Australia, the 6th largest state in the universe is a ‘constitutional democracy ‘ with a federation of six provinces ( Victoria, being the 2nd smallest ) and two districts. Historically, the state has continuously emphasized investing in higher instruction, upgraded its instruction substructure, promoted R & A ; D ( invention ) and made impressive parts to universe scientific discipline[ 1 ]( Goedegeburre & A ; Meek, 2008 ) . Today, following to char and press ore, international instruction is the 3rd largest beginning of export income for Australia ( Reserve Bank of Australia 2008, online ) . Besides, being a ‘major export trade good ‘ , international instruction has brought in high grade of diverseness which has made a important impact on the state ‘s socio-cultural life. This in bend, has led to the growing of related industries or bunchs[ 2 ]making a broad scope of chances for local employment.
The study chiefly focuses on the international instruction bunch in the province of Victoria. However, an analysis of the section ‘s overall economic public presentation and concern environment both at national and sub-national degrees has been conducted for better apprehension of the province ‘s ( and bunch ‘s ) part to the state ‘s services export economic system. This is followed by a elaborate description of the bunch itself in footings of its development, size, public presentation and impact. The study highlights some of the current strategic issues that may endanger the bunch ‘s fight in future and ends with suited recommendations to extenuate the same.
General Information and Recent Economic Indicators ( 2010 )
Capital: Australian capital
Surface Area: 7692 1000 sqkms
Population: 22.3 million ( 2010 )
Official Language: English
Exchange Rate A $ 1= US $ 0.9 ( August 2010 )
GDP ( US $ bn ) ( current monetary values ) : 1219.7
GDP per Capita ( US $ ) : 54,869
GDP per Capita PPP ( US $ ) : 39,692
Real GDP Growth ( % alteration yoy ) : 3
Inflation ( % alteration yoy ) : 3
Table 1 Beginning: Extracted from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/aust.pdf, compiled by Market Information and Research subdivision, DFAT, utilizing latest information from ABS, IMF and other international beginnings.
Australia recorded 17 back-to-back old ages of economic growing since 1992, averaging 3.3 per cent a twelvemonth[ 3 ]. In 2009, it was the 13th largest national economic system by nominal GDP stand foring approximately 1.7 % of the World economic system[ 4 ]. Although its economic success was mostly based on its abundant natural resources but the state besides emerged as a extremely sophisticated knowledge-based economic system, viing with US and UK, traditionally known for their laterality in countries of higher instruction, invention and engineering.
Overview of the Australian Export Industry
Australia has a ‘long history of trading with the universe ‘ and is renowned as a extremely ‘reliable provider of high quality goods and services to over 200 states ‘ ( Australian Government, 2008 ) . Exports have maintained a steady part to the state ‘s GDP at around 20 – 22 % over last five old ages as shown below.
Goods and Servicess Exports as % of GDP
From 2006 – 2010
Table 2 Beginning: Extracted from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/aust.pdf, compiled by Market Information and Research subdivision, DFAT, utilizing latest information from ABS, IMF and other international beginnings.
Australia ‘s top 25 ware and service exports are shown in Exhibit 1 from which it is apparent that Mining, Manufacturing and Services are the premier exports of the state. The entire industry exports amounted to 253.2 billion of which services
% Of Entire Exports ( 2009-2010 )
Value In Australian $ Billions ( 2009 – 2010 )
253.2 exports constituted 52.4 billion which was about 20.7 % of entire exports in 2009 – 2010 ( Table 3 ) Australia ‘s exports of goods and services grew from around 170 billion in 2004-2005 ( Exhibit 2 ) to 253 billion in 2009 – 2010
Table 3 Beginning: Constituted from informations published by Australian Government, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research titled ‘Australia ‘s Export Fact Sheet ‘ dated 21/09/10
connoting an mean one-year growing rate ( AGR ) of around 16 % per annum[ 5 ]over the past five old ages.
The major export finishs of Australia are China accounting for $ 46.4 billion in
2009 -10 followed by Japan ( $ 37.1 bn ) , The Republic of Korea ( $ 16.5 billion ) , India ( $ 16.2 billion ) United States of America ( $ 9.5 billion ) and others ( like New Zealand, Taiwan, Hong Kong, EU and ASEAN ) .
Figure 1 Beginning: Based on informations extracted from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/aust.pdf, and compiled by Market Information and Research subdivision, DFAT, utilizing latest information from ABS, IMF and other international beginnings.
