Development of EU-Eastern Partnership Countries’ Collaboration

Inventions, Science and Technology: New Perspectives Towards development of EU-Eastern Partnership Countries ‘ Collaboration

Abstraction:

The research points out the important and decisive function of inventions in the modern economic system, clarifies the inclinations in Information and Communication Technologies ( ICT ) development, bunch common jobs and potency of EaP states and stress the function of the EU in the procedure on stretching boundaries in multinational coaction. Challenges of modernisation and invention are expected to supply accomplishment of the new degree of productiveness with a aid of EaP Platform 2 and regional development.

Cardinal words: epoch of informatization, inventions, ICT, R & A ; D, international coaction, regional development, 7th FP, EU, EaP.

1. Introduction

Since May 2009, in the model of the Eastern Partnership Programme ( EaP ) , the EU has offered to heighten cooperation with Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Polish-Swedish enterprise has developed the EU ‘s European Vicinity Policy ( ENP ) into specific Eastern dimension. Meanwhile, among many-sided platforms, one of the most of import is the Platform 2 “ Economic integrating and convergence with EU policies ”[ 1 ].

Actuality of constructing coaction of EaP states and the EU in the domain of inventions, stressing the function of scientific discipline and engineerings, ballads under the precedences of the Europe 2020 scheme[ 2 ]and turning inclinations of inventions ‘ development in the planetary economic system.

Invention is an of import driver of growing and late its importance became even more important. In the ambitious period of planetary economic crisis, an extraordinary capacity of inventions can play a critical function non merely in the recovery of easing states but besides in supplying sustainable economic growing of all regions2. More than of all time, Europe and the EaP states need to bring up the economic systems with a more intelligent type of growing.

As more and more underdeveloped states tend to put up their economic systems on the rudimentss of advanced advanced theoretical accounts, the advanced attack has received turning attending from analysts. Economists underline the polar function of cognition, peculiarly research and development ( R & A ; D ) to advance scientific discipline and engineering, in the economic success of the state.

The ICT sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of inventions in the universe. The development of ICT is momentous and with existent mark being employed to supply economic growing.

In the EU the ICT sector histories for 6-8 % of GDP, doing EU-27 be among the universe leaders in the development of digital economic system. At the same clip, states like Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan still have sufficient troubles within development in R & A ; D[ 3 ]. As a consequence the EaP states, largely in passage from Soviet epoch bequest to modern administration, expose lower fight and productiveness compared to other states.

New chances and certain methods of heightening the economic integrating could be found with the EaP. Positive spillover is foreseen in the gap of the new resource potencies for technological capacity with cut downing the force per unit area of international boundary lines and collaborating in the frames of Regional spouse schemes.

The intent of the paper is to analyze growing determiners in EaP coaction under the Platform of Economic integrating and its convergence with EU policies, concentrating upon inventions, information and communicating engineerings and statements in favour of regional policy part. First of all, inclinations in the inventions ‘ development and the EU attack are outlined. Second, characteristics and jobs in the development of dealingss between the EaP states and the EU in the domain of ICT are provided. Third, new chances for the EaP towards the development of EU-EaP states coaction are proposed.

2. Inclinations in the development of inventions and the EU attack

Advanced type of the development is quickly going the cardinal finding of the economic growing. Innovation becomes a complex procedure of transmutation of new thoughts and cognition into an object of economic dealingss. And it surely was and continues to be the impulsive force for the dramatic alterations.

In these disputing times the capacity of inventions to hike growing must non be overlooked, since it might play a critical function non merely in easing states ‘ recovery but besides in prolonging national fight in the medium to long term[ 4 ].

Economic theory of inventions is widely represented by foreign classics, such as A. Smit, D. Ricardo, D. Bernal, E.Hansen, J. Shumper, R. Hajek, M. Tugan-Baranovskuj, M. Kondratjev, P. Sorokin. And, of class, Chris Freeman, who produced the construct of the national invention system. From the beginning of 1990th his construct becomes popular among such foreign research workers as K. Edkvist, B.Lundvala, R.Nelson, N.Rozenberg, B.Amabl, R. Mansella. , N. Ivanova, Y.Yakovec, G. Saltykova and many others[ 5 ]. The construct is portrayed by exogenic growing theoretical accounts, besides known as the neo-classical growing theoretical accounts ( for illustration Solow ‘s theoretical account[ 6 ]) .

