Biomass And Energy Consumption In Turkey Environmental Sciences Essay

Turkey is located between south-eastern Europe and south-western Asia with the country of 779,452 square kilometers. The geographic location of the state accepted as strategic span between energy rich Middle East states and Asia ( Demirbas, 2008 ) . Parallel to increase in denationalization of public endeavors, the competition in energy sector has been increased. Particularly, denationalization in recent old ages, strategic partnerships, license auctions lead to liberalisation and acceleration in growing of energy sector.

Acceleration of world-wide population addition and environmental concerns are the most of import factors that implementing to look for alternate energy resources. As expected, Turkey is confronting with the both population and environmental jobs. Today, population of Turkey is 72,569 million that has increased by 14.8 % in last 12 old ages. ( SIS, 2009 ) Increased urbanisation and young person population shows that Turkey still carries high potency of population addition. Rising population is the chief ground of the turning spread between ingestion production degrees. The ingestion growing is higher than production growing that put state into of import energy importer place. To diminish the spread, Turkey needs strategic investings in energy sector in future. On the other manus, associated to high energy ingestion, increased air pollution is the most critical environmental concern in Turkey. The CO2 emanation per capita has increased from 2.61 meitneriums to 3.74 meitnerium between old ages 1990 and 2006. ( Akcasoy, Onder, & A ; Guven, 2007 ) .

In 2008, energy ingestion of Turkey is given as 102 Mtoe ( 1420 kgoe per capita ) Due to economical crisis that influenced universe, the addition in energy ingestion was merely 1.4 % ( the addition was 5.3 % in 2007 ) . ( Deloitte, 2009 ) However, apart from the exclusions, recent surveies claim that Turkey ‘s one-year energy ingestion has been increasing by 5 % and electricity demand has been increasing by 8 % every twelvemonth that run intoing the hypertrophied demand of energy should be prioritized job demand to be solved for the state. ( Topal & A ; Arslan, 2008 )

Energy resources in Turkey

Turkey has a broad scope of primary energy resources, which are classified into two groups ; fossil resources such as coal, lignite, crude oil, natural gas, U, Th and renewable energy resources such as hydraulic energy, geothermic energy, solar energy, weave energy and biomass energy. Turkey has 8.2 billion ton of low quality brown coal, 1 billion ton of coal, ( merely 5 /1000 of universe coal modesty ) , 50 million ton of crude oil and 14 billion of natural gas ( merely 1/10000 of universe natural gas modesty ) . ( Topal & A ; Arslan, 2008 ) . Figure 1 below illustrates the ingestion per centums of different resources.

Figure 1: Consumption of Energy Resources in Turkey

Oil, coal and natural gas are the most normally used energy resources. Unfortunately, entire natural gas and oil production can merely run into 3 % of energy demand, remainder of the energy have been imported. 90 % of the oil is imported from Saudi Arabia, Iran, Russia and Iraq. Russia is besides of import exporter of natural gas for Turkey, 63 % of natural gas has been imported from Russia while 17 % from Iran and 4 % from Azerbaijan. Lastly, 50 % of the coal ingestion is met by domestic production while staying 50 % is once more imported

Limited sum of primary energy resources consequences in 74.5 % import of energy in entire. ( Sen, 2007 ) However, high import degree consequences in uncertainness and monetary value fluctuation which is of import menace for a state ‘s hereafter in societal and economical development. The implicit in fact of high per centum of import degree is due to imbalanced production and ingestion degrees of different energy resources. Table 1 below summarizes the energy production-consumption sums in Turkey during twelvemonth 1990 to 2007.

( in Mtoe )









Entire Consumption









Entire Production



























Prod. /Cons. ( % )









Table 1: Energy Production – Consumption in Turkey during 1990-2007

The per centum of run intoing the demand from the production has been decreased from 48.1 % to 25.5 % between twelvemonth 1990 and 2007. Basically, the chief ground of the importing addition is due to miss of capableness to run into increased demand for fossil fuels ; coal, oil and natural gas. It ‘s clear that, Turkey has been confronting with energy job from past to show with dramatic acceleration. Since production degree is dependent on handiness of energy resources, the possible solution to diminish importing degree is to cut from limited sum of energy resources such as coal and crude oil and caput to possible renewable energy resources.