Export Income from Education Service
Education is ‘Australia ‘s 3rd largest export income[ 6 ]‘ and ‘largest service export industry transcending even touristry ‘ ( Refer Exhibit 1 ) . Export income in this context is defined as the amount of income generated from international pupils analyzing onshore[ 7 ]in Australia and income from instruction operations offshore[ 8 ]outside Australia ( ABS, 2009 ) . International instruction contributed A $ 18.6 billion to export income in 2009, up by 8.1 % over the 17.2 billion net incomes in the old fiscal twelvemonth ( Figure 2 above ) . Australia is the universe ‘s 3rd most popular instruction finish for foreign pupils after US and UK, as evident from the comparative analysis shown in Exhibit 3 at the terminal.
Figure 2 above Source Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009 ( ABS Catalogue no. 5368.0.55.004 )
Export Income by State and Territory 2009
All provinces and districts in Australia support international instruction industry as shown in Figure 3. However, New South Wales owns the king of beasts ‘s portion accounting for 38 % ( A $ 6.8 billion ) of the state ‘s entire
Figure 3 Sourced from Tables 2, 9 and 11 of the ‘Australian Bureau of Statistics ‘ publication International Trade in Services, by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2009 ( ABS Catalogue no. 5368.0.55.004
export income from instruction closely followed by Victoria at 32 % ( A $ 5.8 billion ) , doing it the 2nd largest instruction hub with celebrated universities and premium institutes[ 9 ]that attract pupils from all over. Melbourne ( in Victoria ) will go “ the Boston of the southern hemisphere under an ambitious program by eight metropolitan universities and the metropolis council to place it as Australia ‘s cognition hub ” , quoted the Metropolitan ( Rout, 2007 ) .
Overview of Victoria ‘s Economic Landscape
Victoria ‘s is Australia ‘s 2nd largest economic system after New South Wales lending more than a one-fourth of the state ‘s GDP. The entire gross province merchandise ( GSP ) of Victoria was around A $ 283 billion ( 2008- 2009 ) , with a GSP per capita of A $ 52,284 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //http//www.vic.gov.au// ) . The province ‘s assorted economic sectors with their income and employment composing by per centum is shown in Table 4 below.
and personal services
Conveyance, public-service corporations
Table 4 Beginning: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Figures are for 2004-2005
Victorian Production and
Workers by economic activities
It is apparent from above that ‘Finance, Insurance and Property ‘ services form Victoria ‘s largest income bring forthing sector, while the Community, Social and Personal services sector is the province ‘s biggest employer.
The international instruction industry plays a critical function in the services sector and is by far the largest export earner for the province at 4.9 billion ( in 2008 ) increasing at 2.2 billion over four old ages since 2004 ( ) . The international instruction bunch has earned Victoria high visibleness and a dominant place in planetary economic system ( Allan, 2009 ) . The assorted facets of Australia ‘s overall concern environment has been discussed below followed by analysis of conditions that led to the growing of international instruction exports in peculiar.
Analysis OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Secondary Education Enrolment Ratess
Time Required to get down a Business
Soundness of Banks
Flexibility of Labour Markets
Efficacy for legal rights
Securities Exchange Regulations
Laws related to ICT
Quality of scientific Research Institutions
Strength in Auditing/Reporting Standards
10thThe World Economic Forum ranked Australia 13th among 133 states ( Exhibit 4 ) for international fight[ 10 ]placing ‘financial market edification, higher instruction and preparation, quality populace and private establishments and efficient goods and labour markets ‘ as its primary competitory advantages ( GCR, 2009 – 2010 ) . Using Table 5 Beginning: Derived from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.business.nsw.gov.au/aboutnsw/climate/global_competitiveness.htm
the National Diamond model ( Porter, ) , Australia ‘s concern environment has been analysed below.
Australia is a politically stable and financially strong, democratic state whose unfastened ordinances and crystalline authorities policies make it one of the lowest hazard concern environments in Asia Pacific ( NSW, n.d ) . Its legal system is impersonal to both domestic and foreign houses which makes judiciary extremely dependable for foreign investors. Australia ‘s rational belongings protection is ranked figure two in Asia Pacific and figure ten globally ( NSW, n.d ) .On the fiscal side, Australia ‘s extremely unfastened capital policy allows net income remittals and capital repatriation with no limitation on transportations, royalties and trade related payments. Harmonizing to Dr Brian Clark, CEO Vodafone Pacific, Australia ‘s “ ready entree to universe category concern and communications substructure, its first-class transit links and willingness to follow new engineering are major advantages considered to guarantee ongoing concern success ” ( NSW, n.d ) . Besides the state has a extremely diverse and skilled work force with in-migration leting foreign specializers to come in ( on impermanent or lasting footing ) and make full in human resource spreads non available locally.
