Economic Environment Trends In India and USA

Throughout this study will be looking at a developing county India, it will be consisted of informations on the tendencies in the economic environment for Automotive industry making concern in India since 2000. The work is based on secondary research utilizing graphs and charts. This will let theoretical position of the state. Secondly it will discourse the comparison of the economic environment of making concern in India with a developed county USA. Furthermore it will discourse the most of import strength and challenges for Auto motor industry in making concern in India. The study will be concluded by recommendations to Auto motor Industry in puting up the concern in India ; this will affect comprehensive research of analyzed informations.

Introduction: Economic Environment Trends In India

Agribusiness, fabrication and service industry has played a critical function in the development of the Indian Economy. An inauspicious alteration has been experienced in the economic environment of India, while the industry was developing since 2000-2010 ( India Economic Development ; ) .

In recent times, there has been an increase in the Automobile Industry in India and taking it to a planetary degree. This alteration did non happen nightlong but due to an increasing demand of consumers. Hence the instance, surveies the altering tendencies of the economic environment on the car industry in India in relation to consumer autos ( Production in India ‘s automotive industry ; ACMA, 2008 ) .

Factors playing cardinal function in the altering tendencies in Automobile Industry can be as follows ( Automotive Trends, ) –





Political Factors

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The Indian Government in the yesteryear has started supplying better substructure, conductive ambiance to pull investings and implementing growing oriented economic policies. For illustration harmonizing to Extant Policy ( Auto Policy ; Department of heavy industry, 2010 ) after the remotion of QRs ( quantitative limitations ) ; the policy of import on capital goods and automotive constituents lie under unfastened general licence. But there is a restricted import on autos that could be wholly build units ( CBU ) , wholly knocked down ( CKD ) or semi-knocked down conditions ( SKD ) .

Further the car industry were issued licences ‘ to import constituents in CKD or SKD signifier, merely after put to deathing a Memorandum of understanding with Director General of foreign trade. This involved the following-

Establish existent production of autos and non piecing.

To convey a lower limit of 50 million US $ foreign equity, if a joint venture involves a bulk foreign equity ownership.

An increase of constituent of up to a lower limit of 50 % and 70 % ; in 3rd and 5th twelvemonth severally. Whilst this will take to decreasing of MOU and import licensing.

Neutralize foreign exchange spending on imports ( CIF ) by export of autos, car constituents etc. ( FOB ) . This duty was to get down from the 3rd twelvemonth of start of production and to be fulfilled during the currency of the MOU. From the 4th twelvemonth imports were to be regulated in relation to the exports made in the old twelvemonth

Excise responsibility besides plays a portion of the authorities factor. It has been experienced that the ownership of autos in India is 6 per 1000 of population as against 500 in developed economic systems. Domestic demand is related to little autos that occupy 85 % of the market. India has the ability to transform itself into “ Asiatic Hub ” , for the export of little autos.

Competitive Factors

Harmonizing to India Reports,2010, in order to last their interest in the Automobile sector in India a batch of companies got into joint ventures like Suzuki with Maruti, GM Corporation with C.K Birla Group, Honda Motors with Siet ltd India and Toyota motors corporation with Kirloskar Group etc. Hence a batch of companies now spend on R & A ; D before come ining in India.

( India Auto Industry- joint venture By India Reports on Feb. 23, 2010 in Economy in passage http// industry-joint ventures/ )

As per the article, ‘Evolution and growing of Indian car industry ‘ , India Reports ; A batch of foreign industries have now started taking involvement in Indian Automobile sector. A group called ‘core group on automotive research and development ( CAR ) ‘ was developed in 2003 for promoting R & A ; D activities. A vivacious economic system leads to an addition in the GDP growing and per capita income. These factors led to the part of forcing the domestic demands.

Technical factors

Harmonizing to Traveling Green thoughts ; the Indian market is now environment witting and there is a demand for the production of eco-friendly engines. Hence the Indian authorities has established certain norms for the car industries to fit the standards of pollution and safety norms. The emanation norms were established in India in the twelvemonth 1991 for gasoline vehicles and the undermentioned twelvemonth was extended for the Diesel vehicles. The Central Pollution Control Board ( CPCB ) in had taken some stairss to cut down the pollution in the state which involved:

Constitution of Ambient air quality monitoring throughout the state.

Presentment of Ambient air quality criterions under the Environment Protection Act.

Presentment of Air pollution norms

Bettering the fuel quality

Introduction of autos that run on alternate fuel like CNG/LPG etc.

