Colonialism Heart Of Darkness And Chinua Achebes English Literature Essay

Joseph Conrad ‘s novelette, Heart of Darkness is considered to be a great work of art non merely because it distressingly portrays how viciously and unjustly the indigens are treated in the African wilderness, but besides because its intervention of colonialism is considered a basis in the history of western fiction.

Colonialism refers to the endeavor by which a state extends its authorization over other districts ; it is characterized by an unequal relationship between the settlers and the indigens of a state. Settlers normally think that they are making the state good by conveying civilisation and enlightenment ; nevertheless the consequence is atrociousness and decease. This is clearly portrayed in Heart of Darkness. One of the characters who exercises colonialism is Kurtz whose chief intent is pull outing tusk from the land in whatever manner he can. He is treated as a supernatural authorization by the Africans who ever seem to obey and listen to him carefully. Marlow indicates the Africans ‘ obeisance to Kurtz when he tells us, “ He was non afraid of the indigens ; they would non stir till Mr. Kurtz gave the word. His dominance was extraordinary. The cantonments of these people surrounded the topographic point, and the heads came every twenty-four hours to see him. They would creep. ” ( p. 131 ) Kurtz believes that everything in the wilderness belongs to him, as Marlow hears him state, “ My Intended, my tusk, my station, my river, myaˆ¦ ” ( p. 116 ) Furthermore, he thinks that there is nil incorrect with what he ‘s making ; on the contrary, Kurtz believes that he ‘s making the right thing. His civilisation mission and his doctrine sing the indigens are expressed in his study of which Marlow tells: “ But it was a beautiful piece of composing. The gap paragraph, nevertheless, in the visible radiation of ulterior information, work stoppages me now as baleful. He began with the statement that we Whites, from the point of development we had arrived at, ‘must needfully look to them [ barbarians ] in the nature of supernatural existences — we approach them with the might as of a divinity, ‘ and so on, and so on. By the simple exercising of our will we can exercise a power for good practically boundless, ‘ etc. , etc. ” ( p. 118 ) Although Marlow is non a indigen, he finds himself obliged to be treated like one. In other words, he finds himself responding in the really same manner as the indigens themselves to Kurtz ‘s authorization. “ I did non bewray Mr. Kurtz – it was ordered I should ne’er bewray him – it was written I should be loyal to the incubus of my pick. ” ( p. 141 ) It is interesting that Marlow refers to Kurtz as ‘the incubus ‘ ; it seems as if he is hypnotized by him and has no pick but to make as he is told. Furthermore, the phrase, ‘it was ordered ‘ adds to the ambiguity of what Marlow is seeking to state. He could hold said, ‘I was ordered ‘ but he does non.

It is deserving adverting here that Heart of Darkness is a novel that is partly biographical. Conrad was obliged to seek employment with a Belgian company in Africa due to hard labour conditions in 1889. Although he stayed for a short piece in Africa, it was an experience that shattered his wellness and changed his world-view, while the moral debasement he witnessed in the Congo ‘s economic development disgusted him. A decennary after this, he wrote Heart of Darkness, which is about his experience in Africa. What is truly dry is that in the book Joseph Conrad in Context, it is mentioned more than one time that Conrad ne’er got over his experience in Africa, as if other people in his topographic point would non experience the same thing! So fundamentally, Marlow seems to repeat Conrad ‘s ain sentiments in his novel.

Settlers are driven to work tusk at an insatiate rate without even trouble oneselfing to believe about the annihilating effects on the indigens. This is really clearly shown in the undermentioned quotation mark: Marlow refers to the tusk merchandisers as a “ devoted set ” naming themselves “ the Eldorado Exploring Expedition. ” He says “ they were sworn to secrecy. ” They spoke the linguistic communication of “ seamy pirates: it was foolhardy without boldness, greedy without audaciousness, and cruel without bravery ; there was non an atom of foresight or of serious purpose in the whole batch of them, and they did non look cognizant these things are wanted for the work of the universe. To rupture hoarded wealth out of the bowels of the land was their desire, with no more moral intent at the dorsum of it than there is in burglars interrupting into a safe. ” ( p. 87 ) In brief, what these colonisers were making was purposeless, which in bend agencies that the effects which were brought approximately as a consequence of their actions were besides useless.

