Contemporary Issues in Business – Alcohol Consumption

Contemporary Issues in Business Introduction: In global terms, Europe is the continent with the highest alcohol consumption. In some European countries, alcohol-related deaths are estimated to account for 6% of total mortality (Harkin et al. , 1997). Alcohol consumption is responsible for a large number of disadvantages and adverse effects on government budgets, such as productivity losses through reduced Output and alcohol-related diseases. It also imposes burdens on the health service and the welfare, legal and transport sectors.

Alcohol leads to some social consequences as violence, arguments etc. In this assignment we will talk about the major problem caused by excessive alcohol consumption, then who or what is the responsible of this problem and finally we will talk about some solutions to solve the problem. Part I. The major problem caused by excessive alcohol consumption. First, it is important to remind that the problem of excessive alcohol consumption is not a new problem.

Indeed, this problem has ever existed as we have seen in lectures but the new point is that this problem touch now a day every class of population. We have seen in lectures that the traditional drinker is “predominantly male customer” and youngster and female will not be common. But then, theses pubs which were associated with violence finally changed their environment’s habit to face with the economics changes such as the increase of women’s purchasing power or the emergence of the influence of the US youth culture.

A pub is now a cosy place, far away from the usual insanitary tavern, in which every parts of society can enjoy a drink. So now that we have established the new trend of alcohol customer is not only male but could be all class of population, we can ask the question: what’s the major problem caused by excessive alcohol consumption? First of all, I would rather say that because the problem of the excessive alcohol consumption can touch every part of the population, this problem become a huge society issue as anybody can be involved which is quit a new phenomena.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a big bane and lead to social, physical and financial consequences which affect the rest of our environment such as family, work, friends etc. To beginning I would like to define what social consequences of alcohol are, thanks to Harald Klingemann, “The social consequences of alcohol are changes, subjectively or objectively attributed or attributable to alcohol, occurring in individual social behaviour, in social interaction or in the social environment” Harald Klingemann, L’alcool et ses consequences sociales: la dimension oubliee, 2001) Following Nina Rehn in her report “l’alcool dans la region europeenne: consommation, mefaits et politiques” (translation: “alcohol in the European region- consumption harm and policy”), 2001 we can say that in acute alcohol problems, inappropriate consumption, intoxication or binge drinking can result in drink– driving, poisoning, accidents and violence. Problems relating to intoxication Social Problems |Psychological Problems |Physical Problems | |Family arguments |Insomnia |Hepatitis | |Domestic violence |Depression |Gastritis pancreatitis | |Child neglect/abuse |Anxiety |Gout | |Domestic accidents |Amnesia |Cardiac arrhythmia | |Absenteeism from work |Attempted uicide |Accidents | |Accidents at work |Suicide |Trauma | |Inefficient work | |Strokes | |Public drunkenness | |Failure to take prescribed | |Football hooliganism | |Medicine | |Criminal damage | |Impotence | |Theft | |Fetal damage | |Burglary | | | |Assault | | | |Homicide | | | |Drink-driving | | | |Taking and driving away | | | |Road traffic accidents | | | |Sexually deviant acts | | | |Unwanted pregnancy | | | Source: Alcohol concern In alcohol-related chronic mortality and morbidity, the cumulative level of alcohol drinking over time can cause health, financial, work or family problems. Problems relating to regular heavy drinking Social Problems |Psychological Problems |Physical Problems | |Family problems |Insomnia |Fatty liver | |Divorce |Depression |Hepatitis | |Homelessness |Anxiety |Cirrhosis | |Work difficulties |Attempted suicide |Liver cancer | |Unemployment |Suicide |Gastritis | |Financial difficulties |Changes in personality |Pancreatitis | |Fraud |Amnesia |Cancer of the mouth: larynx, oesophagus | |Debt |Delirium tremens |Nutritional deficiencies | |Vagrancy |Fits of withdrawal |Obesity | |Habitual convictions for drunkenness |Hallucinosis |Diabetes | | |Dementia |Cardiomyopathy | | |Gambling |Raised blood pressure | | |Misuse of other drugs |Strokes | | | |Brain damage | | | |Neuropathy | | | |Myopathy | | | |Sexual dysfunction | | | Infertility | | | |Foetal damage | | | |Hemopoietic toxicity | | | |Reactions with other drugs | Source: Alcohol concern Moreover the excessive alcohol consumption cost a lot to the National Health Service (NHS). Indeed in addition to the cost of treating an individual’s own illnesses or accidents that have resulted from excessive alcohol consumption, the NHS must also pay for the cost of treating victims, such as those injured in a drink-driving accident. It is estimated that the annual cost of alcohol harm to the NHS in England is ? . 7bn in 2006/7 prices. This is broken down as follows  : | |Cost Estimate (? m) | |Hosiptal inpatient & day visits : | | |Directly attributable to alcohol misuse |167. 6 | |Partly attributable to alcohol misuse |1,002. 7 | |Hospital outpatient visits |272. | |Accident and emergency visits |645. 7 | |Ambulance services |372. 4 | |NHS GP consultations |102. 1 | |Practice nurse consultations |9. 5 | |Laboratory tests |N/A | |Dependency prescribed drugs |2. | |Specialist treatment services |55. 3 | |Other health care costs |54. 4 | |TOTAL |2,704. 1 | (Health Improvement Analytical Team (Department of Health), the cost of alcohol harm to the NHS in England, 2008) The European Region has the highest consumption of alcohol in the world, and it has the highest rates of alcohol-related harm, an important European health problem.