Improvement of public conveyance system

Phasing out old and fouling commercial vehicles

Vehicle Emission norms were into consequence from 1st October, 2004 and were developed by SIAM ( Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures ) which were already were placed in the major tube metropoliss of India. Hence it is experienced that the cars produced are maintained to the ‘EURO Standards ‘ set by the authorities to execute their operations. Furthermore the hereafter of car industry has a bright hereafter in India with the sort of R & A ; D maintained by all the trade names.

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In add-on, the Indian car industry has promoted the usage of intercrossed engineering viz. by companies Honda and Mahindra and Mahindra. The Indian Automobile industry is working with the governments to present alternate fuels.

1.4 Economic factors

There is a really large market of cars in India and is yet developing. This helps Economy in a really important manner. As the criterions of autos are increasing there is a demand to better the route conditions which will lend a batch to transit system of the state. Better stuff used for route devising will increase the life of autos automatically.

Furthermore holding a good transit system will straight be relative to its use which will lend to the addition in the GDP growing of the state. Hence these factors make a definite factor of competition to supply the best conveyance to the market.

In add-on the banking sector of India is in a good form which initiates the proviso of easy and inexpensive fiscal strategies. This is another factor to the possible rivals to set up good land installation. Along with the fiscal strategies India besides has a inexpensive labor to afford which besides acts as an advantage to the entrant.

Economic environment tendencies in USA

The car industry in USA experiences the fluctuation, particularly in 2008 after the down bend of the economic system. For the twelvemonth 2010, the economic system is retrieving efficaciously. Developed state like United States has a strong consumer market, which result in the assortment of the companies lay their pes in America.

The information from congressional research service study indicate that the automotive industry has maintained a great degree of sale since the twelvemonth 2000, furthermore the figure of foreign automotive company has emerged into United States with a profitable market since 2000, for case the Nipponese graft manufacturer Honda, Toyota and Nissan every bit good as Hyundai a Korean maker ( Cooney, S. and Yacobucci, B.D 2005 ) . The graduated table of automotive industry shows that the gross end product of automotive industry in U.S declined in the twelvemonth 2000 to 2001, nevertheless the addition in 2002, following twelvemonth 2003 to 2004 dropped somewhat ( Cooney, S. and Yacobucci, B.D 2005, p.12 ) .

There are figure of issues related to automotive industry in the United States, although U.S is a develop economic system state, the economic system environment is still driven by several policy and issues that affect the possible company to get down up vehicle concern. There are job in pension and wellness attention issues, currency exchange rates, labour representation, fuel economic system and emanation criterions, Pickup trucks in U.S- Thailand free trade understanding ( FTA ) and in conclusion broader issues of automotive trade policy ( Cooney, S. and Yacobucci, B. D 2005, p.9-11 ) .

The economic environment of car motor industry, purely affect by the ordinances and fuel economic system, every bit good as the trade regulations in the United State. The major influences of the ordinance, where policy like non-tariff barriers is most preferred by the automotive industry. The environmentally issues invariably made it hard for the Automotive company to set up in United States, in the instance of emanations criterions the federal Clean Air Act, the ordinance aimed at cut downing nursery gas emanation caused by rider vehicles of 30 % by the twelvemonth 2016 ( Cooney, S. and Yacobucci, B.D 2005, p.7 ) , these issues has created menace to automotive industry in the old decennary and progressively consequence the industry as a whole.

The lifting concern in environmental friendly has had an impact in automotive industry in stricter regulations and ordinance to follow in fabrication and lay pes in United States.

Automotive industry has been traditionally strong in United States market, for case the high degree of inwards investing from the foreign-brand makers, later consequence in the diminution in import, this is due to the increasing sum of automotive makers opened up their company and assembly mill in U.S ( Cooney, S. and Yacobucci, B.D 2005, 5 ) .

The two policies that may hold affected the dramatic alterations change in the tendencies of the Indian Economy:

A ) Car Policy:

The policy aims at set uping a planetary competitory advantage Automobile Industry in India and to duplicate its part to the economic system by 2010.It ‘s aims are mentioned as below-

Exalt the sector as a lever of industrial growing and employment and to accomplish a high grade of value add-on in the state.

Promote a globally competitory automotive industry and emerge as a planetary beginning for car constituents.

Establish an international hub for fabricating little, low-cost rider autos and a cardinal centre for fabricating Tractors and Two-wheelers in the universe.

Ensure a balanced passage to open trade at a minimum hazard to the Indian economic system and local industry.

Conduce ceaseless modernisation of the industry and facilitate autochthonal design, research and development.

Steer India ‘s package industry into automotive engineering.

Assist development of vehicles propelled by surrogate energy beginnings.

Development of domestic safety and environmental criterions at par with international criterions.

