A high quality and sufficient H2O supply is indispensable to human wellness, but is frequently losing in life in West Africa. In Mali, merely 65 % of the population has entree to improved imbibing H2O beginnings ( CIDA, 2002 ) . As Sogoba Togota, Peace Corps Mali ‘s Associate Director of Water/ Sanitation says, “ When come ining a town or small town to look at its wellness state of affairs, it ‘s more revealing to see if there ‘s a H2O tower than to number the figure of hospital beds. ” In this paper, research was performed at the Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Kayes, an stray metropolis of 100,000 people in western Mali.
The Kayes part is the first part of Mali and is located in the West. See the map of Mali ; the Kayes part is home to many cultural groups. The Bambara, Sarakole, Kosinke, Pulaar, and Wolof have traditional small towns scattered throughout the Kayes part. The metropolis of Kayes, nevertheless, was developed as a frontier station for the Gallic into the inside of West Africa and it was an administrative centre for the colonial authorities. The Gallic arrived in Kayes in 1880, conquered opposition in 1898, and left with Mali ‘s independency in 1960.
Figure 1 Map of Mali
Since Mali ‘s independency Kayes has been the regional capital of the western part, one of five parts of Mali. It is normally said that the Kayes part has been forgotten over these old ages of independency by the politicians in the capital Bamako. Kayes is isolated from the remainder of the state, but represents the midway point for trade between Dakar and Bamako, approximately 80 kilometers east from the boundary line of Senegal and 400 kilometer West from Bamako. Kayes is an spread outing city, with people coming from the small towns and environing states to work in trade and commercialism. There is now even an international airdrome with direct flights to Paris. The lasting population is 80,000, but increases to 110,000 during the dry season when there is no agriculture in the small towns.
Kayes is located along the Senegal River, which runs from the mountains of Guinea northeast down into Mali and so turns to the West before go throughing Kayes and go oning towards the Atlantic Ocean at Saint Louis, Senegal. Although the river flows full of fresh H2O, Kayes is situated in the Sahelian climatic zone. The Sahel is a desolate zone that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean east along the southern border of the Sahara desert. It is made up of thin flora and receives minimum rainfall. Kayes receives on mean 635.5 millimeter of rain per twelvemonth, falling largely in the clip period from June to September ( Landsea and Gray, 1991 ) . The unsupportive clime has led scientists to depict a construct called desertification. This is the gradual flux of the Sahara desert. It is exacerbated by the locals ‘ despairing life state of affairss, such as deforestation in order to obtain cooking firewood.
The aim of this paper is to detail the Treatment Processes, Operations and Economics of Kayes ‘ Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Supply. A portion of this paper will depict the alone environment of a big metropolis in West Africa, the challenges involved in working in this metropolis, and how the local population overcomes the challenges to supply dependable imbibing H2O. In add-on to research at the Water Treatment Plant, an economic study was performed by questioning 30 indiscriminately selected families located throughout the metropolis of Kayes. This study provides telling information about the province of H2O supply in Kayes, Mali. The mean monthly H2O use for a family size of 5 to 10 people was estimated to be 300 litres per twenty-four hours. This value increased to 1,100 litres per twenty-four hours for a family of greater than 25 persons. The consequences of the study besides suggested that families in Kayes are paying on mean 23 % of their monthly income for H2O. Peoples in Kayes are besides paying more than three times the monetary value of H2O in the United States. The scope of H2O monetary value determined from the study ranged from $ 1.50 to $ 2.00 per 1,000 litres in Mali versus $ 0.52 per 1,000 litres in the U.S.In add-on, some families must buy more expensive H2O from street sellers or utilize river H2O because they do non hold sufficient financess to pay the public-service corporation on a monthly footing.
Access rate of drinkable H2O in Mali by country
Population ( 1995 )
1 178 538
1 337 131
1 379 787
1 414 876
1 201 853
Government accounting office
Beginning: World Health Organization: Initiative Africa 2000-2002
3-City Water Supplies:
When tracking the state it is clear that metropolis Water Treatment Plants are the most dependable beginning of clean imbibing H2O in Mali. They are a really of import H2O supply for the people. The French did non construct a Water Treatment Plant in Kayes before go forthing in 1960.
