Appeared and an unreliable narrator. Time is

Appeared after World War 2 as a counter reaction to Realism, postmodernism literature may be defined as a literature which relies on literary techniques such as fragmentation, parody, dark humour, paradox and an unreliable narrator. Time is often fragmented in postmodern fiction (ex: flashbacks). Postmodernism sees history and fiction as EQUAL (history=fiction, fiction=history). It tends to return to PAST and adapt past forms, mixed with the present.
There are a number of common themes that appear in the postmodern works:
-irony, humour: In “The French Lieutenant’s Woman”, Fowles uses humour to discuss some serious subject ? the mock ending when Mrs. Poultney is sent to a more ‘tropical abode’
-metafiction or “fiction about fiction” is a kind of fiction that openly comments on it fictional status. In chapter 13, Fowles says that the story he is telling is completely fiction, he pretends to know what his characters think. He thinks his characters start to win autonomy and he feels like he has to respect it. He even thinks that everything is embedded with fiction.
What is more, postmodernism argues that there is no originality anymore (everything has been done, all we can do is piece together versions and mixtures of what already exists – recontextualize tradition so as to show difference between the past and present ? Beckett. “Waiting for Godot” also has some postmodern features. The author uses some biblical and classical connections but in an ironical way. Rather ridiculous than religious, Estragon compares himself to Christ.
There is also a lack of central authority: we can see that the characters seem to be trapped or enslaved, being unable to move or get up for no apparent reason. The do not know where they are and who they are as Estragon is not able to remember his own past. Beckett’s characters seem to be completely confused and disoriented.