That is how inventions are closely associated with technologically led economic growing, and scientists regard them to be of import for the advanced life criterions. Among the chief elements, underpinning these developments have been the turning knowledge-driven nature of invention ; the rapidly altering organisation of research, driven by information engineerings, coaction, the sharing of cognition ; alterations in markets, the competition environment, and engineering.

Researchs made by Graham Vickery and Sacha Wunsch-Vincent from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) note that constructions of R & A ; D, scientific discipline public presentation, innovation, and invention are in passage. The chief dimensions of alteration are the absolute growing of R & A ; D and innovation-related activities ; the rise of the economic systems in scientific and technological Fieldss ; important globalisation of R & A ; D ; more public presentation of R & A ; D in the services sector ; and a turning focal point on non-technological invention, enhanced internationalisation and mobility of extremely skilled people, and increased internationalized patenting 4.

Harmonizing to the study “ Eastern Europe ICT and Outsourcing Market ( 2007-2011 ) ” it is considered that the European ICT industry is one of the fastest turning industries globally. And in Europe, Eastern European ICT industry has emerged as the fastest turning part because of multiple grounds including better work force services at comparatively low cost and immense potency for the foreign investors to put in the ICT sector.

ICT sector in EU is deserving itself 6-8 % of the EU ‘s GDP, half of the productiveness additions in EU ‘s economic systems are explained by the impact of ICTs, playing a important function in:[ 7 ]

run intoing the globalisation challenge by hiking invention, creativeness and fight throughout the economic system ;

presenting cutting-edge scientific discipline in all scientific and technological countries ;

doing Europe ‘s big public sector more efficient, and overhauling sectors ;

Fieldss runing from instruction to energy ;

societal challenges, bettering quality of life and run intoing the challenge of an aging society.

The development of inventions finds its strategic planning and is highlighted in the EU ‘s official paperss both as external and internal personal businesss.

Within the EU ‘s scheme “ Europe 2020 ” Jose Manuel BARROSO ( Brussels, 3.3.2010 ) explained that the Commission is suggesting five mensurable EU marks for 2020 that will maneuver the procedure and will be translated into national marks, one of them is research and inventions. In this respect, Europe 2020 puts frontward three reciprocally reenforcing precedences:

– smart growing: development of the economic system based on cognition and invention.

– invention: the betterment of model conditions and entree to finance for research and invention so as to beef up the invention concatenation and encouragement degrees of investing throughout the EU flagship enterprise “ Innovation Union ” .

– inclusive growing: unleashing the Europe ‘s advanced capablenesss, bettering educational results and quality and the end products of instruction establishments, and working the economic and social benefits of a digital society.

These policies should be delivered to the regional, national and EU degree. To advance cognition partnerships and strengthen links between instruction, concern, research and invention at national degree, Member States will necessitate to reform national ( and regional ) R & A ; D and invention systems to further excellence and smart specialisation, reenforce cooperation between universities, research and concern, implement articulation scheduling and heighten cross-border co-operation. It is besides of import to set national support processs consequently to guarantee the diffusion of engineering across the EU district.

Stressing the importance of beef uping synergism between the EU ‘s support policies in the country of research and invention and reenforcing economic, societal and territorial coherence, “ Europe 2020 ” is back uping the part of EU Regional policy.

3. Features and jobs in dealingss ‘ development between EaP states and the EU in the domain of ICT.

Turning rate of the EaP states in invention development is structurally lower than in the EU, mostly due to a productiveness spread that has widened over the last decennary. Much of this is due to differences in concern constructions combined with lower degrees of investing in R & A ; D and invention, deficient usage of information and communications engineerings, reluctance in some parts of our societies to encompass invention, barriers to market entree and a less dynamic concern environment[ 8 ].

For the EaP states a key job is the disagreement between the stated ends and existent execution of policy steps. Real invention challenges, identified on the footing of R & A ; D and invention, are non defined clearly in official paperss. Declarations on the demand of invention development are non supported by carefully tailored steps and, particularly, the mechanisms of their execution. Notes about the demand of betterment concern clime, reform of the province R & A ; D sector and policy execution and design are dispersed among different province paperss, but they are non backed by precise steps or these steps can non be implemented due to juridical contentions in the procedure of their execution. The deficiency of quantitative and corresponding indexs makes it hard to command the procedure of invention activity in the EaP states.