Furthermore, the settlers had a quasi Godhead authorization to make as they pleased in the settlements ; this is portrayed by the conversation between the uncle and the nephew, which was overheard by Marlow, “ ‘Certainly, ‘ grunted the other ; ‘get him hanged! Why non? Anything — anything can be done in this state. That ‘s what I say ; cipher here, you understand, here, can jeopardize your place. And why? You stand the clime — you outlast them all. ‘ ” ( p. 91 ) Here, they are speaking about hanging Kurtz ‘s helper and likely Kurtz himself, so that they can acquire Kurtz ‘s ownerships, including his tusk.

Colonialism is besides explored in other parts of the novelette, where the reader can see merely how pitilessly and viciously the indigens are treated by the colonisers. When Marlow is on a soft-shell clam with a Swedish captain, he describes how the indigens, whom he sees on his manner to the station, are being exploited and treated as mere animals. All the indigens are represented as being bare and dreadfully thin ; they are ne’er referred to as worlds. They are forced to work under difficult conditions, are given no apparels, and are left to hunger: “ A uninterrupted noise of the rapids above hovered over this scene of inhabited desolation. A batch of people, largely black and bare, moved about like emmets. A breakwater projected into the river. A blinding sunshine drowned all this at times in a sudden recrudescence of blaze. ” ( p. 63 ) When Marlow eventually arrives at the station, he sees yet another traumatising scene,

“ A little clinking behind me made me turn my caput. Six black work forces advanced in a file, laboring up the way. They walked vertical and slow, equilibrating little baskets full of Earth on their caputs, and the chink kept clip with their footfalls. Black shred were wound round their pubess, and the short terminals behind waggled to and fro like dress suits. I could see every rib, the articulations of their limbs were similar knots in a rope ; each had an Fe neckband on his cervix, and all were connected together with a concatenation whose bights swung between them, rhythmically clinkingaˆ¦ but these work forces could by no stretch of imaginativeness be called enemies. They were called felons, and the indignant jurisprudence, like the bursting shells, had come to them, an indissoluble enigma from the sea. All their meagre chests panted together, the violently dilated anterior nariss quivered, the eyes stared stonily acclivitous. They passed me within six inches, without a glimpse, with that complete, deathly indifference of unhappy barbarians. Behind this natural affair one of the reclaimed, the merchandise of the new forces at work, strolled despairingly, transporting a rifle by its center. He had a unvarying jacket with one button off. ” ( p. 64 )

When reading this transition, one can non assist but inquire, how could these hapless indigens perchance be felons? They do every individual thing they are told to make, without the least spot of complaining and yet, they are called felons. The words ‘tails, ‘ ‘collar, ‘ ‘breasts panted, ‘ and ‘dilated anterior nariss ‘ instantly bring to the head the image of Canis familiariss. And of class, we should non bury the coloniser, who is right behind them with a rifle, doing certain that these work forces walk ‘in a file, ‘ ‘without peeking ‘ at Marlow, and merely ‘staring stonily uphill. ‘ So non merely are they compared to animate beings, but they are besides expected to work like machines!

This is the chief ground why Achebe does non accept Heart of Darkness, it is because he does non like the manner African people are portrayed in it. Chinua Achebe, a Nigerian poet and novelist, was attracted to Conrad ‘s Heart of Darkness as a kid. However, in the 1970s, he changed his head about it and until today, he continues to disregard the novel. In his essay on Conrad ‘s novel, Achebe attempts to explicate why. He says that what Conrad is awfully disquieted about is the thought of affinity between him and the inkinesss, which is why he dehumanizes them. Contrasting with this is Edward Said ‘s sentiment that Conrad is overstating the imperialistic and the dehumanizing disagreements so that we, as readers, are outraged at its unfairness and hence work out “ solutions ” for ourselves. In other words, Heart of Darkness is, harmonizing to Said, a self-referential novel. But still, Achebe has a strong point in stating that Conrad has dehumanized the Africans because Conrad seems to be obsessed with the words ‘black ‘ and ‘darkness ‘ since he associates them with the Africans and uses these words legion times throughout his novel.

Convincingly Achebe believes that the most telling transitions in the novel are about people. He says that the undermentioned quotation mark contains the significance of Heart of Darkness, “ aˆ¦ but what thrilled you was merely the idea of your distant affinity with this wild and passionate tumult. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly adequate aˆ¦ ” If merely the idea was thrilling, so what would cognize make to us? ! It is this ‘remote affinity ‘ that seems to terrorise Conrad and is implied throughout the fresh several times.