Through the renewable energy options, biomass has the largest production portion with 21 % in entire energy production and besides it constitutes 8 % of entire energy ingestion of Turkey. ( Balat, 2005 ) Besides, extraction of energy does non necessitate sophisticated engineering that in recent old ages involvement on biomass energy has been increasing. Following subdivision of the survey will concentrate on biomass resource potency of Turkey.

Biomass Potential in Turkey

Turkey, where economic system is dependent on agribusiness to a great extend, has large-scale of biomass resources, which are chiefly based on agricultural residues and forestry residues. In entire, Turkey has 32 Mtoe ( million dozenss of oil equivalents ) possible biomass energy resources most normally obtained from fuel wood, wheat straw, grain dust, coconut and hazelnut shells. Table 2 summarizes one-year biomass potency harmonizing to resource types.

Type of Resource

Annual Production ( Mt )

Energy Potential ( Mtoe )

Annual Crops



Perennial Crop



Forest Residues



Agribusiness Residues



Animal waste









Table 2: Annual Biomass Potential of Turkey

The sum of biomass potency is non merely equal to handiness of resources. Table 2 above shows the theoretical energy potency nevertheless, proficient energy potency is dependent on handiness and handiness of biomass beginnings that show diverseness due to differentiated premises and underestimates and besides transition efficiency ratios in different transition engineerings. ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002 ) Harmonizing to the method used by Kaygusuz and Turker, recoverable energy potency is recalculated harmonizing to proficient coefficients based on merchandise type and environmental conditions of Turkey. The coefficient is determined based on “ sing foremost the ratio of the chief merchandise and the measure associated residues or wastes, and so calorific value of such residues or wastes utilizing the most energy efficient transmutation procedure ” ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002, pp.667 ) . During the rating of the coefficients, as it is mentioned above, computations are based on the premise that most energy efficient transition type is used for each resource type. Therefore, proficient biomass potency is calculated harmonizing to ; ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002 )

Direct burning of dry harvest residues, forestry and woody residues

Anaerobic digestion of moist residues of agricultural harvests, carnal waste

Fuelwood ingestion

In the visible radiation of the information mentioned above, the entire recoverable biomass potency in Turkey is given in Table 3 below ;

Type of Resource

Energy Potential ( Mtoe )

Dry agricultural residue




Moist agricultural residue


Animal waste


Forestry & A ; wood residues


Municipality waste




Table 3: Recoverable possible biomass energy in Turkey

Forestry & A ; Wood Processing Residues

The woods cover country of 5 million hectares where 2.6 million hectares woods are known as productive ( continuously fuel wood obtained ) and staying 2.4 million hectares are spoiled woods ( not- continuously acquisition of fuel wood ) ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002 ) Table 4 below summarizes the forest potency of Turkey. Through forestry resources, fuel wood is the most popular beginning for biomass energy ( due to practical aggregation and usage ) particularly in rural countries and for the hapless subdivisions of Turkey since it is most low-cost beginning of energy it is used in domestic usage such as warming, cookery and cleansing. Furthermore, fuel wood is consumed in non-commercial base in 6.5 million places. ( Topal & A ; Arslan, 2008 ) On the other manus, half of the fuel wood production is obtained by informal cutting that entire production sum is non wholly dependable.

Forest Potential

Resources ( thousand M3 )

Annual Growth ( thousand M3 )

Entire High Productive






Other Woodland



Entire Low Productive






Other Woodland






Table 4: Forest Potential in Turkey

From forestry and wood wastes about 4.3 Mtoe of energy can be obtained which is able to run into 4 % energy demand in Turkey. In recent old ages, forest industry in Turkey has been developed in the purpose of run intoing the sector demand and industrial wood production has been increased by 35 % . ( General Directorate of Forestry, 2009 ) . As a consequence, industrial wood production has increased to 10 million M3 and fire wood production has increased to 4 million M3

Agricultural residues

Agriculture holds an of import topographic point in Turkey ‘s economic system. In that mode, Turkey has high agricultural potency where most normally used resources are wheat, barley and maize. The sums of production from different resources are given in Table 5 below.

