Apple Inc Markets In North Korea Economics Essay

Apple Inc. is one of the American MNCs ( i.e. transnational corporations ) that trades with design and industry of consumer electronics like computing machine package and commercial waiters. Macintosh computing machines, iPod, iPhone and iPad are some of the company ‘s normally known trade names. Apple computing machine package include: the iLife suite of multimedia and creativeness, Mac-OS X-operating system, iWork suite of productiveness, iTunes media browser ; Aperture bundle for professional picture taking, Final Cut Studio, a suite of package merchandises for professional sound and film-industry and Logic Studio. The company operates 284 retail shops presently in 10 states and runs an online shop that sells hardware and package merchandises. Apple Incl. was established in Cupertino, California in financial 1976, and subsequently on incorporated in 1977 as Apple Computer, Inc. After 30 old ages of operation the company shortened its name by dropping the word Computer on January 2007, following its on-going enlargement in consumer electronics market every bit good as the initial focal point on computing machines. Apple totals US $ 42.91 billion in world-wide one-year gross revenues for its 2009 financial twelvemonth that ended on September, and has about 75,000 staff worldwide, following the features of a smart globalisation, this is a sensible figure given its markets and big operations ( Child & A ; Faulkner, 2001 )

The company has established a typical repute in consumer electronics industry with a devoted client base particularly in U.S which may be related to its alone selling runs and a wide aesthetic design among other grounds. Apple, Inc was featured as the most admired company both in U.S and worldwide, in the Fortune magazine for the twelvemonth 2008. Since 1987, Apple has spurred its international growing with a faster enlargement beyond the US market and therefore the demand to cut down over dependence on US consumer market and has experienced success in markets like Spain, Sweden, Japan, Belgium and Holland. If alone schemes and expertness is embarked on, Apple can win in North Korea market where it ‘s yet to set up. Although the market portion for Apple has grown, it still remains far behind its rival Microsoft, holding 8 % of desktops and laptops merely in the U.S market.

There are legion market entry schemes that Apple Incl would see in its entry to North Korea depending on the differing degrees of hazard, benefits and legal duties that go with the assorted schemes ( Gupta & A ; Westney 2003 ) .

Joint venture

Joint venture is a market entry scheme where a transnational joins a domestic company in the mark state and organize a new incorporated company. North Korea is presently advancing such joint ventures with foreign IT spouses in its attempt to develop its IT industry and this has been termed as a cardinal precedence. An illustration of such a joint venture in North Korea ‘s IT industry is Morning-Panda which is a Joint Venture which began in 2002, between Electronic Products Development ( EPD ) Company in North Korea and China ‘s Panda Electronic ( CPE ) Group. This would every bit good work for Apple Incl since it ‘s in a place to supply needed resources and utilize its expertness in direction. Apple can fall in such spouses in set uping the market for its merchandises in North Korea and would be the best scheme in acquiring a market entree an country where there are foreign market limitations.

Joint venture is a speedy market entry scheme that avoids duty barriers and easy satisfies the local demands while enabling the staff get accomplishments that are available in the new market, ( Gupta & A ; Westney 2003 ) . The challenge would be that Apple would non hold full control of the direction and may be impossible to retrieve invested capital in instance of dissension amongst spouses. North Korea has a good cooperation civilization as opposed to the common perceptual experience of a dead economic system and massive socialist facade. Apple would therefore acquire complementary accomplishments and a good cooperation civilization if partnered with a domestic company whose ends are compatible. This would besides assist Apple, Incl. entree local resources in North Korea and increase its industrial efficiency. While apple can still put entirely in the market, it can easy make so by fall ining an equity venture with another corporation like Microsoft and jointly put in the new market basking sharing of net incomes and hazards every bit good as discriminatory revenue enhancement intervention ( Rugman 2004 ) . Following the quickly turning market for Apple ‘s merchandises, it would be feasible to put a joint venture as a long term market entry scheme in North Korea where many IT and computing machine package houses are yet to venture.