However, his transitions about the indigens or barbarians, as Conrad refers to them, seem a mere description of what they are and what they are traveling to make. His personal sentiments are ne’er revealed. But the vocabulary he chooses and the manner he describes the Africans force the reader to sympathise with them. However, there are parts in the novel where we can deduce that Conrad, although non demoing sympathy towards the barbarians, can non bear looking at them. For illustration, when he sees the six work forces tied to each other with ironss around their cervixs, he says, “ My thought was to allow that chain-gang get out of sight before I climbed the hill. ” And in another incident, he says, “ The injury nigga moaned feebly someplace nearby, and so fetched a deep suspiration that made me repair my gait off from at that place. ” Clearly, he was non strong plenty to neither hear nor see these barbarians being treated pitilessly.

When Marlow arrives at the Central Station, he witnesses more of these atrociousnesss towards the ‘niggers. ‘ The director of the station is seemingly an barbarian individual who is at that place merely because he has n’t been badly, as Marlow tells us, “ He had no mastermind for forming, for inaugural, or for order even. That was apparent in such things as the distressing province of the station. He had no acquisition, and no intelligence. His place had come to him — why? Possibly because he was ne’er badly. . . He had served three footings of three old ages out thereaˆ¦He was neither civil nor rude. He was quiet. He allowed his ‘boy ‘ — an overfed immature Black from the seashore — to handle the white work forces, under his really eyes, with arousing crust. ” ( p. 74 )

One of Conrad ‘s greatest frights that is implied in the novel is the possibility of the Whites holding ‘distant affinity ‘ with the inkinesss, and this is mentioned by Achebe. This explains why Marlow was n’t able to bury his African steersman ‘s expression on his face merely before he died, “ And the intimate reconditeness of that expression he gave me when he received his injury remains to this twenty-four hours in my memory – like a claim of distant affinity affirmed in a supreme minute. ” Conrad ‘s careful word pick of ‘distant affinity ‘ instead than ‘brother, ‘ for illustration, is carefully observed by Achebe. He understands that Conrad is seeking, every bit much as possible, to make beds between himself and the indigens. Besides, the words ‘remains to this twenty-four hours in my memory, ‘ are understood by Achebe as a negative intension, as if this ‘memory ‘ continues to torment him to this really twenty-four hours. Achebe concludes from this that Conrad is a racialist.

Furthermore, Achebe states that Conrad has dehumanized Africans. But I do non hold with him on this point. My grounds to this can be seen in this quotation mark, when Marlow who can be considered Conrad ‘s mouthpiece at this case says, “ The conquering of the Earth, which largely means the taking it off from those who have a different skin color or somewhat flatter olfactory organs than ourselves, is non a pretty thing when you look into it excessively much. ” We can deduce from this quotation mark that Conrad was really against the thought of Africans being treated the manner they were. Besides, harmonizing to Edward Said, Conrad, being a animal of his clip, ‘could non allow the indigens their freedom, despite his terrible review of the imperialism that enslaved them. ‘ In other words, Conrad was against this imperialism and he criticized it every bit good, but the epoch that he lived in made it impossible for him to make anything about it. In my sentiment, it might be that Conrad ne’er meant to dehumanise the Africans ; it might be that the experience he was traveling through during his stay in Africa was so overpowering to him that he could non or was non able to uncover his understanding. Possibly he did non desire to uncover anything at all in order to stress it being a portion of its “ darkness. ” After all, it is Conrad himself who chose to compose his novel in an equivocal and elusive manner which leaves the reader with at a loss ideas about what precisely Conrad is seeking to state. Almost everything in Heart of Darkness seems ; everything is non is.

In decision, as we can see, illustrations of colonial Acts of the Apostless are displayed throughout Heart of Darkness. Settlers take over the wilderness and pattern development merely to get tusk. But at the same, the settlers ‘ actions are purposeless, such as when they order the indigens to aimlessly blare the railroad when there is really nil to blare. This brings about the failure of their development and educating mission.