The first Water Treatment Plant in Kayes was built in 1970 by a German group. The original works consisted of a H2O consumption, coagulant add-on and deposit, and disinfection. The works was designed to function a 20 twelvemonth projection of the population. In 1986, the works was upgraded by a French/African group. This new works added sand filtration, a edifice for chemical add-on, and a reservoir. See Appendix Figure A-1 for the programs of the Water Treatment Plant. In 2000, the works was taken over by Gallic transnational company called Saur International. Saur International kept in topographic point the local staff and incorporate direction control via Bamako.
Because of the despairing province of H2O supply in Mali, Water Treatment Plants ( WTP ) provides a cardinal beginning of imbibing H2O for many users. With the appropriate enlargement of a known H2O supply more and more people can derive entree to clean imbibing H2O. Kayes ‘ WTP sits alongside the Senegal River, which is non adversely impacted to a great extent by upstream industrial discharge or important agricultural overflow. However, Kayes ‘ WTP is presently running beyond capacity. In add-on, people populating on the border of Kayes do non hold dependable entree to H2O.
While, as stated antecedently, the WTP has been taken over by a big Gallic company, the works continues to be operated by local Malian staff, and the staff lacks the expertness to command the complexnesss of a big H2O intervention works. Chlorine degrees are on occasion fickle and sometimes non-existent when the head is off. Appropriate H2O quality proving engineering is besides missing. I translated into French certain chapters of the American Water Works Association ‘s fifth edition Water Quality and Treatment Handbook for Community Water Supplies ( 1999 ) , and went over these with the Water Treatment Plant head, workers, and the Health Center Technician while I was back place in July 2009.
4-Perceptions of Water in Mali:
Malians by and large view natural land or surface H2O as acceptable and even the best imbibing H2O, based on my experience. If they are thirsty many would prefer to imbibe H2O directly from the river instead than from a spigot. If they are in a small town many would prefer H2O from a traditional well instead than from a pump. Since about 60 % of the population is uneducated, there is no apprehension of the germ theory of disease. In fact, H2O borne diseases are endemic in Mali, although no 1 can be certain of the rates of disease incidence. Even among educated categories there is a cultural inclination to accept H2O from any beginning without know aparting based on cleanliness.
5-Kayes Water Treatment Plant:
Mali ‘s Surface Water Resources:
Mali is a landlocked state in the bosom of West Africa. Mali itself means Hippopotamus in Bambara, the local linguistic communication. Her civilization goes back to pre-historic times. Human civilization in this part of the universe developed over 1000s of old ages. People developed into assorted indispensable groups: Herders and husbandmans and fishermen. These groups grew peacefully to merchandise amongst each other. In the fourteenth century, the Kingdom of Mali stretched through virtually all of West Africa and traded big sums of gold and salt across the Sahara Desert. In 1880 the Gallic came to suppress the part of Mali and remained until 1960 as the regulating power until Mali achieved independence September 22, 1960.
Most of Mali ‘s 12 million people live in small towns scattered across this huge state. The two major rivers which dissect the state are the Niger and the Senegal. The Niger River draws its beginning from the little mountains of Guinea and flows in a wide eastern discharge across Mali, go throughing through the capital Bamako and past the legendary metropolis of Timbuktu before go oning through Niger, and swerving to the South to its Atlantic Ocean oral cavity in Nigeria.
The Senegal River besides has its beginning in Guinea and flows somewhat to the nor’-east before turning back E and meeting with the Bafing River ( place of the mega Manantali Dam ) , so go throughing through the metropolis of Kayes and go oning to organize the boundary line of Mauritania and Senegal before fluxing to the Atlantic Ocean. The extent of the basin is described by the largest dotted line. The basin covers much of western Mali, northern Senegal, and southern Mauritania. The flecked line shows the existent Senegal River and its feeders.
