Applying Lightweight Concrete To Fire Rated Doors Environmental Sciences Essay

Fire-rated doors are one such component. Used in both commercial and residential applications, fire-rated doors can be made of steel, wood, or a combination of stuffs, which together form a door system. In add-on to the door leaf itself, there is the doorcase, hardware, including manual or automatic shutting devices, locks, and latches, and sometimes internal Windowss, all of which are capable to merchandise enfranchisement and must run into demands of the local edifice codification. Steel fire doors are “ rated ” by clip ( in proceedingss or hours ) that a door can defy exposure to fire trial conditions. Hourly evaluations include 1-1/2-hours, 1-hour, 3/4-hour, and 1/3-hour, with the maximal evaluation required of any singing type fire door being three hours. Doors are rated for three-quarterss of the evaluation of the environing wall: A 3-hour door is used in a 4-hour rated wall ; a 1-1/2-hour fire door is used in a 2-hour rated wall ; and a 3/4-hour door is used in a one-hour rated wall. The noteworthy exclusion is that 1/3-hour rated doors are besides used with one-hour rated walls. However, a door with a higher fire evaluation than the gap requires may besides be used. For illustration, a door rated for 3 hours may be used in a 1-1/2-hour gap. All demands for the 3 hr evaluation, such as maximal glass size, door size, and other limitations for the higher rated door must be met. In the late sixtiess, some residential edifice codifications began to necessitate fire-rated doors taking from the garage, and frequently from the cellar, into the house. Since the garage houses gas-filled vehicles and the garage and cellar may incorporate storage of flammable stuffs, fire doors are a manner to insulate the fire and maintain it from distributing into the house. In certain applications, fire doors are required to minimise the transmittal of heat from one side of the door to the other, as in the stairwell of a high rise edifice. If the door can restrict the transmittal of heat for a period of clip, it is possible for people in a combustion edifice to safely go through below the floor of fire beginning. These doors are built with a specifically designed nucleus and are referred to as temperature rise doors. In add-on to the hourly evaluation, the fire door label will besides province the temperature rise evaluation of the door. Temperature rise evaluations are 250A°F, 450A°F, and 650A°F, and indicate the maximal rise in temperature above ambient temperature measured on the unexposed surface ( non-fire side ) of the door during the first 30 proceedingss of the standard fire trial. The 250A°F temperature rise appellation is the most rigorous evaluation of the three, since it requires the most confining rise in temperature. A 250A°F temperature rise door meets the demands of specifications naming for a 450A°F or 650A°F temperature rise evaluation.

Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of concrete which includes an spread outing agent in that it increases the volume of the mixture while giving extra qualities such as nailbility and lessened the dead weight. It is lighter than the conventional concrete. The chief fortes of lightweight concrete are its low denseness and thermic conduction. Its advantages are that there is a decrease of dead burden, faster edifice rates in building and lower draw and handling costs. Lightweight concrete maintains its big nothingnesss and non organizing laitance beds or cement movies when placed on the wall. This research was based on the public presentation of aerated lightweight concrete. However, sufficient H2O cement ratio is critical to bring forth equal coherence between cement and H2O. Insufficient H2O can do deficiency of coherence between atoms, therefore loss in strength of concrete. Likewise excessively much H2O can do cement to run off sum to organize laitance beds, later weakens in strength. Therefore, this cardinal research study is prepared to demo activities and advancement of the lightweight concrete. Focused were on the public presentation of aerated lightweight concrete such as compressive strength trials, H2O soaking up and denseness and auxiliary trials and comparings made with other types of lightweight concrete.

1.8 Proposed Research Methodology

Chart 1

1.9 Research Methodology

After settee with the rubric of my proposal, I have to happen out articles to steer me in transporting out the aims of my proposal. Besides, other related information can besides be obtained through Internet and edifice diary. Until this phase, my information is largely achieved from TAR College library and Internet. After acquiring the needed information, I have to read through them and get down to make my proposal. I have tried to happen more resources to acquire more information subsequently so that I can transport out my assignment easy. This research shall be carried out harmonizing to the proposed research methodological analysis as the flow chart ( Chart 1 ) beside.