Plants cited:

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. London: J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd, 1967

Achebe, Chinua. “ An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad ‘s ‘Heart of Darkness ‘ ” Massachusetts Review. 18. 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Beginnings Criticism. 1961. 3rd erectile dysfunction. Ed. Robert Kimbrough, London: W. W Norton and Co. , 1988, pp.251-261

hypertext transfer protocol: //kirbyk.net/hod/image.of.africa.html

Said, Edward. “ Two Visions in Heart of Darkness ” Culture and Imperialism, ( 1993 ) pp. 22-31

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecfs.org/Projects/EastWest/Readings/SaidConrad.pdf

Feminism in To the Lighthouse

Mrs. Ramsay vs. Lily Briscoe

During Virginia Woolf ‘s clip, adult females were deprived of legion rights which work forces had entree to, including instruction. Womans were merely expected to acquire married, give birth to kids, raise them, and take attention of the family. However, towards the terminal of the nineteenth century, a series of feminist motions began, whose concern was to give equality to adult females in footings of instruction, employment, and matrimony Torahs. These motions are known as the three moving ridges of feminism. The First Wave occurred in the late nineteenth century and ended in the early twentieth century, during Woolf ‘s clip ; its primary additions were to get the right to vote and the right to pattern birth control. Virginia Woolf, among other female authors, had to contend for her rights as a adult female. In the novel, To the Lighthouse, Woolf presents two female characters, Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe, as complete antonyms. Mrs. Ramsay is depicted as a subservient Victorian adult female, whose chief mission is non merely to take attention of her household, but besides of others around her. This was really typical of Victorian adult females, who fundamentally spent their clip at place, doing certain that everything was tidy and all right. However, Lily Briscoe on the other manus, is the entire antonym of Mrs. Ramsay. The fact that she achieves her vision and completes her image at the terminal of the novel is because she has asserted her rights as an independent person and has rejected Victorian morality.

Throughout the novel, it is clearly understood that Mrs. Ramsay is an uneducated adult female. Her deficiency of instruction is presented in several quotation marks: “ What did it all intend? To this twenty-four hours she had no impression. A square root? What was that? Her boies knew. ” ( p. 123 ) Woolf ‘s deliberate usage of ‘sons ‘ alternatively of ‘sons and girls ‘ or ‘children ‘ is to demo that Mrs. Ramsay ‘s girls, merely like Mrs. Ramsay herself, are uneducated. “ Her hubby radius. He was reiterating something, and she knew it was poesy from the beat and the ring of ecstasy and melancholy in his voice. ” ( p. 129 ) This once more shows her deficiency of instruction, for she recognizes that her hubby is talking poesy because of the beat and tone, non because she knows the poet Charles Elton. Even while reading a book, she has no impression of what she is reading, for she feels that she is “ mounting backwards, upwards, jostling her manner up under petals that curved over her, so that she merely knew that this is white, or this is ruddy. She did non cognize at first what the words meant at all. ” ( p. 139 ) Besides, when Charles Tansley negotiations to her about his thesis, she is non able to “ rather catch the significance, merely the words, here and thereaˆ¦ dissertationaˆ¦ fellowshipaˆ¦ readershipaˆ¦ lectureship. She could non follow the ugly academic slang. ” ( p. 13 ) Although this may look overdone, it was really true of the status of adult females during that clip. Womans being uneducated was a privilege to work forces for this gave them high quality and complete control over adult females. While looking at his married woman reading, Mr. Ramsay “ wondered what she was reading and exaggerated her ignorance, her simpleness, for he liked to believe that she was non cagey, non book-learned at all. He wondered if she understood what she was reading. Probably non, he thought. She was amazingly beautiful. ” ( p. 141 ) Not merely does he look to bask that his married woman is uneducated, but he besides mocks at her for non being able to understand what she is reading. The lone thing that he praises about her is her beauty.

In his critical essay, John Hardy presents the metaphor of Mrs. Ramsay as a queen. He claims that she is invariably queen like during dinner ; while sitting at the caput of the tabular array, she carefully observes, one by one, each and every individual sitting round the tabular array. Hardy furthermore says that Mrs. Ramsay is enabled to prevail over her hubby, because during dinner and even afterwards when dinner is over, she is able to “ read his head. ” These two qualities, once more, promote the female, i.e. Mrs. Ramsay, over the male, i.e. Mr. Ramsay.

