, Rosario. Child Labor in the Philippines. Manila:UP,2000. Bowman, Mary Jean. Educational Choice and Labor Markets in Japan. Chicago and London:The University of Chicago,1981. Compulsory Schooling in a Changing World.

France:OECD,1983. Farrell, Lesley and Fenwick, Tara. World Yearbook of Education 2007. USA and Canada:Routledge,2007. Huq, Muhammad Shamsal. Education, Manpower, and Development in South and Southeast Asia. USA; Praeger Publishers Inc, 1975. IPEC-Philippines. Child Labor; Related Laws. 26 Sept. 2006. ILO. 22 Jan. 2008 . Mok, Ka-Ho and Tan, Jason. Globalization and Marketization in Education. UK:Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. 2004. US Department of Labor. Youth and Labor: Age Requirements. 11 Dec. 2008. DOL. 11 Dec. 2008 .

Benefits of Studying Abroad

Jinq Kok Jessie Borgman ENG 1050 July 31, 2011 Benefits of studying abroad Education is a part of learning that has always been a part of our life and it is a never ending process. As education is a building block in our lives, we are willing to invest deeply into our education. Good education will bring us far with what they have to offer for our very own future find out . Currently in this modern day society, many of our universities and colleges in our own home country have grown tremendously and improved in all sectors and field. Some feel that it is sufficient to get an education in our home country and graduate which leads to finding a job after.

Yet many also have the idea of studying abroad as a consideration. Does studying abroad really benefit us? Well, studying abroad does have some advantages and disadvantages. However in an open view of studying abroad, the advantage does trump the disadvantages. Mainly, the disadvantage that comes with studying abroad is personal such as the feeling of being alone and away from home. One may say that studying abroad is much more costly compared to studying locally and with the same education one will get, it is actually unnecessary spending.

However, we often forget that education is not expenditures but it is an investment that comes with a long term benefit or return in the long run. The benefits that we gained from studying abroad are priceless and can’t be placed a price on. In addition, the knowledge and experience which we have gained while being abroad would forever be with us and nobody can take it away from us. Among the benefits of studying abroad is the opportunity to be more independent when they are out of their comfort zone at home.

Based on a survey and research done by International Education for Students (IES), it was shown that a majority of the students who studied abroad realized that it is a catalyst to increase one’s maturity and self-independence. Many of us cannot deny that we are somehow spoilt when we are in our comfort zone, where we are always spoon-fed by our supporting members of the family. Apart from that, students who studies abroad tend to be more organized in their schedule and are forced to ensure all assignments for school and housework around the house is accomplished.

It have also been said that a majority of the students who studied abroad also tend to be more confident. This is because, they are faced with different situations and scenarios in their studying life which they have not faced alone, making them much bolder in decision making on their own. Students would be exposed to different cultures apart from their own; they would develop a wider perspective on the country they are accommodating and the international perspective on the world.

Many people from different countries nowadays have different views on different countries due to the misguidance from the mass media through movies and television shows. If we rely solely on education at our home country, we would not be exposed to the cultural diversities that differ from our own. Also, different countries differ in their teaching method, for example, majority of the European based education emphasizes more on the theory of a particular subject, while the American based education focuses on a more practical training and application of theories learnt in class.

This would help students to decide which path to choose for their future, as no two students are the same. Some are more practical in their studies, and some are excellent students with the study and understanding on the theory of the subject. With the knowledge learnt abroad, we can always imply and train the people of our home country. The introduction of new technology brought from a different country back to our home country would benefit both us as a student and help improve the economy of our country.

Studying abroad can be a great resume builder which would most certainly attracts the interest of the employer when they are reviewing the resume. Apart from that, students who have studied abroad are able to adapt much quicker to new surroundings which helps with the increase of international market businesses (Sullivan). It is with this sense of adaptation by students, that companies are pursuing and in the run to hire future employees with this criteria. In addition to the current limited economy suffered by many companies, they are now venturing and expanding to international market.