For illustration, the EU is utilizing European Innovation Scoreboard ( EIS )[ 9 ]which provides a comparative appraisal of the invention public presentation of EU-27 Member States, under the EU Lisbon Strategy. There is no available informations for the EaP states to mensurate the Innovation development within the same standards, except Global Innovation Index[ 10 ]. Unfortunately, the National Committees of Statistics merely collects informations on a really limited figure of indexs in the invention sphere and so, it is hard to do a comprehensive analysis of the state of affairs. Work separating these indexs and harmonising them with the corresponding EU indexs should go a cardinal undertaking to be tackled in the close hereafter.

The duties of cardinal histrions are non chiseled as province ministries. Agencies, which are responsible for back uping invention activity, are non efficient, their competences overlap and are non clearly defined. Mechanisms for execution of invention policy tend to be weak because invention policy is non the chief focal point of the province governments. Legal acts on invention support have a lower precedence when compared to some other province Acts of the Apostless ( e.g. Law on State Budget ) .

Analyzing entrepreneurship and invention development in EaP states ( Legatum Prosperity Index )[ 11 ]we can state in general that developing technological substructure and limited authorities investing restrict inventions. The state of affairs is rather similar in all EaP states every bit high barriers to entry discourage entrepreneurship. The value added to the service industry is low, bespeaking an economic system as still reliant on agribusiness and fabrication. A hapless cyberspace substructure and limited entree to personal computing machines hurt the technological sector and hapless communications substructure is offset by high investing in R & A ; D, go forthing EaP states to execute near planetary norms.

However, the positive inclinations are expected to look in the close hereafter. Following the researches of International Telecommunication Union ( ITU ) , it is deserving adverting that developing states have higher degree of ICT development index ( around 38,2 % addition ) in comparing with developed states ( 36,1 % )[ 12 ].

For now the EU offers Eastern Europe and Central Asia ( EECA ) ICT bunch[ 13 ], which is an enterprise supported by the European Commission under the Information and Communication Technologies Thematic country of the seventh Framework Programme ( FP7-ICT ) . It aims at enabling the geographic expedition of new chances for ICT R & A ; D coaction among research workers from the EU and the EECA states and the diffusion of information about research activities under FP7-ICT. The EECA bunch is the joint attempt 3 complementary FP7-ICT support actions[ 14 ]( ISTOK-SOYUZ, SCUBE-ICT and EXTEND ) that portion common aims and deploy a broad scope of activities in the full EECA part. The targeted states are: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Targeting the EaP states in the model of EECA ICT bunch, we can sketch the possibility to fall in the support actions ( see Table 1 ) .

Table1. EECA Cluster aiming EaP countries13

State

Ukrayina

Byelarus

Armenia

Azerbajdzhan

Empire state of the south

Moldova

ISTOK-SOYUZ

Volt

Volt

Volt

A

A

A

SCUBE-ICT

Volt

Volt

A

A

A

A

EXTEND

Volt

Volt

Volt

Volt

Volt

Volt

EECA ICT bunch is aimed to back up the policy duologue between the EU and EECA states, lending to the puting up of joint enterprises heightening their ICT R & A ; D coaction, through14:

– the designation and analysis of the ICT research precedences in the EECA states ;

– the designation of cardinal ICT countries of common involvement that may ensue to significant socio-economic benefits and impact on all parts ;

– the administration of a series of policy/consultation meetings supplying an unfastened treatment forum for the exchange of thoughts on future declarative action program to beef up coaction between the EU and the EECA part.

Refering the information of National study under the EECA ICT bunch, the EaP states have large potency in ICT and R & A ; D. It ‘s possible to specify the national ICT precedences, based on the ICT aims of the seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development of the European Union:

Hayastan:

– Cloud Computing, Internet of Services and Advanced Software Engineering ;

– Digital Preservation ;

– Calculating Systems ;

– Trustworthy ICT ;

– Intelligent Information Management ;

– Language Technologies ;

– Technology-Enhanced Learning.

Azerbajdzhan:

– Internet of Services, Software & A ; virtualization ;

– Language Based Interaction ;

– Calculating Systems ;

– Digital libraries and digital saving ;

– Technology-Enhanced Learning ;

– Intelligent information direction ;

– ICT and Ageing ;

– ICT for Governance and Policy Modeling.