However, although being uneducated, Mrs. Ramsay seems to hold supernatural powers, such as holding forebodings and projecting enchantments. “ They must come now, Mrs. Ramsay thought, looking at the door, and at that blink of an eye, Minta Doyle, Paul Rayley, and a amah transporting a great dish in her custodies came in together. ” ( p. 114 ) “ Always she got her ain manner in the terminal, Lily thoughtaˆ¦ She put a enchantment on them all, by wishing, so merely, so straight. ” ( p. 118 ) These are powers that none of the male characters in the novel have ; in fact they do non even seem to understand such things. Woolf, by giving Mrs. Ramsay such powers, has elevated the female figure to a higher position. “ Will you non state me merely for one time that you love me? … But she could non make it ; she could non state itaˆ¦ For she had triumphed once more. ” ( p. 144 ) Mrs. Ramsay, by non stating the thing that her hubby really urgently wants her to state, has triumphed over him. Harmonizing to John Hardy, in this scene, what may look to us as Mrs. Ramsay ‘s surrendering to her hubby is in fact the opposite. By acknowledging that he was right and that they would non be able to travel to the beacon, she has surrendered to her hubby. But because, while making so, she has lost her ego, i.e. her personality as a Victorian adult female, the resignation becomes a victory. In other words, her being able to state that she was incorrect topographic points her, Hardy says, “ on another and higher plane ” which is doubtless right. Hardy, moreover, positions Lily ‘s concluding picture of Mrs. Ramsay as an esteem of her, in victory over her hubby.

Even more of import than her powers and intuitions is the fact that she non merely takes attention of her household, but besides of others around her, as we learn that she knits a stocking for the beacon keeper ‘s sick male child. ( p. 5 ) It is Mrs. Ramsay who prepares dinner for her full household every bit good as the invitees and tries her best, during dinner, to do certain everything goes all right. This once more is another feature of a typical Victorian adult female. After all, “ it was non knowledge but integrity that she desired. ” ( p. 59 )

Interestingly, Hardy argues it is Mrs. Ramsay who holds everything together and therefore is the cardinal figure of the novel. After all, it is merely after Mrs. Ramsay ‘s decease that the characters feel “ an intolerable silence with undertones of terror. ” Since Mrs. Ramsay is gone, her power has besides gone. Furthermore, we are left with the idea that if it was n’t for her, there ne’er would hold been a trip to the beacon. And Lily excessively, is able to finish her painting merely after Mrs. Ramsay ‘s decease. Berenice A. Carroll, nevertheless, in her essay, “ To Crush him in our ain State, ” has opposed this position. Harmonizing to her, it is Lily who is the heroine of the novel. But the fact that she is persistently associated with being “ small ” and “ undistinguished ” and besides that “ she paints as she sees, non as the dominant creative person of the clip ” makes her anti-heroine.

By making the character of Lily Briscoe, Woolf presents the absolute antonym of Mrs. Ramsay. Although faced by many obstructions, viz. Charles Tansley, who tells her “ adult females ca n’t paint, adult females ca n’t compose ” ( p. 56 ) and whose voice seems to stalk her for the remainder of her life, Lily Briscoe overcomes them and succeeds in asseverating her rights and accomplishing her vision. It is this exact thing that has shocked many readers in the Modernist Era – a adult female interrupting off from Victorian beliefs and imposts. Every clip Lily hears Charles ‘ words “ adult females ca n’t paint, adult females ca n’t compose ” ( pp. 100, 106, 183, 184, 228 ) in her caput, she is greatly disturbed and battles, yet does non give up. Aside from stating that adult females can neither paint nor compose, Charles besides believes that “ It was the adult females ‘s mistake. Women huffy civilisation impossible with all their ‘charm, ‘ all their absurdity. ” ( p. 99 ) Womans, harmonizing to him, are capturing and silly, nil more.

Yet, what is dry is that while everybody is holding dinner together, it is Lily who comes to Charles ‘ deliverance after he goes through great strivings in order to province his sentiments. “ Lily Briscoe knew all that. Siting opposite him could she non see, as in an X-ray exposure, the ribs and thigh castanetss of the immature adult male ‘s desire to affect himself lying dark in the mist of his flesh – that thin mist which convention had laid over his firing desire to interrupt into the conversation? But she thought, sleep togethering up her Chinese eyes, and retrieving how he sneered at adult females, ‘ca n’t pigment, ca n’t compose, ‘ why should I assist him to alleviate himself? ” ( pp. 105-106 ) Lily can really clearly see that Charles is enduring for non being able to fall in the conversation, yet she does non assist and bask observation, instead she sits at that place “ smiling. ” “ Of class for the hundred and 50th clip Lily Briscoe had to abdicate the experiment – what happens if one is non nice to that immature adult male there – and be nice. ” ( p. 107 ) It is merely after Mrs. Ramsay ‘s petition that Lily eventually helps Charles and he is “ alleviated. ” Again, it is adult females who seem more powerful than work forces and come to the deliverance.