Therefore, increasing the chances for students who study abroad as they have a wider knowledge on the international market including, language skills that one may have obtained during their stay abroad. An individual who have capability on conversing fluently in a foreign language in a foreign land would impress and place confidence of both the employers and business partners upon that individual. Learning an additional language apart from our mother tongue, would show that the applicant is initiated to learn another language and would prove to be useful in the field.

Studying abroad does not bound us to only studying in lecture rooms and classes, as there is always freedom for individual to travel and explore all the historical sites and attractions that the hosting country has to offer. By staying in our home country, we may or may not have the time to travel around the world while we are studying, but being in a foreign land, just by being in our university area and exploring the surroundings would already be an adventure.

Being a student in a foreign land supplies us with benefits, such as cheaper travel for us students with a tight budget who wants to see the world and what it has to offer. The world is still filled with all the wonders and mysteries that await our coming of seeking an adventure to explore all this wonderful gifts that have been given to us. Going on a travel during studies is one of the best experiences as we are more outgoing in nature and still excited to explore around.

In conclusion, with all the advantages that have been spoken off, one would still hesitate about leaving the comfort of home with various thinking in their mind such as financial and fear of being alone in a far away land. But many of this is small matters that have a solution to it, such as financial studying abroad. Many universities are attracting students to come and study in their universities; therefore they are providing more financial aid and scholarship to students who are serious in pursuing a degree with them and gaining knowledge that they have to offer.

However, we must take that one step of faith to make a decision and stand up on our own to pursue something better. Being abroad actually help moulds an individual into a more confident and outspoken person who cannot be built through the aid of classrooms and lecturers but through the lifestyle one chooses. Apart from that, being abroad widens our relationship with people with different backgrounds and cultural beliefs. In addition, by making more friends outside our circle, we enlarge our chances by knowing connections for a job offer in the future.

Reference Sullivan, Erin. (2009). “Considering the Reasons to Study Abroad. ” Dummies. com. Retrieved from http://www. dummies. com/how-to/content/considering-the-reasons-to-study-abroad. html Dwyer, Mary M. , Peters, Courtney K. (2004). “The Benefits of Study Abroad. ” Transitionsabroad. com. Retrieved from http://www. transitionsabroad. com/publications/magazine/0403/benefits_study_abroad. shtml Curran, Sheila J. (2009). “Career Advantages of Studying Abroad. ” Goingglobal. com. Retrieved from http://old. goinglobal. com/hot_topics/general_curran_abroad. asp

Gwen Harwood

Gwen Harwood Essay: Why is Gwen Harwood’s poetry still read today? The relevancy of timeless themes and issues throughout Gwen Harwood’s poetry is why it is till read in the modern genre.. Harwood’s emphasis on the connection between themes and issues in both modern and past contexts, makes it appropriate for students to study as the appreciation and understanding of her work expands. Themes such as family and relationships, life and death that Harwood displays in the texts of Mother Who Gave Me Life, Violets and At Mornington conveys the idea, that we still need to come to terms with the same issues today as they will always be around.

Harwood’s outlook on family and relationships is still relevant today. She focuses on specific aspects of her life, however it can cause obstacles due to time passing ‘Mother Who gave me Life’ shows how Harwood expresses her love and compassion towards her mother, and the influences she had in her life, showing its relevance in today’s world. In some interpretations Harwood focus’s on Romanticism referring to nature in ‘thresholds of ice, rock, fire’ as she describes humankind’s evolution.

However in my opinion the psychoanalytical interpretation dominates this poem because she explains the love and duties of a mother’s sequence, ‘The Sister’ referring to all women are sisters, shown as a sequence of life through memories and thoughts. Harwood shows respect towards her mother in the metaphor ‘It is not for my children I walk… It is for you’ emphasising the centuries of women through time. The literary, critic Patricia Makeham believes this poem reflects on ‘understanding of herself through descendants whilst acquiring skills of life’ through ‘wild daughters becoming woman’ and the noun ‘wisdom’, this I comply with.