These two rivers provide a extremely valued respite from the otherwise dry and rough clime of Mali. The Niger River provides a beginning of imbibing H2O to the capital Bamako of 1 million people, and to the big metropoliss of Mopti and Gao. The Senegal River provides a imbibing H2O beginning to Kayes and Saint Louis, Senegal and many other little metropoliss on its manner to the Atlantic Ocean. Harmonizing to a survey by the Board on International Scientific Organizations in 2004, the Senegal River flows at 300 metres cubed per 2nd about 100-km downstream of Kayes at Bakel, Senegal ( BISO, 2003 ) . The river ‘s flow is regulated by the mega-dam at Manantali, upstream.
Figure 2 Map of Senegal River Basin
6-History of the Water Treatment Plant
Kayes Water Treatment Plant was built in 1970 by a German group. This original works consisted of deposit basins, filters, and chlorine add-on. The Germans stayed and worked at the works for five old ages. The works was owned by the Mayor ‘s office. It subsequently passed ownership to Energy of Mali, a national owned company which besides operated the state ‘s electricity. In 1989 the works was expanded. The enlargement was done by SATOM, a assorted Gallic and African group based in Bamako, the capital of Mali. The new works kept the consumption and deposit basins, but added sand filters, Cl pumps, sociables and the chief edifice, the research lab, chief pumps, and the reservoir. The works is now owned by Saur International, a private Gallic company.
7-Description of the Water Treatment Plant
The flow of H2O through the Kayes Water Treatment Plant begins with the consumption. The consumption tower was portion of the original building of the works in 1970. It rests on the south bank of the Senegal River 1-km to the E of the H2O intervention works. The consumption points straight out into the center of the river merely above the land degree. A big pump is situated at the base of the consumption tower. The top of the tower is configured with an air pressurizer to protect against the high H2O force per unit area within the H2O distribution web. The H2O is so pumped 1-km to the H2O intervention works.
Figure 3 Photograph of solid remainders direction at the Kayes H2O intervention works which shows Seydou Diawarra turning the valve to let go of the solid remainders to the mercantile establishment to the Senegal River.
Figure 4 Deposit Basin at the Kayes Water Treatment Plant
The economic sciences of H2O use in Kayes were investigated with questionnaires provided to selected families along with information obtained from Energy of Mali, the national energy company which is now owned by a Gallic multi-national company called Saur International. The local population resignedly accepts instead rigorous payment programs imposed by Saur International. The monetary value of H2O is 122 CFA per M3 ( 1 M3 = 1,000 L ) , or $ 0.22 per 1,000 L, or $ 0.00022 per L. The particulars of energy and H2O costs were negotiated by the authorities of Mali as portion of the purchase of Energy of Mali by Saur International.
Drinking H2O criterions were observed by the writer accompanying of the local wellness centre technician on bi-weekly trials of the WTP and metropolis spigots from January to September, 2003. National authorities criterions were researched at the capital with the aid of Sogoba Togota, the Peace Corps Mali Associate Director.
Figure 5 Deposit Basins at the Kayes Water Treatment Plant under Mr. Diarra ‘s supervising.
Figure 6 Base Sedimentation Basin at the Kayes Water Treatment Plant
At the H2O intervention works the H2O first contacts a chemical add-on valve for add-on of coagulator. The H2O so continues in a pipe for 50 pess. The consumption pipe so branches out to three pipes with mercantile establishments to each of the deposit basins. Three long deposit basins run parallel ( See Figures 3-3 and 3-4 ) . At the base is another deposit basin ( referred to as the base deposit basin ) that collects wastewater from the three long deposit basins. This H2O is so piped by gravitation straight to three analogues sand filters the sand filters effluent is below the edifice where Cl is added.After disinfection the H2O continues to a reservoir. Finally the H2O is pumped to the metropolis ‘s distribution system with three big pumps.
Figure 7 Sand Filters at the Kayes Water Treatment Plant
8-Daily Operation and Maintenance:
If a pump were broken the workers would be mending it. Occasionally there would be a particular undertaking. For illustration, every six months the workers clean the excess H2O tower which is in town, near the train station and every few months they clean the deposit basins or altering the force per unit area regulator pump at the consumption tower.