Entire agricultural residue obtained after reaping of 54.4 million dozenss agriculture resource varies between 40-53 million dozenss. Assuming the entire humidness norm is 15 % , the agricultural residue sum that can be used in biomass power works is around 30 million dozenss. Wheat holds the highest portion with one-year production of 26 million dozenss where 7.2Mt of oil tantamount energy is extracted. Following, from barley straws, a important sum, 3.9 Mtoe of energy is produced. Apart from wheat and barley, Turkey besides holds the possible energy from maize chaff, cotton, sunflower shell, hazelnut shell, rye straw and fruit shells. Harmonizing to the Table 4, although theoretical entire energy that could be obtained from agricultural residues is 15.5 Mtoe, as it is mentioned above one-year proficient energy potency is 4.81 Mtoe.

Alternatively, fuel production from energy harvests is available in Turkey. Potential ethanol production from sugar cane is between 2-2.5 million dozenss that contributes 60-70 % of entire fuel ingestion of Turkey. Furthermore, bio-diesel production from sunflower, cotton, canola is around 2.3 million dozenss. ( World Energy Council Turkish National Comittee, 2008 )

Beginning Type

Annual Production ( Mt )

Energy ( Mtoe )

Wheat straw



Barley straw



Maize chaff



Cotton shell



Sunflower shell



Sugar Beta vulgaris



Hazelnut shell



Oat straw



Rye straw



Rice chaff



Fruit shell






Table 5: Biomass potency of agricultural residues in Turkey ( Balat, 2005 )

Animal & A ; Municipality Solid Waste

Animal farming is another beginning of income for the people in Turkish society. An environmental status of the state is appropriate for carnal farmings so that carnal waste sum is unafraid resource for biomass energy. Entire theoretical energy potency than can be obtained from carnal waste is 7.8 Mtoe and detailed information about animate being types is demonstrated in Table 6.

Animal type

Number of Animals ( million )

Energy Potential ( Mtoe )

Recoverable Energy

( Mtoe )

Domestic fowl




Sheep and caprine animals




Cattle and American bison




Donkey, Equus caballus, camel








Table 6: Annual Animal Waste Potential in Turkey ( Demirbas, 2008 )

The transition engineering that is used in pull outing the energy from carnal waste is anaerobiotic digestion. Based on the information given in transition engineerings subdivision of the survey, the transition efficiency in anaerobiotic digestion of dried carnal waste varies between 50 % and 70 % . Therefore, entire recoverable energy is calculated based on transition efficiency ratios and proficient energy sum is given as 2.4 Mtoe that represents 2.35 % Turkey one-year energy demand. The terminal merchandise of anaerobiotic digestion biogas, has production potency between 2.5-4 billion M3 that is tantamount to 1,5-2 Mtoe where 85 % of biogas is produced from carnal waste ( 50 % from sheep, 43 % cowss, 7 % poultry ) ( Topal & A ; Arslan, 2008 )

Harmonizing to statistics, entire municipal waste and industrial waste sum of Turkey is 65000 tons/day that one-year solid waste production of Turkey is 22.8 million dozenss. ( Balat, 2005 ) Although, appraisals for recoverable energy from solid waste is non typical, entire recoverable landfill gas potency is given as 1,3 Mtoe per twelvemonth. ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002 )

Current Biomass Use in Turkey

The per centum of biomass energy ingestion among entire energy ingestion has decreased from 20 % to 8 % between old ages 1980 and 2005 where fuelwood and carnal waste represent the chief resources of the energy. The chief factor of the lessening is linked to increased popularity of LPG since it is cheaper and easy to transport compared to other bio-fuels. ( Demirbas, 2008 ) Table 6 below shows the present and planned ingestion of Turkey. ( Bilgena & A ; Kaygusuz, 2008 )

Old ages

Traditional Biomass

( Mtoe )