The consumption of alcoholic beverages is estimated to be responsible for some 9% of the total disease burden within the Region, increasing the risk of many medical problems, such as liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, raised blood pressure, stroke and congenital malformations. Furthermore, alcohol consumption increases the risk of family, work and social problems, such as absenteeism, accidents, unintentional injury, violence, homicide and suicide. And finally excessive consumption raise a financial problem since more and more accident are provocated by an alcohol misused. (Nina Rehn, L’alcool dans la Region europeenne : consommation, mefaits et politiques, 2001) Part II.

Who is responsible? Factors influencing levels of consumption and harm are: – Cultural and religious traditions. – The legal availability of alcoholic drink – the number and kind of licensed premises and their hours of opening (eg: happy hours) – The price of alcoholic drink and consumer purchasing power. Since the 1950’s, alcohol consumption in Great Britain, as in many other countries, has risen substantially because of the operation of factors such as: – The declining influence of cultural and religious traditions limiting or proscribing alcohol use. – New patterns of consumption (eg wine with meals) have been added to traditional patterns. Greatly increased availability of alcohol from more outlets, especially off-licenses and supermarkets. – In relation to consumer purchasing power, alcohol has become much cheaper. (Institute of alcohol studies, Alcohol Problems: causes and prevention, 2001) Part III. How could the problem be solved ? We can identified three main categories of priority action: • improving the amount, and quality, of information about alcohol-related harm and improving the quality, effectiveness and cost-efficiency of alcohol-related harm management and service provision through, for example, the publication of guidance, through expert panel reviews and through the evaluation of pilot projects; targeting at risk populations and locations: interventions aimed at people who drink to levels that cause harm to themselves and/or others and at situations in which the risk of alcohol-related harm is high, for example brief alcohol interventions, replacing glassware with safer alternatives and enforcing the current limits on drink driving; • stimulating cultural change through social marketing and advertising. |Improving the amount and quality of information and improving alcohol related harm management. | |Priority action |Supporting policy actions |Stakeholders | |Encouraging more and stronger local |- Licensing |- Trading Standards | |partnerships and industry participation. – Managing the Night-Time Economy |- Licensing Officers | | |- Local Area Agreements – alcohol-related |- Local transport providers | | |improvement targets |- Environmental Health | | |- Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership | | | |Strategies | | |Intended effect : | |Reduction in alcohol-related (crime, violence…) | | | |Increased safety on public transport | | | |National review of the cost to the NHS of |The Department of Health will work with the |Department of Health | |alcohol-related harm – |regulatory bodies to support local health and|Local and regional health and | |identifying areas where the greatest savings |social care organisations in responding |social care organisations | |can be made, |to the findings of any reports produced by | | |and interventions for drinking that could |the regulatory bodies. | | |cause harm. | | |The Department of Health will establish a |a web-based local alcohol profile |Local and regional healthcare and social care| |framework to support commissioners in | |organisations | |planning local Investment | |Regulatory bodies | |Intended effect : In the long term, reduction of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality | |An expert group, comprising police, doctors, | |police, |academics and representatives of the | |doctors, | |alcohol industry will be set up to gather | |academics and representatives of the alcohol | |further evidence of where targeted | |industry central government | |interventions might produce benefits and | | | |agree how high-risk premises can be best | | | |identified. | | | |Intended effect : Reduced risk of glass-related injuries | |Commission an independent national review of |Licensing Act 2003 – with respect to point of|Government | |evidence on the relationship between alcohol |sale attaching operating conditions to |The alcohol industry – producers, | |price, promotion and harm. licences/revocation of licences Industry |importers, wholesalers, | | |voluntary codes: |retailers and trade associations | | |Portman Group Code of Practice on Naming, |Local authorities | | |Packaging and Promotion of Alcoholic Drinks | | | |Social Responsibility Standards for the | | | |Production and Sale of Alcoholic Drinks in | | | |the UK | | | |Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) – | | | |statutory powers to restrict alcohol | | | |advertising. | |Intended effect: | |Reduced incidence of problem drinking | |Potential to improve management of problem drinking | |Increased protection of children and young people from exposure to alcohol-related harm | |A review and consultation on the |Advertising restrictions to protect children |Department of Health | |effectiveness of the industry’s Social |and young people |Other Government departments | |Responsibility Standards in contributing to a|Pricing structures |The alcohol industry | |reduction in alcohol harm. |The public | | | |The health sector, | | | |The police, | | | |Non-governmental organisations | |Intended effect : Reduction in: | |• access to alcohol for | |under-18s | |• binge drinking | |• harms through poor | |educational performance, truancy and exclusions | |• alcohol-related disease | |Support the development of a range of new |Identification of harmful drinkers |Government | |kinds of information and advice aimed at | |People who