CURS Literature became an alternative to religion.

Yeats poems:
Symbols, mythology, archetypes connected to irrationality=> Rediscovery of the mystical, archetypes, secret symbols
Literature became an alternative to religion. Yeats was fascinated by the mystical, esoteric thinking, gnostic philosophy, secret societies
Rosicrucian- rose-symbol of mystery and beauty of divinity
Thomas Hardy: famous novelist 18-19 centuries; he seems to be a social critique => moral implication of up routine of rural life. He creates examples of human tragedy; he seems to believe that Gods seem to be indifferent to human tragedy. His plots became almost archetypal; the scapegoat victim.
E.m Foster: another famous novelist. ‘A passage to India’ – contrast two societies; Indian-English, gentlemen-ladies;
English society- superior race, more accomplished society. He intimates that there is delusion far from God. India was much more familiar with the sacred, they embrace the mystery;
Epiphany – revelation
Conrad: The story of someone coming from Europe in Africa; experience life in the colonized Africa. It seems to be a narrative of a larger form of encounter with powers that are beyond of human control.

Going to Africa; journey up and down the river Congo, deep in the jungle;
The significance of landing out of cruelty => journey into the unconscious of the characters
The collective unconscious – Jung => archetypes. He was interested in the unconscious (traumas) smth that is at the root of human’s imagination.

Difference – mythology/archetype – different to Fraser, Rudolp Otto, Eliade ( Comparatist, he compares the rules to find common points, hypostases, heroes, gods, situations, common explanations of the emergence of universe in all religions)
JUNG –gives various examples from different mythologies trying to explain the archetypes.

Discovering the ID
The superior forms of life – reflexiveness, thinking turned over the situation of the respective man. Superior Reflexive Forms of Humanity – man tries to discover his purpose to overcome his condition, the human condition, ontological condition, to see beyond your limits as man, by introspection, asceticism, trance, reaching a superior spiritual reality; Western civilization has become a purely materialistic civilization, is interested in possession of goods rather than purely physical forms of existence.

Jung said that it must be seen in all cultures how man tries to overcome this material condition, and that is possible through the effort to discover what is beyond materialism, namely spirituality. Spirituality is beyond existence.

Man is trying to overcome his material condition by discovering spirituality; it requires an initiation – an inner journey not external “know yourself and you will know the universe and the gods”. Through self-knowledge you can hope to know divinity, sacredness.

Self-knowledge: For Jung, all the cultures that are important models are based on this effort to discover your deep self and to plum / improve it. That is why Jung’s most important archetype is the self, the discovery of the self, the inward journey to the self, the transformations that the individual suffers in order to get into this last form of self-knowledge => the centerpiece of Jung’s explanations of the collective unconscious.

The shadow archetype speaks of that dark side we hide deeply in our unconscious that means everything that produces fear, horror, everything that is repulsive. Mechanism =; they are projected outward, and we think that what frightens us comes from the outside, but actually these are our deep fears, the negative side that we are projecting outward.

Marlow has a fascination for Kurtz- Kurtz is the shadow of Marlow;2 sides of Marlow : identification with Kurtz, distance with Kurtz… Marlow understands Kurtz so well because he is the darkness that Marlow has, the darkness inside of him;
Heart of Darkness =; in fact, what is scary in Africa is not the wilderness, the wildest is the white (with the nature), instinctual destructive, irresponsible, exploiting everyone, everything without any trace of remorse. The heart of darkness, apparently the heart of the jungle is actually the heart of the darkness of the soul of the Europeans, that shadow part that the white is projecting on these exotic, foreign, strange places, apparently threatening places. Congo travel can also be seen as an initiatory journey into the heart of this darkness, of the soul, of the psychic, of the human being. Running there, as white, find out how despicable, wild you are.

The horror, the horror-elliptical phrase; has two meanings; the desire to remove the evil from you, to purify yourself, the power to recognize that there is this evil; or to leave you prey to this destructive instinct
Epiphany: The character realizes that horror has never been Africa, but perhaps is a failure of the epiphany, being still obsessed with the idea that he is facing something horrible; The inexhaustible of the sacred
The initiate journey, the sinking river in the jungle is a mythical cliché (KHUBLA KHAN, the sacred river Alpha- the letter with major symbolism, the beginning letter, the origin, the discovery of the original force
Congo is seen as the evil which leads you to the core, the heart of darkness, initiatory evil, initiate journey=; The Jungle as a formula of the labyrinth where you are losing yourself and you have to find the way, a cliché. The heroes of some initiate stories are thrown into the unknown, exploring the unknown without a purpose.

Initial Journey – Journey in Neat, Forest, sea, Desert (wasteland – Elliot)
Instruments to express this attraction of the sacred, mystic in modernist literature: the symbol, the archetype, the myth.

Yeats, T.S Elliot – modernistiVirginia Woolf ‘To the lighthouse’ –exploration of our relationship to the beyond. The name: it emphasizes the quest, the journey, the discovery, you have to look for it, the quest, the road, the journey. ‘the lighthouse’ a symbol that stand for smth larger. V.Woolf talks about the importance of symbols. She claims that symbols are used delivered by authors in order to indicate smth profound. She admitted that ‘ to the lighthouse’ has no clear image, no clear idea what her symbols meant, she likes her symbols to be vague in order to be explored, discovered by the reader- the journey.

‘the lighthouse’=; an ideal, object of a quest, smth spiritual; it could be smth stative, a house that light –light and darkness
Water is associated with emotions, shifting..stormy sea of emotions/passions, lighthouse may symbolize the one emotional bear in your life, smth that drives you. The sea- a maze, symbol of the emotional feminine water. It could be the ANIMA – the power of life, emotional part of our psyche
v. Woolf was not a strange of this kind of this cultivated form of mysticism that she gets from the romantic literature, she indicates all the important things, elements in this journey of initiation, parts of the psyche-self scrutiny, introspection, epiphany, mystery, madness (different way to see the world, prophetic madness, madness of the seers, visionars, anamnesis)
Anamnesis = platonic term, linked to the theory of metempsyosis – the souls are incarnate on the earth, the river Lette – the river of oblivion
Anamnesis = the formula by which human psyches discovers these universal, eternal values, memory / memory
T.S Elliot ‘The Waste Land’
He added some footnotes to explain; notes by which he admits that he was influenced by Fraser ‘The Golden Ball’, especially by the myth of the fisher king; the fisherman =; the image of a character who is injured, the wound = sexual connotation, is in the genital area
The Wound is a symbolic image of infertility; the land becomes a deserted, infertile land. It takes an initiate journey to bring fertility, not only physical but also spiritual. Elliot / Joyce is convinced he lives in an era of infertility, the era of desertification. Western civilization was at a threshold of self-destruction, loss, degradation ’20. He refers to the myth of the fisher king, infertility, chaos, degradation, fertility recovery rituals, and the idea of cyclicality – the rediscovery of spiritual fertility
Elliot is attracted to metaphysical, transcendent themes…