Modern Biomass

( Mtoe )


























Table 6: Present and Planned Biomass Production in Turkey ( Kaygusuz & A ; Turker, 2002 )

Direct burning is the most normally used transition technique in Turkey. Combustion of traditional biomass ( such as fuelwood, carnal waste, logging residues ) consumed in the intent of domestic infinite warming, or cooking in rural countries. On the other manus, modern biomass burning is used in the purpose of electricity coevals. Biomass is burned to bring forth steam that is used to turn steam turbine which steers the generator to bring forth electricity. ( Balat, 2005 )

Alternate to burning, electricity coevals from gasification and pyrolysis is about ready for commercial-scale usage. ( Demirbas, Production Potential of Electricity from Biomass in Turkey, 2002 ) Harmonizing to the researches, efficiencies of biomass power workss are calculated as 25 % and electricity costs are determined as 6-8 c/kWh. ( Demirbas, Importance of biomass energy beginnings for Turkey, 2008 ) The engineering that is used in biomass power works is really similar to coal-burning power workss in footings of used steam tribune generators and fuel bringing systems that there is no demand for farther engineering.

Last non least, one-year ethyl alcohol and biodiesel production is 160 million liters, ,5 million dozenss severally. Although entire ethanol production potency is estimated 2-2.5 million dozenss that might lend 60-70 % of entire fuel demand, due to miss of ordinances, there is low involvement on ethyl alcohol and ethanol production.

Installed Biomass Plants

Turkey ‘s first biomass works is built in Adana state with the capacity of 45 MW which is solid waste power coevals works. Similarly, 2nd works is constructed in Izmit with the capacity of 5.4 MW. There are two more planned workss which are in feasibleness phase for Tarsus and Mersin states with the entire capacity of 30 MW. ( Demirbas, Importance of biomass energy beginnings for Turkey, 2008 ) Additionally, a US house is be aftering to build another power works for landfill gas capturing in Ankara with the capacity of 10 MW. ( Alboyaci, Dursun, & A ; Gokcol, 2009 )

Analysis of Biomass Usage in Turkey

Get downing with forestry biomass resources which are besides known as major fuelwood beginning, sustainability of forest country is debatable because the growing rate of wood is lower than wood production growing. Therefore, unless authorities better ordinances and surveies for uncontrolled graze, illegal film editing and re-afforestation, disappearing of forest countries will be inevitable for the state. Furthermore, half of the wood produced used as fuelwood alternatively of industrial intents which is non economical. When wood is used as fuelwood, transition efficiencies are really low on the other manus, in industrial usage the chemicals in wood can be assessed and more efficient, large-scale transition techniques are used. In that mode, for economical intents, wood ingestion should head to industrial intents alternatively of devouring wood in the signifier of fuelwood.

In Turkey merely 33 % of available land is processed. Of non-processed land 3 % of is appropriate for agribusiness. This country might be used for energy harvest cultivation. Most normally high oil involved resources such as helianthus, soybean, cotton are used once more in domestic usage in rural countries. These residues are assorted with carnal waste to increase the calorific value and obtain more energy. However, similar to fuelwood ingestion, little scale burning of agricultural residues are non efficient. In that mode, cultivation of available land for energy harvests is important for development of Turkey.

When agricultural resources are analyzed through 40 – 53 million dozenss of residue 27-35 million dozenss dry residue ( with mean 15 % humidness ) is available for energy extraction. Based on the surveies in literature, mean energy equivalent of agricultural residues in Turkey is calculated as 17.5 MJ/kg ( Ogut, Aksoy, & A ; Acaroglu, 1999 ) Therefore, entire energy potency from agricultural residue varies between 480-615 PJ which can lend in 17 % of electricity demand if they are converted with studied gasification techniques. ( Unal & A ; Alibas, 2007 )

