An Understanding Of Processes Of Town Planning Environmental Sciences Essay

The beginnings of the Town and Country Planning system prevarication in the effort to manage, through statute law, the environmental conditions that resulted from the uncontrolled urban growing in the eighteenth and 19th centuries. However, the modern system is rooted in a much more ambitious and incorporate attack to environmental direction through the constitution of a statutory definition of development and the usage of policy, control and acquisition powers. Explain and discourse


The outgrowth of the planning systems, within the U.K, during the 18th and nineteenth century resulted in noticeable differences among current spacial planning civilizations. It could be said that there are ever three topics, playing either an active or a inactive function, in the planning procedure – authorities, markets and the populace. The grade of their engagement depends largely on the political government, the existent authorities, the economic clime in the state and the ability ( but besides the will ) to acquire involved.

Planing as such might be portrayed as a positive, pro-active and strategic place-making activity on the one manus, or as a negative, regulative and reactive map on the other.


[ 1.0 ] Understanding the planning system requires a basic cognition of the historical background to planned development and a clear acknowledgment of the societal, economic and legislative forces of the different epochs that have created it. Standards and design have evolved with alterations in national richness, societal aspiration and public outlook, with concern for societal equality and perceived benefits of betterment. The modern twenty-four hours planning system has evolved from over 200 old ages of Acts of the Apostless and statute laws and is presently use to equilibrate economic development and environmental quality.

The beginnings

[ 2.0 ] The planning system we have in England today originated from the industrial and agricultural revolutions that began in the 1700s. Before the agricultural revolutions most people lived and worked in the countryside. However, as industry began to turn and agriculture became mechanized, people began to travel from the countryside to towns and metropoliss, such as London, Manchester and Liverpool, in the hope of happening better rewards and chances and to get away from rural poorness.

Throughout the 18th and 19th Centuries, until the debut of the Public Health Act 1875, there was small attempt to command the form and signifier of development in the public involvement.

Developments like The Royal Crescent in Bath built in 1767 -1775 by John Wood the younger portion of a UNESCO ( United Nations Educational, Science & A ; Cultural Organisation ) site – Bath- and similar developments were in their twenty-four hours chiefly bad, single developments frequently uncomplete pieces – development frequently curtailed by over ambition, bankruptcy or death.

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Developments like The Royal Crescent in Bath – built in 1767 -1775 by John Wood the younger and portion of a UNESCO ( United Nations Educational, Science & A ; Cultural Organisation ) site – and other similar developments were, in their twenty-four hours, chiefly bad, single developments. Often they were uncomplete pieces, with development curtailed by over ambition, bankruptcy or death.

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In regard to lodging prior to 1875 there was no enforceable criterions by which the adequateness of adjustment was judged. Development was hapless, cramped, low quality and humdrum. Towns and metropoliss grew quickly, with small idea for the amenitiess or degrees of sanitation that we take for granted today. Housing was built cheaply in order to suit the quickly turning populations of the metropoliss. The bulk all had no running H2O and lavatories were one per street ( Daunton, 1995 ) .

Drinking H2O was contaminated, as it was taken from the same rivers as the untreated sewerage ran into, and the slayer diseases, cholera, typhus, variola and dysentery, were rife. Life anticipation was low, an mean age of 35, particularly amongst the working categories ( Daunton, 1995 ) .

[ 2.1 ] The economic rules of ‘laissez-faire ‘ ( leave things entirely ) pervaded. Very early reforms were fragmented and chiefly philanthropic through single landholders or industrialists such as Robert Owen ( New Lanark – Glasgow ) , Titus Salts – Saltaire. ( this does n’t do sense to me, but it might merely be I do n’t understand it? )

Between 1842 and 1875 steady, incremental betterments in lodging, as a consequence of people such as Edwin Chadwick and his study into “ The Sanitary Conditionss of the Labouring Population in Great Britain ” , had a profound consequence on the public scruples ( Cullingworth,1968 ) .