drink at harmful levels | |people who drink at harmful levels and their | |Families of people who drink at | |families and friends. | |harmful levels | |These will run alongside other kinds of | |Friends of people who drink at | |support and advice from the NHS. | |harmful levels | |Intended effect : Better informed public drinking more wisely. |A panel of paediatricians, psychologists and | |Government | |epidemiologists to compile and discuss the | |paediatricians, | |effects of alcohol on young people’s physical| |psychologists | |and emotional | |epidemiologists | |health, cognitive development and brain | |other developmental and child | |functioning. |health experts, teachers, | | | |young people, social workers | | | |Parents | | | |Young people | |Intended effect : Reduction in: | |• alcohol consumption | |• alcohol-related disease | |• alcohol consumption for under-18s | |• binge drinking | Targeting at risk population and locations | |Priority action |Supporting policy actions |Stakeholders | |Concerted local and national action to target|Working with Alcohol Misusing Offenders |Criminal Justice System (CJS) | |alcohol-related offenders, |Addressing Alcohol Misuse |Police | |using a combination of penalties and health | |National Probation Service (NPS) | |and education interventions to drive home | |Prison Service | |messages about alcohol and risks and to | |National Offender Management | |promote behaviour change. |Service (NOMS) | |Intended effect: For alcohol-related offenders in the long term: | |Improved management of alcohol-related problems | |Reduction in: | |• alcohol consumption | |• re-offending | |• risk of alcohol-related | |disease | |• homelessness | |Concerted local action to enforce the law on |Drink driving: Government’s Review of Road |Police | |drink-driving and on sales of |Safety Strategy |Underage drinkers | |alcohol to underage people | |Drink drivers | | | |Retailers | | | Association of Chief Police Officers | |Intended effect : | |Reduced risk of road traffic accidents | |Reduced risk of injuries and fatalities | |Prioritise reductions in the test-purchase |Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy 2004 |Alcohol industry, licensed premises and | |failure rate |National campaigns led by the Home Office |retailers | |for underage sales of alcohol. This will mean|Rogers Review (2007). |Trading standards | |ensuring that enforcement agencies are |Licensing standards | | |making use of good practice and applying | | | |tactics and powers effectively. | | |Intended effect: Reduction in: | |• access to alcohol for under- | |18s | |• alcohol consumption | |• harms through poor | |educational performance, | |truancy and exclusions | |• alcohol-related disease | |through communications campaigns and NHS | |Department of Health | |maternity care, ensure that the reworded | |Chief medical officers in devolved | |pregnancy advice is communicated to women who| |regions | |are pregnant or trying to conceive. | | |Attended effect: | |Decreased consumption of alcohol during pregnancy | |Reduction in incidence of foetal alcohol syndrome | |Decreased consumption of alcohol among all population groups | |Stimulating cultural change. | |Priority action |Supporting policy actions |Stakeholders | |Sustained national campaigning will challenge|Raising unit awareness: Know Your Limits |Government | |public tolerance of drunkenness and drinking |Campaign targeted at 18-24-year-old binge |The alcohol industry | |that causes harm to health. drinkers |The public | | | |Drinkaware Trust | | | |Food Standards Agency (FSA) | | | |Local partnerships | |Through communications campaigns, the NHS and|‘Know Your Limits’ campaign targeting 18–24- |Government | |local communities, will target information |year-old binge drinkers, |The public | |and advice towards people who drink at |Social marketing research to understand |NHS | |harmful levels, and their families and |drinking habits of all sectors of society | | |friends |Existing programmes in schools and health | | | |care | | | |setting | | |Intended effect: | |Reduction in: | |• binge drinking | |• harms through poor | educational performance, | |truancy and exclusions | |• alcohol-related disease | |Reduction in: | |• alcohol-related crime | |• violence | |• noise | |• vandalism | |• accidents and injuries | |Raise awareness of the issues and– through a |Reviews by the National Institute for Health |Government | |social marketing campaign – work to create a |and Clinical Excellence (NICE). | |culture where it is socially acceptable for | | | |young | | | |people to choose not to drink and, if they do| | | |start drinking, do so later and more safely | | | |Intended effect: Reduction in: | |• alcohol consumption for under-18s | |• binge drinking | (Review of the National alcohol harm reduction strategy for England, 2007) Besides, the supply or availability of alcohol can be reduced by: – Controls of production and trade – Controls on distribution and sales (eg regulating the number of licensed outlets and their hours of opening; drinking age laws) Moreover, as the article of BBC news (10th November 2008) said, happy hours should be banned and supermarkets stopped from selling alcohol at a loss in order to combat drink-fuelled disorder. – Increasing the price of alcoholic drink by taxation. We can sum up the measures to reduce the demand for alcohol by: – Health Education Promotion of alternatives to alcoholic drinks – Provision of alternative meeting places to alcohol outlets – Provision of alternatives to drinking as a leisure-time occupation – Reducing incentives to drinking by controls on advertising and promotion of alcohol. (Institute of alcohol studies, Alcohol Problems: causes and prevention, 2001) Conclusion: To sum up we can say that the excessive alcohol consumption over time can cause health, financial, work or family problems which could touch not only a small part of the population but everybody. These changes are due to a new world with new habits and a very easy access to cheap alcohol.