Harwood appreciates her mother’s qualities of life in recognising an unbroken chain of woman’ as a symbol of family, this relationship of daughter to mother is still strongly bonded in today’s society and so is a strong reason as to why it is still read today. Likewise ‘The Violets’ present a reminiscence of Harwood’s childhood, similar ‘ To Mother who Gave me Life’, using the violets colours white and blue, to symbolise innocence and family love. The use of the Romanticism once again is evident in the alliteration, ‘frail melancholy flowers’ which symbolises how precious her memories towards her family are.

However I feel a Psychoanalytical view is more dominant, because of her memories, we definitely can interpret Harwood’s mother, in the use of a personal pronoun “I ran to find my mother” emphasises Harwood’s reliance upon her mother in reference to her journey (life). Her childhood is idealistic with warm domestic images using the simile ‘like ice-cream’ to refer this memory as a happy one ‘half asleep… carried me down the stairs’ the care and affection shown by her mother, and how the purity and hope of the past is always recovered by imagination.

I agree with critic William Sumen, as he says ‘Harwood uses nature (violets) to convey her past memories, of how fragile her childhood was’, this makes Harwood’s work worthy of study as majority of human society treasure their childhood memories. Through examining Harwood’s work she recognises the processes that are ongoing throughout life, with eventually accepting but never understanding death, relating to similar questions about life. At Mornington’ presents a poem which changing tense, past, present and future to represent time passing and the changes within self, the processes of life and death. Harwood once again uses a Romantic approach towards life referring to nature ‘the seasons of Autumn’ linking to the plant cycle where they perish, along with describing everything in the poem that has life as the adjective ‘quick’ reinforcing life is short ‘the day-bright flowers/quick of Autumn grasses’.

I on the other hand believe the psychoanalytical interpretation is dominant in this poem as we can analyse love and time passing through memories in the line ‘stand two friends of middle age by your parents’ grave in silence’ represented by a sombre tone highlighting the inevitability of ageing and dying again evident in the metaphor of ‘avenues of the dead’ this reminding us of the setting.

I agree with Critic Alison Hoddinot and how she interprets Harwood’s poems ‘ she repeatedly addresses the mystery of human beings through imagination and experiences as she looks for a definition of morality and limitations of flesh’. Harwood’s use of altering tense’ through the poem defines time passing however this poem is still relevant today as people still question and treasure life itself.

Similarly ‘Mother who gave me life’ is a poem Harwood has written with respect to her dead mother, an ode and concentrates on the changes of human experiences from life to death. Harwood uses the Romantic nature to describe life through the metaphor and emotion of pain ‘anguish seasons burning backward in time’ through generations. However observing the poem psychoanalytically I once again identified this as Harwood’s dominant view by revisiting memories of her mother through the 1900’s as time passes to explain love and duties of mothers.

Using the material ‘fabric’ through the simile and symbolic imagery ‘your crumpled face like fine threadbare linen’ referring to age and illness and later becomes metamorphosed into ‘embroided linen’ emphasising upon the mother’s life in terms of the fabric that has been embrioded by memories. I acknowledge Critic Patricia Makeham when she states Harwood is a modern poet, ‘she uses personal experiences to engage and to draw attention in realising life and death through powerful imagery’, and this is identified in the use of the metaphor ‘fabric’ in time passing.

The analysis of holding onto things that are precious in mortal life through memories, is what has made the poem universal as today’s generation still idolise their mothers. We still read the poetry of Gwen Harwood because of its universal themes in relation to humans of all ages ‘worrying’ about love, death, life, relationships and times. This is what Harwood speaks about specifically in a psychoanalytical interpretation by revisiting memories, I can relate too making her poetry relevant.

The Lehman Brother’s Bankruptcy: a Test of Market Efficiency

Allied Academies International Conference page 43 THE LEHMAN BROTHER’S BANKRUPTCY: A TEST OF MARKET EFFICIENCY Christine Pichardo, Longwood University Frank Bacon, Longwood University ABSTRACT This study tests the market efficiency theory by examining the effect of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy on several brokerage firms, as well as the overall market. It would suggest that these brokerage firms would occur negative stock prices following the announcement of the Lehman Bankruptcy. For this study, I analyzed 15 firms’ stock price’s risk adjusted rate of return before and after September 15, 2008, some with larger assets in Lehman than others.