The Public Health Act

[ 3.0 ] The Public Health Act 1875 – this set criterions to regulate the layout, breadth and building of streets in new developments and allowed municipal governments control over development, via local Byelaws. It was the beginning of local authorization control. It insisted that each house should be self-contained, with its ain sanitation and H2O. This alteration in the design of lodging complemented the public investing in cloacas and H2O supply.

At the same clip, the income of most propertyless people started to lift at an unprecedented rate. In 1873 the monetary value of nutrient started to drop with the ready handiness of inexpensive imports from across the Atlantic – much of the bead in the cost of feeding a household was taken in higher disbursement on lodging ( Hague, et Al, 2005 ) .

Subsequent statute law determined internal infinites, which led to the humdrum row and grid forms of streets typical of the late 19th and early twentieth Century.

At this phase the development of lodging was left wholly in the custodies of the private sector. However, there were turning concern with the hapless quality of adjustment, peculiarly with a position to leasing belongingss as opposed to owner-occupation, this lead to the debut of the lodging and working categories act of 1890 and 1909. These passages empowered local governments to purchase and develop land for public lodging.

Public sector lodging, on a really limited graduated table, had ab initio been introduced in Liverpool in the 1870 ‘s, but the 1890 and 1909 Acts of the Apostless gave the drift to council house edifice for the first clip on a big graduated table ( Allmendinger, et Al, 1998 ) .

The garden metropolis Movement

[ 4.0 ] Commensurate with the intercession of the local authorization was the rise of the Garden City Movement or planned industrial suburbs such as Bournville ( George Cadbury 1878 ) , Port Sunlight ( Lever Bros. 1887 ) .

Town and Country Planning Act

[ 5.0 ] Today town and state planning control over the development of all land in England and Wales is administered through a procedure derived from the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 ( came into force 1st July 1948 ) . The cardinal purposes of the modern twenty-four hours Town and Country Planning Act ( 1990 ) are foremost, to guarantee the uninterrupted and lasting betterment of the environment and 2nd, to procure the efficient usage of the resources employed in the usage and development of land. ( Hall,1975 ) , ( Speaight,2010 )

It was developed as a mechanism to pull off the limited sum of land for an increasing population who lived and worked on it and were necessitating more infinite for work and leisure.

The Town and Country Planning Act contains 337 subdivisions and 17 Agendas. Allied to this is the Planning ( Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas Act 1990 and Planning ( Hazardous Substances ) Act 1990.

This statute law is farther reinforced by the Planning and Compensation Act 1991.

Planing control over land is rooted in cardinal authorities policy and the counsel to its execution is covered in 24 different P.P.G ‘s ( Planing Policy Guidance ) paperss which are presently being redrafted to P.P.S ‘s ( Planing Policy Statements ) ( Speaight,2010 ) .

Planing control is a two pronged matter – with development programs ( bluish prints for the hereafter when all executable development or non-development is complete ) and twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours command, via the procedure of be aftering application which are granted or refused. These are being managed through local governments and county councils ( Brindley, et Al, 1996 ) .

One of the most important points is that Section 55 of the Town and Country Planning Act defines development that is to state: –

The transporting out of an operation ( i.e. edifice, excavation or other similar operation ) .

The devising of any material alteration in the usage of land including edifices on the land.

The granting of be aftering blessing is managed through the planning application procedure via either:

Permitted Development ( Permitted Development Order 1995 – Sections 58/59/60 ) defines points of plants for which be aftering consent is non required. This is really limited to plants of a minor residential nature.

Application for outline consent ( full consent required prior to development being undertaken

Or a formal planning application and granting of consent.

Outline planning consent ( Section 92 Act ) – one can use for outline consent to see if general consent will be granted, for illustration 10 houses on a site, but development is non permitted until ‘full ‘ consent is submitted and approved. Equally good as general controls over planning, the Town and Country Planning Act empowers local governments, within the local program, to denominate countries of architectural or historic involvement for protection ( Conservation Areas ) due to their significance – to the general benefit of the reinforced environment, or for their alone part, in which instance listing would use.

It is of import to observe that allowing be aftering consent can be by application to either:

County Planning Authority – for county affairs ( Schedule 1 – Schools/Public Buildings, Highways etc. ) .

District Planning Authority – general planning development.