Byelarus:

– Internet of Services, Software & A ; Virtualization ;

– Cognitive Systems and Robotics ;

– Nanoelectronics Technology

– Design of Semiconductor Components and Electronic-based Miniaturized Systems ;

– Calculating Systems ;

– Photonics ;

– Digital libraries and digital saving ;

– Personal Health Systems ;

– ICT for Patient Safety ;

– ICT for Governance & A ; Policy Modeling.

Empire state of the south:

– High Performance Computing and Networking ;

– Operationss research and distinct mathematics ;

– Stochastic procedures and applied statistics ;

– Research focuses on new engineerings in decision-making ( on the footing of fuzzed logics ) ;

– Cipher systems, methods of numerical solution of proficient jobs ;

– Maximum inequalities for rearrangements ; applications to functional analysis and scheduling theory ;

– Generalized random elements and stochastic integrals in infinite dimensions, and best estimate and word picture of interior merchandise infinites ;

– Quantum calculations ; automated systems of pattern acknowledgment ;

– Photo-physical effects in photonics and quantum optics ;

– Optical and photo-electrical belongingss of nano-structures, and optical chemical science, etc.

Moldavias:

– Digital Libraries and digital saving ;

– Focus on larning in 21 st century ; the new links between single and organizational acquisition, and creativeness ; adaptative and intuitive systems for larning ; knowledge direction ;

– Intelligent Information Management ;

– Focus on multi-core and polymorphous system architectures ; new systems package, programming paradigms, technology of big distributed systems ;

– Nanoelectronics Technology ;

– ICT for Patient Safety: safer surgery, integrating of clinical research and clinical attention, early sensing of public wellness events.

Ukrayina:

– Calculating systems ;

– Microsystems and smart miniaturised systems ;

– Internet of services, package & A ; virtualization ;

– Cognitive systems and robotics ;

– Technology enhanced acquisition ;

– Intelligent information direction ;

– ICT for environmental services.

Pic. 1. The map of EECA Cluster in EaP countries13

4. New chances of Eastern Partnership towards development of EU – EaP states coaction

The EaP is aimed to help reforms, legislative estimate and economic integrating. In the economic domain the EU is non restricting possibilities by making deep and comprehensive free trade countries ( DCFTA ) merely, but instead a common economic brotherhood in the part, helping economic estimate in each of the states[ 15 ].

The EU proposes to the EaP states to utilize the economic policy instruments and engagement in establishments and bureaus, which were antecedently normally available for the EU campaigner states. In such a manner, the economic integrating in the EaP will take topographic point through intensification of trade and flow of financess, every bit good as approaching of economic activity ordinance regulations and maintaining in head the places of the Partnership Partner States in the procedure of policy devising[ 16 ].

Platform 2 “ Economic Integration and Convergence with EU Policies ” ( 9.10.2009 ) defined core objects as follows[ 17 ]:

trade and trade related regulative estimate to DCFTA ;

microeconomic and fiscal cooperation ;

socio-economic development ;

environment and clime alteration ;

cooperation in the field of conveyance

The aims of socio-economic development peculiarly refer cooperation on regional policy issues, utilizing the illustrations of the accomplishments of the EU coherence policy.

Within socio-economic development and regional policy issues, the EaP is opening new chances to develop the coaction in the field of inventions development, ICT and R & A ; D under the Platform 2. It is considered that engineering diffusion, cut downing regional income inequality and providing development is possible through the regional growing.

Theoretical model:

Regional growing theory is based on the neoclassical theory of growing in macroeconomics that prevails today. The typical characteristic of the regional growing theory lies with its greater accent on issues of variability of growing in neighbouring economic systems ( parts ) . Whereas the regional economic system theory implies that a given part may non be considered in isolation from other parts of an built-in national economic system, it provides for certain restraints associated with a possible variability of growing and differences in initial conditions. To see such restraints new theoretical accounts were designed, peculiarly, agglomeration ( Fiani ( 1984 ) ) , “ nucleus-periphery ” ( Murdal ( 1957 ) and Hirschman ( 1958 ) , Ottavanio and Al. ( 2002 ) ) and theoretical account of random growing ( Allison and Glazer ( 1997 ) , Holmes and Stevens ( 2002 ) , Davis and Wainstein ( 2002 ) )[ 18 ].