Results show stock prices dropping approximately 24 days prior to the announcement and continuing to drop for several weeks. This supports the semi-strong market theory; which suggest that the market anticipated the collapse of Lehman. INTRODUCTION When Lehman Brothers collapsed, they had about $60 billion in toxic bad debts, and had assets of $639 billion against debts of $613 billion; making it the largest investment bank to collapse since the 1990’s. With a bankruptcy of this capacity, you would expect the stock market to take some sort of hit.

This study examines the market’s reaction to this event by analyzing the risk adjusted return of selected brokerage firms’ stock prices around the event date of September 15, 2008. LITERATURE REVIEW The concern for Lehman Brothers started as early as March, with the collapse of Bear Sterns. The recent collapse of large investment banks are the result of the sub prime mortgage crisis, which actually started about a year ago. That’s when the first signs that the soaring U. S. housing market was weakening.

Interest rates began to increase, the economy weakened, which turned indebted homeowners into financial turmoil sparking foreclosures and rapid drops in house prices. Lehman Brothers were considered one of Wall Street’s biggest dealers in fixed-interest trading and were heavily invested in securities linked to the sub-prime mortgage market. They lost $14 billion in the past 18 months after being forced to take huge write downs on the value of those investments; which ultimately lead them to file for bankruptcy. When Lehman collapsed, it sent a rippling affect across the globe, exposing how interconnected nternational markets have become. One of the largest companies affected were AIG, who backed a majority of credit default swaps by Lehman Brothers. So, when Lehman collapsed, AIG and many other banks, firms and individuals felt the pain. Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1 New Orleans, 2009 page 44 Allied Academies International Conference September 15, 2008 has been proclaimed Wall Street’s worst day in seven years. The Dow Jones Industrial average lost more than 500 points, more than 4%, which is the steepest fall since the day after the September 11th attacks.

DATA AND METHODOLOGY This study includes 15 investment firms, about 9 with a significant stake in Lehman, and 6 others. The purpose of this study was to see how fast and how much of an impact the bankruptcy of one of the largest investment firms affected the stock prices of those 15 firms. I analyzed the 15 firm’s prices, and the corresponding Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (S&P 500) from 180 days before the event date of September 15, 2008 and 30 days after. To test the affect of the bankruptcy on the 15 firms stock prices, and to test the semi-strong market efficiency theory; I used the following hypothesis.

H10: The risk adjusted return of the stock price of the sample of investment firms is not significantly affected by this type of information on the event date. H11: The risk adjusted return of the stock price of the sample of investment firms is significantly negatively affected by this type of information on the event date. H20: The risk adjusted return of the stock price of the sample of the investment firms is not significantly affected by this type of information around the event date as defined by the event period.

H21: The risk adjusted return of the stock price of the sample of investment firms is significantly negatively affected around the event date as defined by the event period This study uses the standard risk adjusted event study methodology to test the stock market’s response to the Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy on September 15, 2008. Using Yahoo Finance, I found the historical stock prices for the 15 firms and the S&P 500 index during the event study period. The event study period involved 180 days prior to the event and 30 days after, using day 0 as the event date.

Using those prices, I calculated the holding period returns for the companies (R) and the corresponding S&P 500 index (Rm) for each day using the formula: Current daily stock return= (current day close price – previous day close price) previous day close price Current daily index return= (S&P current close- S&P previous close) S&P previous close A regression analysis was then performed using the actual daily return of each company (dependent variable) and the corresponding S&P500 index daily return (independent variable) over the pre-event period day -180 to -31 period prior to the event period of day –30 to day +30) to obtain the alpha (the intercept) and the beta (standardized coefficient). Table 1 shows alphas and betas for each firm. New Orleans, 2009 Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1 Allied Academies International Conference Table 1 Alpha’s and Beta’s of Sample Firms Firm FSLBX FSVBX SHRAX YCVTX EKNGX IMEIX SLCVX QVGIX PSEFX VFINX BX C JPM BRO GS Alpha -14. 585314 -4. 318129 -23. 0695 -4. 098515 1. 190605 -4. 68900 -6. 69768 2. 196207 -4. 72506 169. 7731 -5. 853405 -9. 375442 27. 97969 17. 96228 -60. 47504 Beta . 052077 . 007655 . 097596 . 013841 . 002005 . 037221 . 015906 . 009090 . 010639 -. 039547 . 0174029 . 0232386 . 0098513 . 0010140 . 0176874 page 45 In order to get the normal expected returns, the risk-adjusted method was used. The expected return for each stock, for each day of the event period from -30 to +30, was calculated as: E(R) = alpha + Beta x (Rm), where Rm is the return on the market (S&P 500 index). Then, the Excess return (ER) was calculated as the Actual Return (R) minus the Expected Return E(R).

