The People ‘s Republic of Bangladesh is a state in South Asia which became independent in 1971 after a glorious nine months of release war with Pakistan Army who killed three 1000000s Bangalees. Bangladesh literally means “ The Country of Bengal ” . Liing North of the Bay of Bengal, on land it borders India and Myanmar, and it is a close neighbour to China, Thailand, Nepal and Bhutan.
Bangladesh is surrounded by India in The West, North and North-East and Myanmar to the South-East. It is situated between 20034 ‘ and 26038 ‘ North Latitude and 88001 ‘ and 92041 ‘ East Longitude. It has an country of 147,570 sq. kilometer. and a population of about 140 million. It has a population denseness of 948 individuals per sq. km. , which is the highest in universe.
As the name “ The Country of Bengal ” suggests that Bangladesh is an ethnically homogenous state. Among the different cultural groups Bengalis 98A % and the balance are largely, Santhals, Chakmas, Garos, Biharis, Oraons and Mundas. Variations in Bengali civilization and linguistic communication do be of class. The estimation of spiritual make-up from the 2001 nose count reported that the population was 89.58 % Muslim, 9.34 % Hindu, 0.62 % Buddhist, 0.31 % Christian and 0.15 % Animist.
With the highest denseness of population in the universe and decelerate economic advancement, the people of this state are trapped in the barbarous rhythm of poorness. Over 50 % of the people who live below the poorness line are non able to supply for their basic demands and comfortss. With 140 million people, Bangladesh is the 8th largest in the universe in population. It is besides one of the most dumbly populated states and endowed with limited natural resources. Bangladesh has to trust, more than most underdeveloped states, on its human resources for advancement and prosperity.
Educational Structure of Bangladesh
The present instruction system of Bangladesh may be loosely divided into three major phases, viz. general instruction, madrasha instruction and proficient instruction. Here I am discoursing about proficient instruction in Bangladesh.
Technical & A ; Vocational Education
For the pupils whose involvements are non purely academic may happen technical-vocational programmes more interesting and more valuable for their hereafter. Government tries to guarantee that the class course of study should be relevant to pupils ‘ involvement and aspirations while at the same clip it should turn to the demands of the occupation market.
a. Primary degree. There is no technical-vocational establishment in primary degree of instruction. Ebtedayee in the first degree ( Primary degree ) of madrasah instruction has no range for technical-vocational instruction. Consequently, proficient – vocational instruction in Bangladesh is designed in three stages under two major degrees of secondary and third degree of instruction.
B. Secondary degree. Vocational classs starts from secondary degree. The certification classs prepare skilled workers in different careers get downing from 9th class after completion of three old ages of schooling in secondary school. At this degree the classs are diversified in different careers spread over 1 to 2 old ages continuance. Recently, 2 old ages duration vocational classs have been introduced at the higher secondary degree in authorities managed vocational preparation institute ( renamed as Technical School & A ; College ) . Diploma courses fix the sheepskin applied scientists at the polytechnic institutes. This class spread over 4 old ages continuance after go throughing the secondary school enfranchisement scrutiny. There is a proficient instruction board called Bangladesh Technical Education Board ( BTEB ) , which grants association to the proficient institutes. It conducts scrutinies of the pupils finishing different classs in different vocational and proficient instruction, and awards certifications to the successful campaigners.
TVET System in Bangladesh: An Evaluation
Entrance is moderately competitory at all degrees of formal accomplishment developing. Well-developed issue criterions exist, i.e. , skill proving and enfranchisement is good developed and managed.
The Technical Education Board ( TEB ) is little, self-supporting and a comparatively effectual organisation for developing course of study and trade trials.
Good theoretical accounts exist for accomplishment preparation by non-government establishments ( including UCEP and MAWTS ) . There are besides good theoretical accounts of industry engagement in supplying child labour non merely with basic instruction, but besides with vocational preparation through non-government establishments, including both UCEP and a similar but cheaper theoretical account, Suravi.