Mrs. Ramsay besides functions as a lucifer shaper in the novel. In fact, this is the lone thing she seems to be believing of most of the clip. “ She was driven on, excessively rapidly she knew, about as if it were an flight for her excessively, to state that people must get married ; people must hold kids. ” ( p. 70 ) Mrs. Ramsay ‘s belief that people must acquire married really seems to come out of her spontaneously. The word ‘driven ‘ shows that she can non assist but believe this manner. Of Paul and Minta, Mrs. Ramsay keeps take a firm standing that they must get married. ( p. 57 ) In fact, Paul is driven to suggest to Minta because of Mrs. Ramsay ‘s ceaseless insisting. ( p. 136 ) This shows that Mrs. Ramsay is merely concerned with doing the lucifer, but wholly apathetic of its results, as what happens to Paul and Minta. This is precisely why Hardy argues that Mrs. Ramsay is a “ prodigious egoist ” – the fact that she matches up twosomes and arranges walks for them by the beach but at the same clip is irresponsible of their results does in truth show her as narcissistic.

“ Ah, but was non that Lily Briscoe sauntering along with William Bankes? Yes, so it was. Did that non intend that they would get married? Yes, it must! What an admirable thought! They must get married! ” ( p. 83 ) Another clear case where we see Mrs. Ramsay being obsessed with fiting up people for them to acquire married. However, Lily is the lone adult female in the novel to asseverate her independency as an person. By making this, she becomes Mrs. Ramsay ‘s foil. Lily, in fact expressions at matrimony, as “ debasement ” and “ dilution. ” “ She need non get married, thank Eden: she need non undergo that debasement. She was saved from that dilution. ” ( p. 119 ) In his essay, Hardy points out that Lily goes every bit far as to depict Mrs. Ramsay ‘s matchmaking mission as “ passion of hers for matrimony. ” After ten old ages, when Lily does in fact non acquire married, she feels she has “ triumphed over Mrs. Ramsay. ” ( p. 202 ) “ I must travel the tree to the center ; that affairs – nil else. ” ( p. 100 ) For Lily, her art is more of import to her than anything else, including matrimony. Even while holding dinner, while everybody is engaged in conversation, all Lily can believe approximately is how to better her picture. During Woolf ‘s clip, it was really hard for adult females to acquire educated and even if they were educated in secret, it was hard for them to print their authorship. Therefore, they had to conceal their work and Woolf shows this in her novel through the character of Lily. “ She kept a antenna of her milieus lest person should crawl up, and all of a sudden she should happen her image looked at. ” ( p. 20 ) “ and so to clasp some suffering leftover of her vision to her chest, which a 1000 forces did their best to tweak from her. ” ( p. 22 ) These two parts are where Virginia Woolf has really skilfully portrayed the trouble adult females had to travel through in order to make what work forces could without confronting any adversities.

Mrs. Ramsay ‘s girls, in a sense, resemble Lily, though non wholly, in that they excessively dream of a life, where they do “ non ever have to take attention of some adult male or other. ” ( p. 7 ) However, this is non what Mrs. Ramsay believes. During dinner, she looks at Prue, her eldest girl who is watching Minta, and says to herself, “ You will be every bit happy as she is one of these yearss. You will be much happier, she added, because you are my girl, ” ( p. 128 ) mentioning that she will acquire married.

Mrs. Ramsay believes that adult females, merely through matrimony, will happen true felicity. Harmonizing to her, “ an single adult female has missed the best of life. ” ( p. 58 ) Ironically, those who do acquire married in the fresh terminal up in a tragic life. After Paul and Minta ‘s matrimony, non even a twelvemonth base on ballss and Paul leaves Minta for another adult female. As for Prue Ramsay, she dies in childbearing. Even Mrs. Ramsay dies. It is as if these adult females are taught a lesson for following Victorian conventions.

Lily, on the other manus, does non acquire married and is rewarded by being able to finish her picture that she had started ten old ages ago. Hardy points out that Woolf has intentionally chosen to stop her novel with Lily and her picture, nil else. We ne’er get to cognize about the work of Augustus Carmichael, the merely other creative person in the novel. This once more, is done deliberately by Woolf, her intent was to reenforce Lily ‘s, and in bend the female ‘s work over that of the male.