Following are the major concerns associating to the car industry-

Promotion of R & A ; D in the automotive sector to guarantee uninterrupted engineering upgradation, constructing better planing capacities to stay competitory.

Impetus to Alternative Fuel Vehicles through appropriate long term financial construction to ease their credence.

Emphasis on low emanation fuel car engineerings and handiness of appropriate car fuels and encouragement to building of safer bus/truck organic structures – subjecting unorganised sector besides to 16 % excise responsibility on organic structure edifice activity as in instance of OEMs

This policy has led to an addition in the demand for overhauling parc profile to collar debasement of air quality. The terminal life policy for commercial vehicles and travel toward international taxing policies linked to age of vehicles, are stairss in the right way.

In the car policy the foreign equity is allowed a 100 % investing in the car industry and has no standard for the minimal investing. Furthermore the automotive industry has become globally competitory and will acquire the needed support from the ministries and sections of authorities of India to accomplish the ends listed in the Car Policy.

B ) FDI Policy

The FDI flow in the WTO government is different from the flow during pre-WTO government. In the earlier regime the grounds to inflow was to leap the duties and to work the host states markets. FDI flows are chiefly analyzed utilizing the Ownership-Location-Internalization paradigm ; which says that MNE ‘s enjoys the ownership advantage in footings of engineering, trade names and other intangible assets and prefer to work them in the foreign locations. Ownership advantages could be exploited in the undermentioned three ways-

Produce goods in the place state and work them them to 3rd states.

License their engineering and trade names names to third party.

Invest in foreign locations ( FDI ) and bring forth them in the host state.

To bring forth goods in the host state instead exporting depends on the Internalization advantage and the International trading environment. The WTO government has vastly altered the International trading environment by cut downing duties and abolishment of quantitative limitations ; exports have emerged as an option to market seeking FDI. As a consequence the MNE ‘s are seeking investings and uses the host state as a platform to export 3rd states. The instance of working FDI in place state tend MNE ‘s to transport their R & A ; D operations in place state and really small R & A ; D will be performed in the host state. Consequently, MNE ‘s now locate workss in 3rd states to expeditiously bring forth in that location.

Therefore, it can be claimed that car industry is merely a multiplier driver for employment. The Indian automotive industry started its journey from 1991 with delicensing of the sector and subsequent gap up for 100 per cent FDI through automatic path. Since so about all the planetary big leagues have set up their installations in India taking the production of vehicle from 2 million in 1991 to 9.7 million in 2006 ( about 7 per cent of planetary cars production and 2.4 per cent of four Wheeler production ) .

Challenges for automotive industry of making concern in India

There are many challenges that car will be faced with in making concern in India, despite the fact that many of the barriers to foreign investing have been removed. One of the major challenges is unequal substructure, in such country as electric power, roads and telecommunications webs that has non been developed. Weak substructure in India ‘remains a important cost factor ‘ for fabricating companies in the state ” . Accessed From: ( )

Automotive Industry may possibly necessitate to pay extra costs to avoid the dislocation of machinery due to blackouts and electromotive force alterations. The conditions of roads inflict harm on trade goods during transit. This besides leads to economic losingss are incurred because of the long transit clip.

Furthermore India ‘s urban population is estimated to increase from 340 million now to 590 million in around 20 old ages. This will set a immense force per unit area on metropolis substructure in India.

India disbursement on substructure has been comparatively low but there are indicants that it is traveling to be steeped up. The authorities – owned substructure are raising financess through initial portion offerings, hence substructure in India will go on for rather some clip, unless engineering up step can be done in the substructure production.

Addition to this substructure restriction indiscriminate growing may take the economic system of the state to a state of affairs of overheating and a farther rise in rising prices. The first challenge is corruptness is a immense concern in India that needs to be reduced, India courts has a immense backlog of more than 27 million instances, many of these instances are taking more than a decennary to work out. The trouble in acquiring patent right and unfriendly labour Torahs, soon, India figures as the 7th most corrupt state in the universe harmonizing to Transparency International.

Corruptness has a figure of unfavourable effects for the concern, for illustration automotive industry may be engaging more employees to pull off its ain internal corruptness as one of the employees may be nerving and than car will hold to engage person to supervise employees. Another disputing scenario that automotive industry will necessitate to see is when the regulators harass houses with dearly-won official petitions. In exchange for being relieved of these petitions, automotive may necessitate to pass resources, both human and pecuniary, wooing functionaries of assorted types. These spendings will blow up labour and operational cost for automotive industry.