TTCs and VTIs have become more flexible in their non-regular plans by offering short term developing plans on a cost-recovery footing in the afternoon and eventides to those who have completed their formal schooling.
Several relatively good quality public preparation establishments exist, including some of the TTCs under the Ministry of Labor and Manpower, The Surveyor ‘s Training Institute under the Ministry of Education and some of the rural preparation centres of the Ministry of Youth.
The overall impact of the formal TVET system within Bangladesh is minimum. The end product of technical/vocational instruction at the certification degree sums to merely 1.8 per centum of the alumnuss at SSC degree, and the end product of sheepskin technicians is merely 1.4 per centum of the end product of HSC holders. Furthermore, formal preparation is miniscule in relation to the informal ways the people really become skilled. The end products of the formal system history for merely a infinitesimal fraction of the occupational accomplishments acquired each twelvemonth. Furthermore, comparatively few of the alumnuss of formal VTIs enter local employment, at least in trades. TVET has a hapless record in footings of arrangement of alumnuss in employment, including merely approximately 60 to 65 per centum for TTCs and about 40 per centum for VTIs. Unemployment is besides common among alumnuss of engineering schools. Those who do non acquire occupations are frequently employed overseas as unskilled labour in occupations that do non necessitate their specific preparation. Those who do non happen occupations frequently seek farther surveies at higher degrees if they are eligible. The public system is non contemplated by a widespread or vigorous system of non-government vocational preparation ( non-government establishments and proprietary establishments ) .
The chief job is deficiency of sufficient linkages with employers and the labour market. Employers typically do non take part in finding content of preparation plans. Courses tend to be offered in response to societal demands non based on labour market studies and analysis. Labor market information is non collected consistently.
Employers complain that the authorities is unable to alter curricula rapidly ( i.e. , introduce new classs, expand those in demand and cut down or shut those for which demand has slackened ) to maintain up with technological alterations in endeavors ( TEB, for illustration, updates course of study one time every five old ages ) . Polytechnics, in peculiar, were slow to incorporate computing machines and instrumentality as built-in parts of preparation in all Fieldss.
The patronage of formal vocational preparation ( VTIs and TTCs ) tends to be inappropriate. Those with grade 8 makings frequently aspire to farther instruction and white-collar businesss ; many have small or no purpose of come ining the occupation market and practising the trade accomplishments acquired.
Training establishments lack linkages with local labour market environing the establishment. This is caused by inordinate centralisation and rigidness in the system. The caputs of preparation establishments must follow unvarying preparation plans and can non change course of study to run into local fortunes. Financial controls are besides inflexible and institutional directors can non give inducements and wagess for good instructor public presentation. In short, there is a deficiency of deputation of authorization to the caputs of preparation centres.
Training establishments do non transport out occupational analysis of the accomplishments in demand in the local country.
Training is seldom provided for upgrading those already employed in businesss, including accomplishments in the non formal sector.
Few misss are being provided the chance to larn accomplishments needed for formal sector employment ; grounds include deficiency of inns and unafraid conveyance, every bit good as traditionally low demand by employers for female workers.
Womans in the labour market have few topographic points where they can have preparation for raising their incomes through productive activities.
Underprivileged youth be given to be screened out of the instruction system before measure uping for entry into vocational preparation.
Stipends in proficient and vocational instruction are provided on the footing of virtue instead than necessitate.
Training is virtually free and to a great extent subsidized. Most pupils receive stipends and many receive subsidised inn adjustment which adds to the cost per pupil of preparation. Significant resources are wasted in proficient and vocational preparation at present, even though the system is underfunded. Student – instructor ratios are merely approximately 10 to 12:1. Training classs focus on enfranchisement and last longer than purely necessary for occupational intents. Over centralised disposal makes it hard for institute managers to conserve on resources. However, recent debut of the SSC and basic trades plans for pupils in TTCs/VTIs has led to increase in the internal efficiency of establishments. Underutilization of physical capacity is no longer a job, and completion rates are better than they were easy in the 1990s. Still, the operating costs of vocational preparation are high, likely in the order of $ 300/student per twelvemonth ( 24 times the cost of a pupil in primary instruction ) .