Acquisition Strategy

Acquisition occurs when an a foreign corporation takes over a domestic house in the mark state whereby the domestic company can go on merchandising utilizing its ain name, but the foreign company has controls on the ownership and waies of the company. This scheme reduces the clip spent in accessing the market since the domestic company already has an established merchandise line and defined distribution web, this would be a feasible scheme for Apple in get the better ofing the entry barriers although it involves increased hazard due to political and market hazards that may confront a big fiscal committedness particularly where there are incompatible corporate civilizations ( Ohmae, 1999 ) .Cultural differences are a important factor and can be highly affectional and deeply affect cognition and information sharing which is critical in a new market, the diverseness of civilization in North Korea is able to pool together people and corporations with important cultural differences and similarities, and possibly react in indifferent manner. The other challenge that Apple may confront in North Korea is the high wages and rewards for labor, but since has a good repute in furthering single excellence which faithfully draws endowments to its staff through employment and besides through the apple family plan which has added extraordinary parts in its proficient leading. It may merely hold to alter its policies a spot to let for big wages for those staff who will be working in North Korea.

North Korea lags behind in engineering and Apple would take the advantage through acquisition of the low bing engineering houses and put up an wholly new technological works in the state since it has a high criterion engineering which would give it the ownership advantage. This would necessarily affect high cost but the costs are lower a compared to Greenfield investing due to the ineluctable version costs that are incurred in Greenfield ( Gupta & A ; Westney 2003 ) . Acquisition by a high-technology Firm is a largely preferable market entry scheme in foreign market is adaptation costs are considered to be high.

The cost of geting the market cognition on possible rivals and distribution systems may be comparatively high but this can be obtained during acquisition ( Rugman 2004 ) . Taking over a low engineering house would give Apple high net incomes if high take-over premium is incurred where the high premium of take-over outweighs the version cost. Most analyst show that acquisition outputs lower monetary values than what a domestic house was offering before acquisition and such a benefit is non to be ignored in North Korean economic system. This would increase the consumer excess and give a more efficient result for Apple while bettering the societal public assistance of North Koreans.

Franchise Agreements

Franchising refers to an on-going commercial relationship where the franchisor grants the franchisee right in the distribution of goods and services utilizing the trade name, and system of the franchisor in exchange for a fee. The franchisee is expected to follow a concern format in transporting out the concern and keep the common client service and experience during the web ( Gannon, 2006 ) . McDonalds is a good illustration. Franchising allows rapid market enlargement by usage of the franchisor ‘s rational belongings, capital and enthusiasm of the franchisor. The challenge with franchise is that it ‘s a temporal investing, it ‘s normally for a fixed period which requires reclamation with the understanding period runing between five to thirty old ages, and at clip it may ensue in premature cancellations. This would be a feasible scheme for Apple if it ‘s shiping on temporal investing to prove the market and so do up for a long term investing.

Though Franchising has mostly grown in US and Europe, it ‘s mostly unregulated and there is no private right of legal action and most states including North Korea are yet to set up an even revelation policy ( Porter, 1998 ) . If Apple chooses to come in North Korean market through franchising, it should carefully negociate the licence upon cognizing the start-up costs and working capital and any fee that is paid be disclosed, since Apple ought to be seen as an independent merchandiser and addition be protected by the franchisor to avoid any hallmark breach by other parties. Apple, Incl. ought to be a signer to an arbitration clause normally associated with in any franchise understanding which can be taken as a legal action in any supreme tribunal if any violation occurs. Where the franchisor has many spouses, the understanding may take the form of a concern format franchise understanding that is indistinguishable for all franchisees.


In taking the market entry scheme that is optimum Apple, Incl. can take the scheme that yields the highest benefits and this is possible by comparing the different income gettable in different scenarios. Some schemes yield more benefits if the investing is taken on a long term footing while are others are yield more benefits irrespective of the term of investing. While some market entry schemes are expensive the benefits enjoyed are more.