A study carried out by HR Wallingford ( 2003a ) shows that the quality of SUDS ponds has a direct impact on public perceptual experience of SUDS. Well established pools are by and large welcomed by the populace, they have positive impact on belongings monetary value and gross revenues. However, ill constructed pools will take to drop in saleability. These are factors to be considered during SUDS planning.
HR Wallingford ( 2003b ) provinces that increased human activities can do serious amendss to the ecological system, particularly the H2O environment. The impact can be classified as physical, chemical or biological amendss. SUDS contrivers must see different schemes in order to understate the impact of urbanization on environment.
Water Resource Management
OFWAT ( 2008 ) has defined one-year H2O efficiency marks ( 2010-11 to 2014-15 ) for H2O companies in England and Wales. The purpose is to advance H2O efficiency and cut down national H2O ingestion.
With the uninterrupted population growing in UK, H2O companies are confronting a serious challenge to run into the OFWAT marks. On the other manus, the marks are good inducements for H2O companies to put and develop advanced engineering for H2O economy.
Incentive Pricing and Cost Recovery
Ward and Pulido-Velazquez ( 2009 ) suggest that incentive pricing of H2O can accomplish H2O salvaging and potentially generate gross. However, inappropriate pricing might take to client ailments and the development of basic human demands. Installing SUDS ( both new and retrofit ) will intend extra capital and operational costs. Stakeholders will necessitate to carefully strike a balance between H2O pricing and cost recovery scheme. ( CIRIA 2003c & A ; 2004 )
Climate Change version
Extreme conditions events in future due to climate alteration should be taken into the consideration of SUDS development.
Change in H2O use and sewerage production will hold an impact on overall C footmark. This is another factor to be considered.
Sustainability Challenges ( Technology Development )
A national programme for sustainable engineering development ( STD ) has been carried out by the Dutch committee for long-run environmental policy ( CLTM ) in 1990s. The purpose of the programme is to accomplish long-run environmental sustainability by invention ( CLTM 1990 ) .
Vergragt & A ; van Grootveld ( 1994 ) have reviewed and evaluated the procedure, methodological analysis and effectivity of the STD programme. A few instance surveies have been carried out by Weaver et Al. ( 2000 ) .
Weaver et Al. ( 2000 ) remarks on engineering development procedure:
“ The historical record shows that the procedure of development is episodic and that end product and productiveness growing in different periods have been stimulated by altering constructions of economic activities and technological alteration associated with bunchs of co-related and co-evolving engineerings, organizational agreements and establishments. ” ( Weaver et al. , 2000, p.46 )
This remark highlights the cardinal sustainability challenges in engineering development. A successful engineering development procedure depends on co-evolution of engineering and engineering diffusion. The invention procedure can be restricted by the opposition of bing engineering and stakeholder engagement. ( Weaver et al. , 2000 ) .
This subdivision discusses the proposed solutions to sustainability challenges mentioned in the old subdivision. The proposed solutions merely represent writer ‘s current position and they might alter upon completion of literature reappraisal.
Developing a Decision Support Tool for SUDS
SUDS are a web of complex systems. Together with the consideration of clime alteration, ordinance and policy, societal & A ; environmental impacts, H2O efficiency marks, pricing scheme and cost recovery, it is really hard to place the optimum design options for SUDS.
A determination support tool is, hence, a logical and practical manner to analyze and contract down the most desirable design options.
Successful Cases in Water Industry
Engelhardt et Al. ( 2000 ) and Dragan et Al. ( 2005 ) have discussed the methodological analysis and suitableness of utilising whole life costing ( WLC ) appraisal and multi-objective optimization for strategic investing planning.
The construct and its applications have been widely adopted by the H2O industry. Water companies in UK ( e.g. Severn Trent Water and Northumbrian Water ) have used WLC-based theoretical accounts and optimizations to warrant their capital outgo required for 2010 to 2015 ( AMP5 ) .
Conceptual Framework for SUDS Decision Support Tool
A similar WLC-Optimisation attack may be applied to find optimum SUDS design. The cardinal end product will be a list of economically feasible design options which satisfy all real-life restraints, serviceableness demands and sustainability marks.
A conceptual model is shown in Figure 1 ( following page ) .
Engine ( A.I. )
Monte Carlo or Grey Systems
Impact of Uncertainty on Model Outputs
Optimised SUDS design options which satisfy all restraints.
Different scenarios end products based on clime alteration and policy scenes.
Figure 1 Proposed Modelling/Optimisation Framework for SUDS Decision Support Tool
Triple Bottom Line Analysis of SUDS
Figure 2 below demonstrates author ‘s current apprehension of the SUDS in a ternary underside line analysis [ Position A ] . The aspiration of the research end product [ Position B ] and future SUDS development [ Position C ] are besides shown in the same figure.
Figure 2 Triple Bottom Line of SUDS Development ( beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_bottom_line )
A: Current public perceptual experience of SUDS ( subdivision ) .
A to B: Supplying economically feasible options as a consequence of writer ‘s research.
B to C: Decrease of negative environmental impacts due to future development of SUDS devices.
Sustainable Technology Development
Sustainable engineering development is non a challenge for an single research undertaking. In fact, it is a job to be resolved by governmental administrations and research establishments.
STREAM has a strong partnership of five taking United kingdom universities in H2O related research. Together with the commercial patrons, a model should be developed for:
Strategic planning for future researches
Correlating end products from different undertakings and maximizing part towards sustainability development.
Case Studies in Netherland
Following methodological analysiss have been suggested by Weaver ( 2000 ) to accomplish sustainable engineering development:
Constructive engineering appraisal
Redirecting R & A ; D resources and industrial stuffs
Strategic Niche Management
Future literature reappraisal should be carried out to look into these options.
Conclusions & A ; Recommendations
A critical appraisal of sustainability challenges and possible solutions related to writer ‘s research undertaking has been carried out. The undertaking is titled “ Machine Intelligence Methods for Optimised Design of Urban Drainage Systems ” .
The cardinal challenges arise in two countries: sustainable urban drainage systems ( SUDS ) and sustainable engineering development. For successful SUDS designs, the undermentioned issues must be considered:
Regulation and policy
Physical restriction of SUDS
Social and environmental impacts
Water resource direction
Pricing and cost recovery
Climate alteration and C footmark
In order to accomplish sustainable engineering development, the undermentioned factors must be taken into history:
Co-evolution of engineering
Resistance of bing engineering
A determination support tool is recommended for helping stakeholders and different parties under these fortunes. The tool will be based on whole life cost appraisal and optimization with unreal intelligence techniques.
Strategic planning of future research undertakings is besides recommended for sustainable engineering development.