Low quality is reflected in comparatively low base on balls rates for many vocational and proficient preparation establishments. About tierce of those who finish technical-vocational classs fail to go through the concluding scrutinies. Several factors account for the hapless consequences. The directors and teachers of preparation establishments lack inducements for good quality instruction. Over centralised control means school managers take few enterprises. Teachers lack answerability, as evidenced by hapless attending rates. Most teachers have non had industrial experience in the accomplishments they are paid to learn. Fundss are missing for in-service preparation of instructors or industrial fond regards. There are few publicities possibilities to supply inducements to staff. Many teachers have occupied the same places for decennaries without any chances for updating or enrichment. Dead wood tends to roll up among learning staff with few, if any, chances for recycling. In theory, 60 per centum of the clip is devoted to the acquisition of practical accomplishments, but in pattern it is much less. Most VTIs, engineering schools, and specialized grade plans suffer from outdated, disused, and worn out equipment. No budgets are provided for care of equipment, and small for consumable supplies. The portion of entire gross disbursement allocated to TVET declined by about 17 per centum, from 2.4 per centum in 1990/91 to 2.0 per centum in 1996/97. It declined further to 1.5 per centum in 1997/98. Capital investing in TVET virtually dried up in the 1990s. Within the establishments pupils receive group, instead than single, preparation. Lesson programs and occupation sheets are seldom used in the preparation. Institutions, accordingly, can non properly leave the intended practical preparation. At the sheepskin degree, intended internships for pupils at the terminal of their surveies are frequently non implemented. As a consequence, polytechnic alumnuss have non acquired practical store floor accomplishments. The results are that most alumnuss of vocational and proficient plans are non skilled, and few travel into appropriate businesss.
Government Plans and Policies
No national policy exist on the long term development of business preparation, but two recent paperss, the Fifth Five Year Plan and the proposed National Education Policy, point to waies of intended alterations. The Fifth Plan calls for registrations in proficient and vocational instruction to be increased from 3 per centum at present to about 20 per centum of the sum at secondary degree. Consequently, the program emphasizes enlargement of the figure and capacity of preparation establishments in line with emerging engineerings. Specifically, the authorities programs to construct tonss of new polytechnic institutes, VTIs and TTCs. In add-on, it intends to set up other fabric and leather grade colleges, a proficient instructors college, and a vocational instructor developing institute. By 2002, registrations are projected to increase from 4,500 pupils in polytechnic institutes to 20,000 ; from 2,600 in other proficient and vocational institutes to 44,000 ; and from 12,800 in basic trade preparation to 30,000. The Fifth Plan besides calls for variegation of class offerings in line with emerging engineerings. Private engagement is to be encouraged in the bringing of proficient vocational instruction. In add-on, the Plan proposes creative activity of an equal base for labour market analysis and research on TVET, beef uping staff development plans, and hammering closer links between preparation establishments and local economic systems.
The bill of exchange National Education Policy, which was prepared without consideration of financial restraints on the recommendations, calls for “ the major part of the instruction budget to be shifted towards TVET ” . Under the policy, all secondary schools would hold vocational watercourses ; NFE would be provided for all school dropouts at bing preparation establishments after hours, and short classs would be introduced for those – peculiarly technicians – in the occupation market. The construction of sheepskin preparation would be extended by six months and the internship by three months. A recognition system of pupil accounting would be introduced to ease patterned advance of alumnuss to the following higher degree. Persons and private endeavors would be expected to portion the costs of preparation, although it is non explained how this would be accomplished. In service preparation for instructors would be provided consistently. Finally, an overall industrial advisory council would be established to organize service offerings among the many authorities and non-government suppliers.
The Fifth Plan and the proposed National Education Policy touch on many of the critical issues in TVET. Positive characteristics include expressed mention to the demand for endeavor linkages at the cardinal and establishment degrees ; accent on developing proviso for new patronages, including upgrading and out-of-school young person ; variegation of plans, including preparation in entrepreneurship ; and encouragement of private engagement and beneficiary funding by pupils and employers. These are of import precedences. The following measure is to be after to carry through them.