Phase 1: Literature reappraisal

The first phase of methodological analysis is literature reappraisal. The basic concern throughout the reappraisal phase is to garner information related to the lightweight concrete and fire rated doors. In order to accomplish the full aim, a systematic literature reexamine shall be conducted mention books in library, institutional and statutory publication, periodicals and trade/academic diaries. The topographic points to carry on the research are the Tunku Abdul Rahman College library. A research of the relevant information including an cyberspace seeking behavior in order to happen out the lightweight concrete and fire rated doors. The full information hunt from Internet will maintain us informed of the hereafter and presence informations.

Phase 2: Secondary Beginnings of Methodology

Case survey

A instance survey will be reviewed to accomplish the first nonsubjective stated above. Case survey is utilizing samples and following a stiff protocol to analyze limited figure of variables, instance survey methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal scrutiny of a individual case or event: a instance. They provide a systematic manner of looking at events, roll uping informations, analysing information, and describing the consequences. As a consequence the research worker may derive a sharpened apprehension of why the case happened as it did, and what might go of import to look at more extensively in future research.


To accomplish the 2nd aim may utilize questionnaire to roll up informations. The inquiries will be approached to Engineers and Architects. Survey requires public position based on their experience through assorted past undertakings. Way to carry on this study is by station, e-mail through Internet to relevant companies.

Phase 3: Analysis

All the informations will be analyse and evaluate before compile the thesis. The information analysis is based on the primary informations from instance survey and questionnaire.

Phase 4: Report Findingss

After the information analysis have been carried out, all the informations will be gathered and compiled in to the thesis and finalization will be done in order to amend errors that contained in the thesis. Conclusion and study will be carried out.


Robert.T. 2008. Hot Issues: Keeping Fire-rated Doors. Viewed on 28 December 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // — 8932

John.T. 2009. New Coal Ash Use: Strong, Llightweight Alternative to Concrete without Cement. Viewed on 28 December 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // index=0 & A ; did=1790771431 & A ; SrchMode=1 & A ; sid=2 & A ; Fmt=3 & A ; VInst=PROD & A ; VType=PQD & A ; RQT=309 & A ; VName=PQD & A ; TS=1262803098 & A ; clientId=16428

Erika.S. , Till.V. , Thomas.K. 2009. Shear Resistance of Lightweight Concrete Core of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Concrete Sandwich Structure. Viewed on 26 December 2009. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: // index=2 & A ; did=1635031701 & A ; Srch Mode=1 & A ; sid=3 & A ; Fmt=3 & A ; VInst=PROD & A ; VType=PQD & A ; RQT=309 & A ; VName=PQD & A ; TS=1262803225 & A ; clientId=16428


2.1 Introduction of Fire Rated Doors

2.1.1 What is A Fire Rated Door?

Taken from the article of Ellis-Christensen ( n.d. ) , she posted that “ A fire rated door is a really heavy door made of stuffs like metal or gypsum. Its chief intent is to keep back fume and to incorporate fire. The term fire rated means that the door, when installed decently, is non supposed to burn during a certain clip period in the mean fire. ” Fire rated door is a really heavy door made from metal or other stuff for the intent to defy fire or prevent fire to distributing into other room in a rated clip. Normally will be really heavy because the stuff to do it. Fire rated doors will utilize in commercial and residential. Most common usage of fire rated door will be in the shopping centre. You can see the fire rated doors are everyplace nearby the washroom or auto park country. It besides use for fire flight.

2.1.2 Definitions of Fire Rated Door

Harmonizing to work of Harris ( 2005, pp.403 ) defined that “ A fire-retardant door assembly, including frame and hardware, which is capable of supplying a specified grade of fire protection when closed. Normally provided with an automatic shutting mechanism, in the event of fire. ” It has been defined that a fire rated door is used to forestall fires from distributing at shuting are such as when you are home, office and anyplace else you want to experience safe.