Unitary Planning Authority – general planning development.

When applications are submitted they may be delegated ( minor strategy to a Planing Officer or publically advertised to ask for public response, which will be taken in to account in the planning procedure ) . Consultation will or may besides affect the Local Parish Council, Amenity groups, Ecology Organisations and so forth as applicable to the application.

Enforcement of controls is covered under Sections 171A to 196C of The Town and Country Planning Act, although there are limitations to this such as the ‘four twelvemonth regulation ‘ in regard of the fact that if the development is undertaken without consent and the Local Authority fail to make anything with respect to publish enforcement notices within four old ages so the development becomes valid.

In such instances Certificates to set up usage can besides be obtained, where usage was clearly established before the debut of the Town and Country Planning Act 1964. However, the enforcement process is through the Local Authority publishing an Enforcement Notice, which request the ‘doing of all things necessary to avoid the breach on control ‘ – although, there is besides an entreaties procedure set out under the statute law for the proprietor to appeal to The Secretary of State against the notice ( Hall,1975 ) .

Stop Notices can besides be issued and can be issued where a developer may wish to whirl out the entreaties procedure to his benefit – in order to halt him doing any farther planning advantage. Again an entreaties procedure can be in topographic point, but development can go on until the state of affairs is resolved and failure to follow can put on the line in mulcts to ?20k on drumhead strong belief ( Speaight,2010 ) .

[ 5.1 ] Simplified be aftering zones ( 1992/PPG5 ) were created by the passage of the Housing and Planning Act 1986, Part II. Simplified be aftering zones will be established by local planning governments by agencies of a new system of simplified be aftering zone strategies. A developer will be able to transport out such development without doing and application for be aftering permission and paying the needed fee.

Coastal Planning ( 1992/PPG 20 ) covers the character of the seashore, designated countries, heritage seashores and the international dimension.

Renewable Energy ( 2004/PPS22 ) sets out the Government ‘s policies for renewable energy, which be aftering governments should hold respect for when fixing local development paperss and when taking planning determinations.

Planing and Pollution Controls ( 2004/PPS23 ) is intended to complement the pollution control model under the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 and the PPC Regulations 2000.

Planing and noise ( 1994/PPG 24 ) ushers local governments in England on the usage of their planning powers to minimise the inauspicious impact of noise. It outlines the considerations to be taken into history in finding planning applications both for noise-sensitive developments and for those activities which generate noise ( Speaight, 2010 ) .

[ 5.2 ] Although planning statute law is at that place to protect the environment, the Town and Country Planning Act and low-level statute law, together with a mass of instance jurisprudence, can profit the corporate client when it comes to obtain hard or inappropriate planning applications as they can afford to use specializer advisers to pull strings their manner through the planning procedure ( Thomas, 1997 ) .

Planing control is non a finite scientific discipline, but an artistic procedure where there is room for more than one point of position. Architectural design is a authoritative point in instance one individuals ‘design icon ‘ may be another ‘s ‘carbuncle ‘ . The importance of the control procedure is to pull off efficaciously the built environment to the overall benefit to society as a whole and non let one peculiar facet to overturn any other unnecessarily ( Speaight,2010 ) .

Planing statute law besides affords protection to the historic environment, every bit good as advancing renovation countries both in regard of residential and peculiarly commercial development with support inducements, but these are frequently limited and unequal to to the full turn to issues or administratively hard to obtain and can ensue in doomed chances.


[ 6.0 ] The Planning procedure demands to development more strategic development programs in realistic timescales which is frequently hard as local programs are set on 5 and 10 twelvemonth policies and deficiency flexibleness to turn to economic and societal alteration. The system needs streamlining to let for quicker determinations to be made, peculiarly when looking at brown field development, where at that place needs to be a greater accent than on green field sites.

There needs to be a better structured audience procedure, that does non decelerate down the planning procedure, but actively encourages people to positively direction the built environment in a sustainable and feasible manner to the benefit of everyone.

With environment force per unit areas invariably increasing we need to advance a much more facilitating system, to make a better assorted usage in towns, to do them better topographic points to populate and work and to obtain improved planning duties and planning additions.