Although entire ethanol production potency from sugar cane is around 2-2.5 million dozenss which represents 60-70 % of conveyance fuel demand in 2007, existent one-year production of ethyl alcohol is merely 160 million liters. The implicit in cause of low production is low involvement due to miss of governmental ordinances which supports ethyl alcohol ingestion. Through the concluding fuel mix ( 90 % gasolene, 10 % ethyl alcohol ) merely 2 % of the mix is exempted from revenue enhancement. ( World Energy Council Turkish National Committee, 2008 ) The revenue enhancement free part of the mix constitutes 80-90 million liters of ethyl alcohol so that there is no other involvement for ethanol production. However, in most of the states bio ethanol ingestion is mandatory and fuel mix is exempted from revenue enhancement by 5 % . Therefore, in Turkey similar Torahs and ordinances are required to increase the attending on bio ethyl alcohol ingestion both for economical and environmental benefit.

Opportunities and Restrictions

Since Turkey has limited sum of dodo fuel resources, to diminish the importing degree that obstruct economical development of state. Renewable energy holds important possible to get the better of energy related jobs. Turkey is rich state in footings of biomass resources that can be used to run into energy demand. In recent old ages, consciousness of biomass energy potency has increased. Biomass starts to pull investors ‘ attending. Although authorities improved new ordinances for biomass energy sector there are still some obstructions that slow down the procedure. Below, current chances and restrictions are summarized.


For the encouragement of investors of renewable energy and domestic production Turkish authorities has legislated energy policies which can be summarized as ;

Harmonizing to Law Number: 5346 accepted on 10.05.2005 ;

5-5,5 Eurocent/kWh sterling monetary value is guaranteed for electricity production from renewable energy resources.

Harmonizing to Law Number: 5346 accepted on 10.05.2005 ;

For 1st 10 twelvemonth and 2nd 10 twelvemonth stated monetary value program has generated for electricity production from renewable energy. For any type of biomass stated monetary value is decided to be 14 Euro cent /kWh for the 1st 10 twelvemonth and 8 Euro cent /kWh for the 2nd 10 twelvemonth ( General Directorate of Forestry, 2009 )

Harmonizing to Law Number: 5346 accepted on 10.05.2005 ;

3 types of authorities support determined for investors of renewable energy

Exemption of duty

Interest support for loan

Exemption of VAT ( Value Addition Tax ) for required equipment purchase and sale

To promote R & A ; D undertakings, particular revenue enhancement recognition chance is given that provide 3 old ages delay for 20 % of the loan without any excess involvement.


Institutional, legal and executive restrictions that constraints the biomass energy potency in Turkey can be summarized as ;

Troubles in definition of mandates in institutional degree and deficiency of coordination between governmental foundations and establishments

Lack of authorization of municipalities to garner necessary information

Lack of information for the exact sum of biomass resources in current state of affairs and for the hereafter.

Incompetence income from local revenue enhancement for renewable energy

Time devouring procedure for foreign investors

Lack of forces with forte in biomass country

Lack of policies in energy and agribusiness sectors

Low degree of consciousness of populace for importance of biomass energy

Lack of national R & A ; D plans for energy sector. Most of the researches are done by universities and statistics are non recorded decently.

Lack of advertisement to pull investors.

Plague Analysis

There are many factors that will impact the determination of come ining biomass energy sector in Turkey. To analyse current place of biomass and to expect future presence of biomass energy, it is necessary to see external factors that might act upon biomass energy development. Particularly, for specifying possible chances, hazards and menaces with the expansion of market is of import since in current state of affairs, there is no large market. Therefore, PEST Analysis will be used as a tool to indicate out the large image for biomass energy in Turkey from political, economical, societal and technological positions.


From political position, foremost of all clean energy ingestion is important in footings of Turkey ‘s moves to fall in European Union. EU has already set a mark of 20 % sustainable energy so that development of biomass energy as a clean energy beginning is of import for Turkey ‘s repute. Not merely for EU marks of Turkey, there is international force per unit area on clean energy production so that Turkey ‘s part to renewable energy will besides impact Turkish authorities ‘s political developments.