2.1.3 Types of Material to Make Fire Rated Door

Fire rated door can be made from either wood or steel. Wood Fire-Rated Doors Combine Safety and Aesthetics ( Anon, 2006 ) posted that “ Thankss to new engineering in compacting the fire retardant constituent of the door, fire-rated doors can be made of wood and offer an attractive solution to making barriers against fire, go throughing recognized testsaˆ¦ ” Fire rated doors made from wood can make a safety and aesthetics look to defy fire in residential. Wood can make door such as panel door and solid door. The stuffs to do normal doors are low in fire opposition. By utilizing wood to do fire rated door may let the door has better fire opposition and aesthetic.

Harmonizing to Harris ( 2005, pp.403 ) defined that “ In a furnace, the room access through which fuel is supplied. fire-door assembly The combination of a fire door and its accoutrements, such as its hardware and shutting devices and their ground tackles ; includes the doorcase and its ground tackles. fire-door hardware Door hardware that has been tested to set up its fire-door evaluation. ” The assortment of hardware or glass utilizing in fire rated doors have to be tested fire evaluation besides as they are the skeleton of fire rated doors. It is to forestall the accoutrements break down earlier than the door panel. The frame of fire rated door is of import because if the frame is non fire resistant well, the whole door will fall in. Ironmongery takes of import portion in fire rated door.

2.1.4 Fire Evaluations

McWilliams ( 1999 ) defined that “ Fire doors are rated in footings of the length of clip a door can be exposed to furnace temperatures on one side of the door ( the exposed side ) without either inordinate distortion of the door or inordinate temperature rise on the opposite side of the door ( the protected side ) . ” has been shown that fire evaluation for fire rated door will be tested by utilizing fire combustion to one side of the door bed without alteration of the form overly and the temperature rise at another side of the door. Fire evaluation normally rated by utilizing hourly or proceedingss. The application of fire door of a edifice is related to the usage and evaluation of the wall in which the door gap is installed. A fire door categorization tabular array is shown that the relationship between fire evaluation for fire door, the usage of the doors and the fire evaluation of the wall. It is done by the work of Levy ( 2000, p.558 ) .

Fire Doors Evaluations




Wall Evaluation


1/3 hour

For fume and bill of exchange control between suites or office corridors.

1 hour


3/4 hour

In corridor and room dividers.

1 hour


1 hour

In one-hour encloses in perpendicular exitways.

1 hour


1-1/2 hour

In two-hour enclosure in perpendicular exitways

2 hour

Table 2.1: Fire Door Classification

Beginning: Building Envelope and Interior Finishes Databook cited in Levy, 2000, p.558 Fire Door Rating Test

Wood Fire-Rated Doors Combine Safety and Aesthetics ( Anon, 2006 ) besides posted that “ The door assembly is placed in a furnace with temperatures up to 1800 ° F for the specified length of clip. The door must stay latched and in place, with no clefts or gaps developing or fire penetrating to the other, non-fire side of the door. ” The fire trials of door assemblies are tested the door in a furnace with temperature up to 1800 ° F for the specified clip and the signifier of the door should non excessive distortion and the fire do non perforating to the other side of the door. The trial shall be complied with some ordinances or criterions.

2.1.5 Lightweight Concrete as Infill Material

Lightweight concrete non merely can utilize for create concrete block, it has other application as an infill stuff to infill to palisade or door. “ A composite wall system ( CWS ) made of cement bonded wood atoms panels are fabricated from wood-construction waste atoms and Portland cement ; to be infilled with a lightweight stuff ( papercrete ) to get the better of the hapless acoustic and thermic belongingss and besides to heighten its fire opposition and screw backdown force. ” It is supported by the work of Bashar ( 2009 ) . He showed that lightweight concrete can go an infill stuff to palisade and possibility can besides use in door. InfillingMaterial