Harmonizing to study conducted by Mercer ( 2007 ) , Melbourne in Victoria is ranked as one of the top 20 most livable and multicultural metropoliss in the universe doing it an attractive finish for abroad pupils. Victoria is one of the universe ‘s greatest migration success narratives ( hypertext transfer protocol: //eh.net/encyclopedia/article/attard.australia ) with its 5 million people coming from over 200 states, across countless religions, talking over 180 linguistic communications and idioms. Victoria ‘s international pupil registrations about doubled from 80,000 in 2004 to 160,000 in 2008 as shown in Table 5[ 11 ]below.
Australia ranked as the fifth largest receiver of abroad higher instruction pupils among OECD states and the 3rd largest English-speaking finish for abroad pupils behind the United States and the United Kingdom ( refer Exhibit 5 ) .
Besides, geographical propinquity and close concern ties with Asiatic economic systems, combined with class offerings in English and competitory tuition fees have enabled Australian establishments to capture a big portion of the Asiatic market. About 80 % of Australia ‘s abroad pupils come from Asia ( Table 6 ) .
Australia has a size about equal to that of United States but its 22 million population ( close to that of Nederlands[ 12 ]) restricts domestic demand ( Laut, 2009 ) . However, its easy entree to the immensely spread outing Asia Pacific markets has made exports a logical extension of its domestic market. Post war, there has been a singular displacement in Australia ‘s export composing from traditional agricultural/farming merchandises to fabricate goods ( Year Book Australia, 1988 ) . It may be argued that this displacement was chiefly due to alterations in demand conditions of abroad markets but domestic factors besides played a important function. Discovery of oil, minerals and natural resources, big graduated table in-migration and proficient and scientific advancement gave a great drift to industrialization in the Australian economic system ( Year Book Australia, 1988 ) . Domestic fabrication was strongly protected by the Commonwealth authorities through high duty policies. As trade goods earned certain economic systems of graduated table, quality and cost fight they could vie in universe markets. As a consequence, houses began to set about increased production for both domestic and foreign markets ( Stonham, 1967 ) .
In services exports excessively, ( international instruction sector ) Australia showed really strong demand conditions that justified the authorities ‘s investing in the country. Harmonizing to the Bradley Review ( ) , some of these demand conditions were a ) demand for a extremely educated and skilled population required for the rational, cultural, economic and societal development of communities, B ) creative activity and promotion of cognition and degree Celsius ) application of cognition and finds for improvement of communities.
In 1984 Australia for the first clip removed the foreign pupil ‘s one-year quota and allowed full fee paying pupils to inscribe for higher instruction which boosted growing in instruction sector ( Jackson Report, 1984 ) making bunchs like Victoria. High degree of economic activity in these bunchs drove demand down the value concatenation ( Porter, 2001 ) making chances in interconnected industries. Survey revealed that ‘for every four abroad pupils, more than one Australian occupation is created ‘ ( Footnote 13 ) and ‘for every three foreign pupils one Victorian occupation is generated ‘ ( Brumby, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to a study in Access Economics[ 13 ]( 2009 ) ‘a bead of 5 per centum in the figure of abroad pupils to our colleges and universities would do 6300 Australians to lose their occupations ‘ . The study estimated that abroad pupils and their households spend $ 14.1 billion each twelvemonth in Australia, lending an extra $ 12.6 billion in value added goods, services and occupations. Besides, foreign pupils constitute a immense resource pool of locally talented employees required to make full in accomplishment spreads across Australia.
Context & A ; Rivalry
Continuous betterment, up step and invention create new demand both locally and internationally ( Callick, 2003 ) . Knowledge direction and invention are cardinal factors that promote exports growing. Australia ‘s Global Innovation Ranking Index was at 18 in 2009-2010 between Belgium and Ireland ( INSEAD, 2010 ) . Although this was an betterment over the old twelvemonth ‘s ranking at 22 but there was a bead in invention inputs index[ 14 ]from 13 to 16 over the same period. This implied a diminution in Australia ‘s overall system to back up invention. Australia ranked high for ‘Quality of instruction system ‘ ( 14 ) and ‘Quality of scientific establishments ‘ ( 10 ) , but deficient investings had been made in bettering invention inputs which explained why it ranked ill at 43 with regard to invention end products[ 15 ]like ‘Creative merchandises and services ‘ ( Tuckerman, 2010 ) .