The Role of Innovations in Differences in regional growing is studied into factors of regional development by Andersson and Mancinen[ 19 ], who employed the theory of cognition creative activity and diffusion. The writers model parts with the neoclassical production map as follows:

Qr=Fr ( Cr, Ar ) ,

( ??r – sum of capital in part R, ar – handiness of cognition in part R, is found harmonizing to expression: Ar = a?‘s exp { a?’ I? drs } Ks where drs – distance between parts R and s, Ks – accumulated sum of knowledge_

The theoretical account suggests that capital and cognition grow in proportion to the propensity to nest eggs I?r, while the distribution between portion of investing in physical capital and R & A ; D is determined by the portion of the latter in the entire capital accretion:

,

( Hr – positive, smooth maps, found in R+ )

The writers demonstrated that this system sees an equilibrium for which the capital to knowledge ratio is changeless. The analysis of the system ‘s kineticss allows to demo that with any distance drs reduction, the growing rate for all the parts rises in equilibrium. In the frame of premises of increasing return from economic systems of graduated table and the being of spacial clashs, the theoretical account in inquiry predicts that the prejudice of the R & A ; D portion in the entire capital towards values higher than an equilibrium value may take to an initial short-run rise in the regional income inequality.

Practical application through EaP:

Regional development in the EaP takes outstanding topographic point, and it is possible to unite strategically of import issues within the great involvement of the EU in inventions ‘ development and certain EaP states ‘ potency in ICT and R & A ; D. This provides favourable background for the cooperation, taking into the consideration the mechanisms of regional cooperation. It ‘s possible to open new resource potencies for technological capacity with cut downing the force per unit area of international boundary lines[ 20 ]

In the bilateral dimension the EaP is implementing in analogue with the Comprehensive Institution-Building Programme ( CIB ) a new Regional Development Programme, which is supposed to acquire about 20 % of the extra fundss as they are added to the national envelop of the European Union aid to each state within the model of the European Vicinity Policy[ 21 ]

CIB programme ( an overall budget is a‚¬175m. ) is aimed to better the institutional public presentation of the spouse provinces, and their compatibility with EU establishments. It should get down in 2011. So far the EU signedA Memoranda of Understanding sing CIB with Armenia, Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine. During 2011-2013 the programme will be around a‚¬32 in Armenia, a‚¬50m in Moldova, a‚¬31m in Georgia, and a‚¬40m in Ukraine. Similar understandings are being negotiated between the EU andA Azerbaijan.

Plans for Pilot Regional Development Programmes ( PRDP ) should be agreed by 2012. They will be modeled on EU coherence policy. The EU has allocated a‚¬75m for PRDPs.

Funding for back uping readying of the regional Partner Strategies, which stimulates raising the degree of stableness through internal blessing and lessening of figure of societal and economic differentiations, should play important function in advancing trans-border international undertakings.

5. Reasoning comments and recommendations

Inventions, peculiarly ICT, drama important and decisive function in the planetary economic system. EU-27, as one of the universe leaders in the digital economic system, is stressing development of ICT and R & A ; D sectors by strategically be aftering in official paperss both the external and internal personal businesss.

Constructing coaction between the EaP states and the EU in the domain of inventions and stressing the function of scientific discipline and engineerings is basically existent, as it lays under the precedences of the Europe 2020 scheme and turning inclinations of inventions ‘ development in the planetary economic system. Provided theoretical model of neoclassical theoretical accounts of invention development and its function in regional growing, is reasoning the necessity of coaction for the engineering diffusion, cut downing of regional income inequality and supplying farther growing.

The EaP states have certain drawbacks, but, at the same clip, large potency for the hereafter development. Possibilities for coaction, implemented within EECA ICT bunch under the 7th FP for Research and Technological Development of the European Union, sketching the national precedences of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan in ICT.

The research clarifies growing determiners in EaP coaction under the Platform of Economic integrating and its convergence with EU policies in favour of regional policy part. Refering this, for the hereafter development of coaction under the EaP following stairss are recommended:

– regional attack of EaP states is to ease the trans-border undertakings on the subjects ICT and R & A ; D. Regarding this, national ICT precedences, matching with the EU must be clustered in conformity with geographical diffusion.

– EaP states have to implement CIB for making new inter-institutions supplying Regional development programme ;

– EaP states have to specify ICT precedences of growing both in National and regional functionary paperss, indicating on international facets of development, in peculiar the EU and EaP.

The possible development of EU – EaP states coaction in the nearest hereafter would besides be influenced by the fact that after Hungary, the EU Presidency will be taken by Poland – one of the EaP instigators whose both strategic and regional involvements lay clearly within the EaP part.