Infilling stuff is defined by Harris ( 2005, pp.305 ) that “ Material used to make full the infinites, within a frame, between structural members of a edifice ; provides extra thermic insularity, fire opposition, and stiffness. ” Infilling is to set in something normally material within s frame or a infinite such as walls and doors in add-on to supply thermic insularity, sound insularity, fire opposition and stiffness. It besides said to unite two stuffs to bring forth a new map or quality of an point. Lightweight Concrete

Lightweight concrete is defined by Harris ( 2005, pp.590 ) that lightweight concrete is “ Concrete of well lower denseness than that made from crushed rock or crushed rock ; normally made with lightweight sum or by shooting air or gas into the howitzer. ” It means that lightweight concrete is lighter in weight than normal concrete which lightweight concrete is lower denseness. To do lightweight concrete will normally by shooting air or gas, or by stuffs such as fibre or paper. The name for paper made lightweight concrete is papercrete. Papercrete

WHAT IS PAPERCRETE? ( Anon, 2010 ) posted that “ Papercrete is a slippery term. The name seems to connote a mix of paper and concrete, therefore paper-crete. But more accurately, merely the Portland cement portion of concrete is used in the mix. ” It states that papercrete is a mix of paper, cement and H2O. Different types of papercrete contain different per centum or ratio normally will be 50 to 80 per centum.

Hunter and Kiffmeyer ( 2004, pp.230 ) found out that “ There are several innovators experimenting in the field of papercrete and paper adobe slurries bring forthing strong, lightweight, insulative blocks, panels, and plasters. ” Papercrete is a concrete that visible radiation in weight and strong.

In the work of Bashar ( 2009 ) tested that “ The papercrete has been proved to hold better thermic conduction and sound soaking up and sound transmittal if compared with conventional building stuffs and besides it found to heighten the fire opposition of the CWS to 2 hours fire rated. ” Papercrete has the ability for thermic insularity, sound insularity and somewhat higher fire opposition referred to the research by Bashar ( 2009 ) .

2.2 Fire Resistance

Fire opposition is defined by Ramachandran ( 1998, pp.41 ) that “ Fire resistant compartmentation has long been the nucleus of fire safety steps incorporated in codifications and ordinances concerned with fire. A edifice is regarded as being composed of compartments absolutely isolated from one another and the spread of fire as taking topographic point by consecutive devastation ( or perchance thermic failure ) of the compartment boundaries ( walls, floor and ceiling ) . ” Fire opposition is a term that resists fire to distribute or to defy the fire in a compartment. To cover a edifice fire safety, it must hold cover by fire opposition component such as wall and door are the major portion of the edifice to defy fire.

2.2.1 Fire Resistance of Lightweight Concrete

Bilow ( 2008 ) introduced that “ One of the advantages of concrete over other edifice stuffs is its built-in fire-retardant belongingss. ” Concrete has great fire opposition among the full component in a edifice no affair it is wall or floor. As a wall, floor or door which covering the edifice is of import with fire opposition. It is to forestall the fire spread faster to do more hurts or losingss. If the fire spread one room to another room, the victims in a fire may non able to get away. It is why the covering elements should be better fire opposition. As a consequence, people are seeking to use lightweight concrete with same or better fire opposition than normal concrete to cut down the dead tonss of a edifice.

2.3 Flexible Lightweight Concrete

A flexible lightweight concrete is produced to stand for the sweep and interruption of the door. It must be flexible plenty to forestall the lightweight concrete in the door interruption and loss its belongingss. In this undertaking I will bring forth few samples of design mix for papercrete such as calcium hydroxide, cement and paper sludge mix or cement and paper sludge mix or calcium hydroxide and paper sludge mix. The design mix should able to last thirster with its belongingss.

2.4 Sample of Fire Rated Door

The sample fire rated door has to in filled with papercrete to increase its fire rated and cut down its weight. I may bring forth either in timber door leaves or metal door leaves in my undertaking. This will be the most hard portion for me.