Turkish authorities provide 60 % fund for R & A ; D developments of 3 establishments SPO ( State Planning Organization ) , General Directorate of Electric Power Resource Survey and Development Administration and The Scientific and Technological Council of Turkey in the purpose of promoting renewable energy. Another point that needs to be pointed out in political analysis of biomass energy market in Turkey is the high bureaucratism for foreign investors that takes around 1 twelvemonth to complete processs for biomass works undertakings.

Turkey has published 1st renewable energy policy in 2003 in the edict of Modification of the Licence Regulation in Electricity Market that was the first clip biomass is mentioned in a jurisprudence. After 2004, legal ordinances for bio-diesel are arranged. Bio-diesel production can merely be done based on TS EN 14213 criterions with the given license from Energy Market Regularity Authority. Turkish authorities has besides arranged new revenue enhancement policies for biomass terminal merchandise that will be discussed in economical subdivision of the analysis in item.


Biomass is domestic secure resource for energy that will assist to cut down importing degrees for oil and natural gas. Harmonizing the surveies in literature, electricity production from recoverable biomass resources has potency of $ 4.4billion income that will better the income distribution. ( Demirbas, 2008 ) Particularly, biomass power works constructed close to rural countries will assist to better economical development of these countries. The increased demand for biomass fuel which is obtained from agricultural residues will convey the uncultivated lands back to economic system.

To promote biomass energy production and ingestion authorities introduced new ordinance and policies that has already mentioned in chances of biomass subdivision above. New economical tendencies can be summarized as ;

5-5,5 Eurocent/kWh sterling monetary value is guaranteed for electricity production from renewable energy resources.

For any type of biomass stated monetary value is decided to be 14 Euro cent /kWh for the 1st 10 twelvemonth and 8 Euro cent /kWh for the 2nd 10 twelvemonth ( General Directorate of Forestry, 2009 )

2 % freedom from revenue enhancement for ethyl alcohol assorted fuels

For the investors, freedom of duty, involvement support for loan, freedom of VAT for needed equipment purchase and sale


First of all development of biomass energy marker, new workss contractions will give convey new occupation chances. Again, surveies in literature claim that around biomass market represents 160.00 new occupation chances. ( Demirbas, 2008 ) Besides, income per capita will increase that life criterions of citizen will besides improved.

Environmental advantages of biomass energy are undeniable. Combustion of biomass resources produce less green house gases such as N oxides and sulfur dioxide. Making demand for bio-diesel, ethanol, methyl alcohol and other vegetable oil beginnings will diminish pollutant dodo fuel ingestion that C emanations will besides cut down.

Not merely advantages but disadvantages of biomass energy still exist. Through burning of solid waste, heavy toxic metal are released to the ambiance so that new engineerings are required to diminish the toxic chemical degrees produced in energy extraction from waste. Furthermore, fuelwood production from woods may ensue in forest devastation unless necessary reafforestation programmes are developed.


The engineering degree used for pull outing the energy from biomass is non sophisticated in Turkey. However, Turkish authorities has developed new policies for encouragement of technological equipment purchase and sale. In current state of affairs, engineerings for bio-diesel bio-gas, ethyl alcohol is available with gasification and pyrolysis techniques. Besides, electricity coevals from burning system is available for commercial usage.


Like remainder of the universe states, Turkey is confronting with increased energy related jobs in 21st century. More than 70 % of the energy is imported which prevent the state economical and societal development. In that mode, renewable energy has high potency to be lasting solution for energy related jobs. Turkey has rich biomass resources particularly in fuel wood and agricultural residues. Replacing fossil fuel ingestion with domestic resources is the lone solution to avoid negative effects of high import per centums. Furthermore, non merely for economical grounds, environmental impacts of biomass energy demand to be considered in Turkey as in other states for human wellness because there is dissatisfactory addition in C emanations per capita between the old ages 1990-2006

Through the PEST Analysis of biomass energy market in Turkey possible chances and menaces are defined. More research and development is necessary to increase biomass energy efficiency. In current state of affairs, although encouraging edicts, new energy policies and ordinances are available these are non plenty to pull investors. The authorities demand to fix fiscal inducements for biomass energy use and raise the witting of public about storage of biomass resources to be able obtain maximal efficiency from biomass resources.