Some of the failings that the Australian system needs to get the better of in order to better concern environment are shown in Table 7. It is apparent that rigorous authorities ordinances, high protectionism steps in footings of duties and trade barriers, inefficient networking and deficiency of creativeness are important issues that need to be addressed as they have impact on houses ‘ schemes for foreign investing. However, it is to be noted that Australia ranks among top 10 states in the universe with regard to ‘availability of venture capital, regulative quality, authorities effectivity, civilization to introduce, and quality of scientific research establishments ‘ ( INSEAD, 2010 ) which has helped its export services grow despite recession.
With regard to international instruction exports, Australia has already attained a universe category position with top ranking universities and proficient institutes viing for higher criterions of excellence and acknowledgment. However, with increasing demand ( registrations ) inferior quality private instruction suppliers have entered the market topographic point damaging the state ‘s image of high academic criterions. Besides grasp of the Australian dollar has made the fee construction less competitory with respect to US and UK which further raises the demand to be advanced in pulling abroad pupils. The Australian research institutes are of high quality but increasing coaction between industry and academe is required to heighten efficiency and corporate benefits of research and development ( Evans, 2010 ) .
Related and Supporting Industries
The societal and cultural facets of a state drama a critical function in determining perceptual experiences about the state, its individuality and attack towards remainder of the universe. Historically, Australia is perceived as a successful theoretical account aligned to western values, runing in Asiatic context with a diverse multicultural attack favoring skilled immigrants from developing economic systems for long term colony. Another ground why Australia became a popular finish for abroad pupils was its touristic attractive forces. Therefore related industries like touristry, transit, communicating, retail and recreational services have all experient growing in class of rendering support to the international instruction sector. Survey[ 16 ]indicated that of the entire international pupil ‘s outgo analyzing onshore in Australia, 46.9 % was spent on Education as fees and associated disbursals while the balance went to back uping industries, major disbursal ( 31.8 % ) being towards retail and adjustment. Another support country that has grown as a consequence of advancing higher instruction is research and development. Australia ‘s celebrated scientific research institutes which rank as the best in Asia Pacific and 10th in the universe ( refer Exhibit 6 ) work closely with the universities pulling immense R & A ; D support to the province ( NSW, n.d ) .Role of Government
( Contributed by Ajna ) . Editing in advancement to curtail word bound.
Role of Institutes of Collaboration
( Contributed by Ajna ) Editing in advancement to curtail word bound.
INDEPTH ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER –
( To be jointly contributed by Ajna / Rinku with certain specific subdivisions expected from Alok and Bhavin ) . Shall communicate on mail.
STRATEGIC ISSUES FACING CLUSTER / COUNTRY
( Contributed by Amitav. Editing in advancement to curtail word bound ) .
( To be contributed by Amitav. )
INTERVIEWS ( Alok? ? ? ? )
Exports by Industry from 2004 – 2007 in A $ one million millions
Beginning: Extracted from ‘Australia in Brief – Trading with the World ‘ published by Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, dated June 2008
Many universities in Australia
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a state in the Southern Hemisphere consisting the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and legion smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans…
A have gained international acknowledgment. Two of the most acknowledged are the Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University. It is one of the two most outstanding universe university rankings, along with the Times Higher Education World University Rankings…
, produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the THES – QS World University Rankings
Timess Higher Education-QS World University Rankings was an one-year publication that ranked the “ Top 200 World Universities ” , and was published by Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds between 2004 and 2009…
Source & lt ; ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Tertiary_education_in_Australia )
University of Melbourne ranks 36th in the 2010 ‘The World University Rankings ‘ published by Times Higher Education ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2010-2011/top-200.html )
Exhibit 3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF US, UK AND AUSTRALIA IN TERMS OF EXPORT INCOMES AND ENROLLMENTS
( Pending from Alok )
Exhibit 4 GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX ( GCI ) 2009
Hong Kong SAR
Dutch east indies
Beginning: The Global Competitiveness Report, 2009-10, World Economic Forum
Exhibit 5 – Abroad STUDENTS NUMBERS AND GROWTH IN HIGHER EDUCATION
2005 ( ‘000s )
Average one-year growing
2000-2005 ( Per cent )
( a ) Excludes advanced research plans
Germany ( a )
Exhibit 6 – Quality OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Beginning: The GCR, 2009-10, World Economic Forum.