Average Excess Returns (AER) were calculated (for each day from -30 to +30) by averaging the excess returns for all the firms for given day: AER = Sum of Excess Return for given day / n, where n = number of firms in sample (15). Also, daily cumulative average excess returns or Cars was calculated by adding the AERs for each day from -30 to +30. The graph of CAER was plotted for the event period day -30 to day +30. QUANTITATIVE TESTS AND RESULTS Did the market react to the Lehman Brother Bankruptcy? Was the information surrounding the event significant? If the information surrounding the event suggests new, significant information Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1 New Orleans, 2009 page 46 Allied Academies International Conference hen we would expect the average excess daily returns as shown in Exhibit 1 to be significantly different from 0 and differ from the cumulative average excess returns. If a significant risk adjusted difference is observed, then this information did significantly impact the firm’s stock price, as hypothesized. To statistically test for a difference in the risk adjusted daily average excess returns and the cumulative average excess daily returns (day -30 to +30), a paired t-test was used. The result of these tests supports the alternative hypotheses H11 and H21, and concludes that the risk adjusted return of the stock price of the sample firms is indeed significantly negatively affected around and on the event date.

How efficient was the market to this information? Does it support the weak, semi-strong or strong form of market efficiency theory? To test for this, I used the CAER (cumulative average excess return) to see if it was significantly different from zero and analyzed the graph between time and CAER. As shown in exhibit 2, there is evidence that the adjusted rate of return on stock prices began to decline approximately 24 days before the event date. This confirms the semi-strong market efficiency theory, and proves the market anticipated the bankruptcy with the negative decline in stock prices. EXHIBIT 1: Time vs. Average Expected Return New Orleans, 2009

Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1 Allied Academies International Conference page 47 EXHIBIT 2: Time vs. Cumulative Average Excess Returns CONCLUSIONS This study examined the effect of the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy on stock prices’ risk adjusted rate of return for 15 selected brokerage firms, with 9 having larger assets in Lehman. Statistical tests proved that the bankruptcy had indeed a negative impact on the risk adjusted rate of return for the 15 firms stock prices. Results show stock returns beginning to drop about 24 days or so prior to the event, which could also be exaggerated due to the economic crisis around that time.

However, the stock prices did significantly negatively fall around the event date, which supports the semi-strong market efficiency theory. Months after the event, there has continued to be a ripple effect in the market. Besides Lehman Brothers, other investment firms have been affected; among several others, Merrill Lynch was taken over by Bank of America and AIG had to be bailed out by the fed. The impact of the credit crisis is still being felt months later. REFERENCES Dolan, Karen. “Lehman, AIG, Merrill: Which Funds Are Most Affected? ” Morningstar, inc. 15. September 2008. 17 October 2008. http://news. morningstar. com/articlenet/article. aspx? d=253125#hide Fama, E. F. (1970). “Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work. ” Journal of Finance, Volume 25 (May), 383-417. http://stuwww. uvt. nl/fat/files/library/Fama,%20Eugene%20F. %20%20Efficient%20Capital%20Markets,%20A%20Review%20of%20Theory%20and%20Empirical%20Wor k%20(1970). pdf Graeme Wearden, David Teather, and Jill Treanor. “Banking crisis: Lehman Brothers files for bankruptcy protection. ” Guardian. co. uk. 15 September 2008. 5 December 2008. http://www. guardian. co. uk/business/2008/sep/15/lehmanbrothers. creditcrunch Henderson, Marshall D. and Bacon, Frank. “Stock Market Efficiency and the 9/11 Terrorist Attack. ”

Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1 New Orleans, 2009 page 48 http://www. finance. yahoo. com http://www. investopedia. com Madura, Jeff. Financial Markets and Institutions. 8th Edition. 2008 Allied Academies International Conference Maich, Steve. “Edge of Disaster: Fall of Lehman Brothers and Merrill Lynch”. Macleans. 2008. 5 December 2008. http://vnweb. hwwilsonweb. com. proxy. longwood. edu/hww/results/getResults. jhtml? _DARGS=/hww/results /results_common. jhtml. 20#record_2 Ross, Westerfield, and Jaffe. Corporate Finance. 8th Edition. 2008 New Orleans, 2009 Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Volume 14, Number 1

Phylum Annelida

Phylum Annelida L. annelleus = little ring Annelida have bodies consisting of many essentially similar ringlike segments (somites or metameres). This segmentation usually shows in both external and internal features, including muscles, nerves, and circulatory, excretory and reproductive organs. Phylum Annelida This phylum is divided into three classes: Oligochaeta: Earthworms – Most earthworms and their equals are inhabitants of damp soil and fresh waters. Hirudinea: Leeches – The leeches are found mainly in fresh water or on moist ground.

Polychaeta: Bristle-worms – The marine worms are found chiefly in close vicinity of the shore. •OLIGOCHAETA = Earthworms •HIRUDINEA = Leeches •POLYCHAETA = Bristle-worms Some annelids are free-living, many inhabit burrows or dwell in tubes, some are commensals on other aquatic animals (few are ecto- or endoparasites), and many of the leeches attach to vertebrates. •Symmetry bilateral. Triploblastic. The body is elongate and usually conspicuously segmented both internally and externally. •Appendages are minute rodlike chitinous setae, little to many per somite. Polychaeta have fleshy tentacles on its head and has the setae situated on the lateral fleshy parapodia. Most species of the class Hirudinea lack setae. •The Body is covered by a thin moist cuticle over columnar epithelium containing unicellular gland cells and sensory cells. Both the body wall and the digestive canal has layers of circular and longitudinal muscles. The body cavity (coelom) is well developed (except in the leeches) and is divided by septa in the Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. •A complete digestive canal is present in a tubular shape, extending the whole length of the body. A closed circulatory system of longitudinal blood vessels with branches extending laterally in each segment. Dissolved hemoglobin and free amoebocytes are usually present in the blood plasma. Respiration occurs via the epidermis or through gills in some tube dweller species. •Excretory system consists of one pair of nephridia per segment(somite). Each of these nephridia removes waste from the coelom and bloodstream directly to the outside world. A nervous system is present with a pair of cerebral ganglia ( a brain) and connectives to a solid (double) midventral nerve cord extending the length of the body.

The midventral nerve cord is connected to pairs of lateral nerves in each segment. Sensory cells and organs for touch, taste and the perception of light is also present. •The sexes are united and the development in the case of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea are direct or the sexes are separate and the development includes a trocophore larval stage as with the Polychaeta. •Some species of Oligochaeta and Polychaeta reproduce asexually by budding. Earthworms have long, cylindrical body that is divided into similar segments.

The grooves that extend around the body of the worm show the arrangement of the segments. Earthworms have bilateral symmetry The first body segment is called the peristomium. The peristomium contains the mouth. Instead, they depend on their prostomium and sensory receptors in their skin to “feel” their way through the soil. The periproct is the last segment of an earthworm. Reference: •Hickman Jr. C. P. and et al. , 2007. Animal Diversity 4th edition. Boston: McGrawHill •http://www. naturewatch. ca/english/wormwatch/resources/anatomy. html

Impact of E-Commerce in a Small Medium Enterprise

SMEs are considered the fastest growing sector of electronic commerce, the growth of e-commerce is evidence of entrepreneurs’ rush to meet the high growing market demands. E-commerce is a strong mechanism for various types of enhancement within a company; it has the use of effective management and the transformation of rudimental business strategies which represent the paste system to a new e-economy which synthesizes a more sophisticated and visionary approach to business (Van Hooft and Stegwee, 2001) explanation . E-commerce permits extended firms to be interwoven (Van Hooft and Stegwee, 2001).