Figure 8 Treatment Plant Technician, Seydou Diawarra, at the flow controls of the Water Treatment Plant.
The works forces are made up of the foreman, Monice Diarra, and four agents de conduits. The agents work is largely related to fix of pumps ( e.g. , they repair the chief pumps, Cl pumps, and river intake pump ) . They can besides make fix on pipes located in the metropolis ‘s distribution system. Harmonizing to Seydou Diawarra, a batch of their clip is spent mending the chief pumps. Besides mending the pumps, chlorine add-on is another chief occupation of the workers. The chief edifice of the works is equipped with two big Cl sociables two 8-kg pokes of dry Cl ( most probably NaOCl ) is added to each of two blending Chamberss every 4 or 5 hours.This procedure is repeated invariably twelvemonth unit of ammunition. When the Cl is depleted in the sociables an dismay will sound, and extra pokes of Cl are added.
Coagulant is besides added at the works as aluminium sulfate. Harmonizing to the H2O intervention works head and Seydou Diawarra, coagulator is usually added at the rate of one 50-kg poke per twenty-four hours. In periods of heavy rain and high turbidness of the beginning H2O coagulant add-on can make every bit high as 16 50-kg pokes, or 800-kg per twenty-four hours. The pretreatment expression is added by automatic valves and the workers provide merely the day-to-day pokes of coagulator and Cl to the commixture basins.
9-Water Quality Standards:
For the continuance of my research period I accompanied the Health Center technician on his bi-weekly testing of Kayes ‘ H2O quality. He would go to one location in the metropolis to prove the H2O quality of post-distribution, and so to the Water Treatment Plant to prove the quality of the post-treatment H2O supply. He would prove for temperature, conduction, pH, residuary Cl and entire Cl. On juncture he would prove for the presence of coliforms in the H2O.
At the intervention works Mr. Diarra tested for turbidness, pH, residuary Cl, and entire Cl. Turbidity is required to be less than 5 NTU. pH is required to be between 6.5 and 8.5. Chlorine degrees are required to be between 0.2 and 5 mg/L.
Summarizes the testing that is performed and the local H2O quality criterions.
Table 3-1. Water Quality Testing in Kayes, Mali Parameters the Health Center Technician Trials
Parameters the Water Treatment Plant Chief Trials
Local Water Quality Standards
& lt ; 5 NTU
6.5 – 8.5 mg/L
0.2 – 5 mg/L
0.2 – 5 mg/L
Some standard computations can be performed in order to better apprehension of the intervention processes. The mean flow rate of H2O through the works is 400 metres cubed per hr. Based on this value and the size of the deposit basins, a value for the surface overflow rate can be calculated.
Surface Overflow Rate, OR = Q/A = ( 400 m3/hr ) / ( 3 x 31 ten 6.4 m ) = 2.0 m3/m2-hr
Other parametric quantity computations were attempted ; nevertheless sufficient background information was non available. The surface lading rate for the sand filters depends on grain size distributions and the caput loss over the filter. The G parametric quantity for coagulant add-on depends on the detainment clip. Unfortunately, I was non able to obtain this information while working under Mr. Diarra.
An extended survey at the Kayes Water Treatment Plant reveals the intervention processes, operations, and economic sciences of H2O supply. The people of Kayes are fighting to afford the H2O they need to populate. The local operators hardly have the expertness and resources to pull off their H2O intervention works. Yet the people of Kayes are wining at supplying one of the best H2O supplies in the state of Mali. Peoples coming from around the state enjoy the luxury of pat H2O after passing many hours of every twenty-four hours for many old ages drawing H2O from a well. The people of Kayes are most limited by their deficiency of fiscal resources. Major ascents to the H2O intervention works must come from outside beginnings. This leaves the local people without control over their ain H2O. As the general population is fighting merely to pay for the H2O they do hold available, an ascent is out of their kingdom of possibilities. In the hottest metropolis in Africa people regard H2O merely and care for it.