The chief failing of the program and policy are their accent on enlargement and greater public funding of TVET. Without needful reforms, plans for all-embracing enlargement hazard enforcing bing rigidnesss on even larger Numberss of trainees. Such enlargement would thin the capacity of the populace sector to serve adequately the bing establishments and may worsen unemployment among the alumnuss. Apparently no demand surveies were done as a footing for choosing the new Fieldss of survey. Where needed, enlargement could be accomplished at lower cost by spread outing bing establishments ( e.g. , the fabric and leather institutes ) instead than making separate new installations. This underscores the feeling that enlargement is being sought for political instead than economic grounds. As stated in the 1995 ADB reappraisal, “ IT is possible to reason that the present consumption and preparation plans are more admissions-oriented than based on existent industrial demand ” .
Among all the jobs in the system of TVET, four overlapping issues stand out as the most of import. They are discussed in sequence below:
Lack of linkages with the occupation market. The TVET system tends to be disconnected from the occupation market both formal and informal employment. Employers do non take part in puting preparation policies. Public preparation establishments do non hold mechanisms for audience with employers, and no inducements are given to directors or teachers to set up them. Furthermore, the centralised system of developing – in which course of study, staff, and resources are all controlled from Dhaka – besides limits the possibilities of capitalising on local duties and enterprises. When there are non plenty occupations for alumnuss, plans should be geared more to paid work in the informal sector, e.g. , support accomplishments, entrepreneurship, and self-employment. In amount, a cardinal aim for TVET should be to hammer closer links with formal and informal occupation markets.
Lack of impact on poorness decrease. This is a inquiry of the patronage of the system. TVET is about entirely geared to in-school male young person in classs 9 and 10 as portion of SSC Vocational. The effectivity of this attack should be evaluated. Similar plans have non proved cost-efficient in other states. Many of the alumnuss of SSC Vocational have no purpose of come ining the businesss for which they have been trained. Technical instruction is besides narrowly focused on in-school patronage, whereas studies show that merely one tierce of practising technicians have of all time received formal instruction in the field. This calls for more in-service and upgrading preparation for those in the work force. TVET needs to diversify its patronage. Vocational preparation, in peculiar, has the possible to do a greater impact on poorness decrease by assisting trainees go freelance or generate income. Another chief aim for TVET should be to broaden its impact through variegation of patronage and plans.
Ineffectiveness of developing support and bringing. One of the chief restraints on solution of jobs in TVET is the predominating position that the authorities must finance and supply preparation through a centralised system of control instead than seek an efficient division of duties with the private sector. In contrast with the comparatively weak public presentation of the authorities financed and operated establishments, the non-government sector has demonstrated – albeit on a really little graduated table – the capableness to develop local needs-based course of study customized to the experiences of trainees. Above all, several non-governmental establishments have established effectual links with employers and have achieved impressive employment rates for their alumnuss. One of the challenges will be to happen ways to spread out the service bringing of effectual non-governmental establishments in vocational and proficient instruction. On the other manus, the authorities provides cardinal support on which non-governmental establishments must rely. This support includes such things as development of favourable policy environments, preparation of teachers, development of learning stuffs, and research/information on the employment market. A cardinal aim for TVET is to switch financess towards more effectual manners of bringing and beef up the back uping function of the populace sector ( as opposed to direct proviso )
Under-financing. TVET is expensive. It requires more teachers per pupil than general instruction because of the demands for pattern in workshops. It requires money for equipment, in-service preparation and consumable supplies. Most of these necessary inputs are missing or deficient in public establishments at present. Most establishments look to the cardinal authorities to work out this job, but it does non hold the financess. External funding is seen by some as an alternate solution. However, external funding would be unsustainable. In several old ages, the jobs of under-financing of equipment and supplies would reemerge and the job would non hold been solved. An of import aim for TVET, hence, is to mobilise non-public resources in a sustainable manner to get the better of chronic jobs of under-financing.