Strengths for automotive industry of making concern in India

Car market in India is attractive in the planetary market, it is evidently makers at that place will profit in several Fieldss. Automobile constituent industry in India is a professional and advanced industry and is regarded as a superior advantage. The graph shows the production of car constituent industry in India additions rapidly from $ 3.97 billion to $ 26 billion between 2001 and 2010, holding a rapid growing ( ACMA, 2010 ) . As a consequence, a big and fast developing car constituent industry could back up car makers in India. Auto component houses in India invest big sum capital resource, from $ 2.7 billion to $ 12 billion from 2002 to 2010 ( ibid ) , doing this industry even bearable.

In add-on, harmonizing to India Automotive Component Manufacturers Association ( ACMA ) , automobile constituent sector in India covers a broad scope. Auto constituent sector in India consists of organic structure & A ; structural, engine & A ; exhaust and interior, is good diversified. Due to such a mature industry, it means car makers in India could outsource bulk of fabricating if they want.

In add-on, many component houses in India, such as Bharat Forge, are celebrated for their qualities. Harmonizing to ACMA ( 2010 ) , in footings of quality enfranchisement and acknowledgment, 552 constituent houses receive ISO 9000, 438 receive TS 16949 and 204 receive ISO 14001 in India. Simultaneously, although these houses supply qualitative constituents, their monetary values are comparatively low, because of low cost of labour and natural stuff. Therefore, many celebrated makers, such as BMW and Toyota, outsource their constituents to local houses in India, to accomplish cost advantage.

Demand for cars

Besides car constituent industry, big sum demand is another advantage of India car market, ensuing in entry of planetary makers, such Toyota and Ford. As the chart indicates ( Cardinal Intelligence Agency, 2010 ) , from 2000 to 2009, population in India additions by 20 per centum, which means another 200 million devouring population. Although merely little per centum of this increasing population would lend to concluding gross revenues of car, it is still a big demand for local car makers, because of such a big base figure.

Simultaneously, Zainulbhai et Al ( 2007 ) says that the in-between category in India will increase about 10 times and make 583 million in 2025, which will take 41 per centum of entire population. Normally, the in-between category owns comparatively high buying power and is willing to purchase rider auto for themselves. Furthermore, accompanied with population growing, Gross National Income per capita besides increases rapidly in India. Harmonizing to the World Bank ( 2010 ) , GNI per capita increased from $ 450 to $ 1,180 between 2000 and 2009. Therefore, it means clients ‘ buying powers in India are larger than earlier, and could purchase comparatively goods, such as rider autos. Otherwise, it is partially caused by that installment programs are available by authorities and Bankss. In add-on, although many households in India already have a auto, they would prefer to another auto, lending even high demand. Finally, harmonizing to World Bank ( 2010 ) , passenger autos per 1000 people in India are merely 8 in 2003. Compared with 467 in United States and 440 in United Kingdom ‘s in 2003, it means that possible demand for autos in India is comparatively immense ( ibid ) .

Suggestions to MNE ‘s come ining India

Following are the ways to come in into any market whether a development or a developed economic system. These are as follows-



Joint Venture

A Green-Field is mode of come ining of a MNE from a place state to a host state. Here the MNE require holding the cognition of the environment of the host state in relation to market, resources, belongings etc. The MNE has start from abrasion to set up itself in the host state which is a long and a dearly-won procedure. A Greenfield manner of entryway is by and large preferred when there is an plus specifity and has embedded competitory advantage ; for ex If Apple wants to come in India It might desire to come in through green field as its demand is plus specific.

Second, Acquisition is standards when the MNE in place state takes over MNE in the host state or frailty versa. But during this acquisition they might come up with certain norms and contracts and hence there is a cost to doing new contracts. But the advantage of Acquisition over Greenfield is that, it provides the MNE to hold the cognition on the local environment of the market and can utilize the local labour force in its operations. The best illustration to back up this statement will be the acquisition of TATA and Jaguar Land Rover.

Last Joint Venture is standards when MNE of place and host state agrees on the per centum of portions purchased. This is the needed standards for any MNE to come in to Indian Market as there are issues related to belongings rights and liberalisation policy. In other words no MNE can come in India without a JV with one of the local Indian Company. To back up this statement assorted illustrations can be shown, for illustration a celebrated luxury trade name ‘BMW ‘ entered India through JV with SAIL on 40:60 footing.

Analyzing the tendencies of the economic environment and policies of India, the markets in the developed economic system reach the adulthood point but a market like India is an attractive finish to tonss of MNE ‘s. The 2nd largest thickly settled state and it being a developing economic system makes it a alluring finish for MNE ‘s enter in India. As a decision our suggestion to MNE come ining India will be a “ Joint Venture ” .