Owner managers that have the knowledge of the advantages tied to e-commerce and want to replicate these results, awareness and knowledge of e-commerce and its overall activities are very important (Kalakuta and Robinson, 2001; Local Futures Group, 2001; DTI, 2003). King and Clift (2000) debates that the letter “e” will soon be removed which means that e-commerce will be business as it is originally known. E-commerce involves knowing what the clients want. It involves using the internet, information and communication technology (ICT) to improve performance in all sphere of the business.

Most importantly, the key function is its vast interconnection and system interaction. The automation of e-commerce has witnessed the elimination of many unnecessary human functions (Follit, 2000). General improvement and efficiency due to quicker processing and a minimal problem is ultimately met in data processing and business transaction (follit, 2000). Subsequently, e-commerce permit businesses to communicate with clients more effectively and as a result this improve business performance, increased loyalty as well as increased gains and competitive advantage (Rodgers et al. , 2002).

Mcdonalds Case Study

Case Study #1 McDonalds’s “Senior’s” 08/07/2011 McDonalds “Seniors” Restaurant                                   Bridgett Bowen is the owner of a McDonalds restaurant that is open to public but recently the main clientele of the Bowens restaurant has been seniors. She would like to develop a marketing strategy that addresses the needs of her senior citizen patrons and also the regular everyday customer. However, she is looking for additional recommendations to improve her marketing mix.

It is important not to neglect senior citizens as they are an important part of the market and they have money to spend but at the same time young consumers are considered to be the main users of chain restaurants due to the reputation of most McDonald stores. If Bowens decides to only concentrate on her senior clientele, she seriously risks the future profitability and popularity of her business. These older customers are an orderly group and very friendly to anyone who comes in. Further, they are neater than most customers, and carefully clean up their tables before they leave.

Nevertheless, Suzanne is beginning to wonder if anything should be done about her growing non fast-food clientele. There is no crowding problem yet, during the time when the seniors like to come. But if the size of the senior citizen group continues to grow, crowding could become a problem. Further, Suzanne is concerned that her restaurant might come to be known as an old people restaurant which might discourage some younger customers. And if customers felt the restaurant was crowded, some might feel that they wouldnt get fast service.

On the other hand, a place that seems busy might be seen as a good place to go and a friendly place eat with family. I also think that no restaurant business will want their clients to stay for a long time without purchasing items on a consistent basis. Bridgett needs to develop a strategy where she will have a constant flow of buying consumers young and old. A secondary problem may be the title of the restaurant could be at risk. The fast food label may become a social restaurant, similar to a bar or lounge atmosphere. It may take on the name of the “old people’s restaurant”.

This will detour many of the younger customers and the customers who are coming to get the fast food service There is also a possibility that if she continues to concentrate on senior citizens they might monopolize the restaurant and younger generation would feel uncomfortable visiting a place filled with seniors. Mc Donald’s restaurant must accommodate more young customers as well as the older ones because of its notable services being offered worldwide, such as affordable meal price, comfortable and convenient place, and playground areas for children, also offering safe and healthy foods.

In addition, the idea of adding bingo to add to the excitement of the mornings for the seniors from nine to eleven a. m. may be a good idea to help add to the money flow of the seniors. Using the party room would accommodate up to 150 senior patrons and leave the main part of the restaurant open to other paying customers. She figures she could charge $5 per person for the two-hour period and run it with two underutilized employees which won’t cost the restaurant any extra money. The prizes would be coupons for purchases at her store and would amount to about two-thirds of the bingo receipts which will bring back into the store.

An Alternate solution would be to end the senior meal deal. If the deal attracts the crowd than the deal may slowly push the senior crowd away. That marketing deal would be in hopes to attract the younger crowd in which they may eat the more expensive meals. I would recommend that the low costing meal for the seniors would end somewhat earlier in the morning. By advertising that the offer is only good until nine a. m. then the seniors may hang around a shorter length of time. After nine passes then the seniors will become hungry again and may go home and go to sleep.