In order to minimise the consequences, the government decided to react and has introduce some control, taxes , meeting and promotion about alcohol problems. It has also reduced the number of licenses and tries to fix a minimum price of alcohol. Alcohol excessive consumption is not only a burden for the alcoholic and his/her family but also for the entire society which have to face with a most expensive bill each year. This model of alcohol consumption and alcohol harm is a good resume of what it has been said in this report since it shows how healths, social and financial issues of excessive alcohol consumption are related: [pic] (Cave Ben (2007) “Review of the National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England”) References

Barker F (2002), “consumption Externalities and the Role of Government: The Case of Alcohol” New Zealand treasury working paper 02/25 BBC News,(10th November 2008), “MPs call for pub happy hours ban” BBC news online URL: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk/7718950. stm Cabinet Office (2003), ‘Alcohol misuse: how much does it cost? ’ URL : http://www. cabinetoffice. gov. uk/strategy/work_areas/alcohol_misuse/background. aspx Cave Ben (2007) “Review of the National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England” http://networks. csip. org. uk/alcohol/Topics/Browse/Harm/Policy/? parent=4441=4652 Health improvement Analytical Team (2008) “The cost of alcohol harm to the NHS in England” update to the Cabinet Office (2003) URL: http://networks. csip. org. k/_library/Resources/ALC/OtherOrganisation/The_Cost_of_Alcohol_Treatment_to_the_NHS_in_England. pdf ICAP (2006),“The structure of the beverage alcohol industry” ICAP report 17 URL: http://www. icap. org/portals/0/download/all_pdfs/ICAP_Reports_English/report17. pdf Klingemann H, (2001), “l’alcool et ses consequences sociales: la dimension oublie” organisation mondiale de la sante Bureau regional de l’Europe. Institute of alcohol studies (2001), “Alcohol Problems: causes and prevention”, URL: http://www. ias. org. uk/resources/factsheets/problems_causes_prevention. pdf Jenkins Simon (2005), « Binge-drinking is virtually public policy » the Time online URL: http://www. timesonline. co. uk/tol/comment/article505840. ece

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