Clean air is necessary for human wellness. Human organic structure needs about 25 kilograms of air per twenty-four hours to maintain up its demand of O ( CEN, 2002 ) . It replicates signifies the importance of air to human existences and any taint in the air will hold a direct impact on our wellness. Pure air consists 21 % of O 78 % of N and 1 % other gases. If the air composing is altered by the addition in concentration of certain gases or by invasion of non-gaseous constituents like particulate affairs, so the air is understood to be polluted and the constituents that alter the built-in compositional belongings of air are termed as air pollutants. Air pollution affects about all facets of the environment including the biology and the physical constituents where they strive on. A assortment of beginnings have been identified as the constituents of the air pollution and they include both the natural and anthropogenetic beginnings of beginning ; nevertheless, the anthropogenetic beginnings of air pollution are more marked. Anthropogenic air pollutants are more harmful and include Particulate affair ( PM ) , Sulphur Dioxide ( SO2 ) , Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx ) , Carbon monoxide ( CO ) , Lead ( Pb ) , Ozone ( O3 ) and Hydrocarbons ( HCs ) . ( CEN, 2002 )
Air pollution is a large issue all over the universe chiefly in urban countries because of dodo fuel driven transit system.. Besides this, the unmanaged booming of urban colonies has helped to increase the concentration of air pollutants by restricting their horizontal scattering thereby interfering with the wellness of people. Chiefly, kids, elderly and the patients of lungs and bosom are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Harmonizing to Asian Development Bank ( 2001 ) , in the South Asiatic Cities, about 100,000 premature deceases every twelvemonth is caused by the damaging effects of air pollution.
Air Pollution in Kathmandu
The issue of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley is continuously pulling the attending of concerned organic structures and the gravitation of the job is turning twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Owing to the topography of Kathmandu Valley, turning population, hit-or-miss urbanisation and addition in vehicle denseness imparted as an consequence of richness and demand to function the turning population, the vale has been confronting worse state of affairs of ambient air every twelvemonth. However, the issue of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley does n’t bear a long history as the development of route webs and history of transit system in the vale do non hold the long history either. Many researches and the discourse held within the state on air pollution has identified the transit system and linked with it, the hapless state of affairs of the substructure as the root causes of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Sing the dominant air pollutant of Kathmandu, it is Particulate Matter ( PM ) , the concentration of which is ascertained higher during dark in the winter due to the creative activity of inversion bed which acts as the cover to pin down pollutants. The PM concentration in Kathmandu has ever exceeded the World Health Organization ( WHO ) criterion and National Ambient Air Quality Standard of Nepal. Besides particulate affairs ( PM10 and PM2.5 ) the concentration of other pollutants are non a major issue in Kathmandu Valley. Gaseous pollutants such as NO2 and SO2 are by and large within criterions but the concentration of NO2 is reasonably high in countries with heavy traffic and this has the potency of future addition with farther addition in figure of vehicles runing within the vale. Another possible concern is the concentration of air toxins such as benzine and poly aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH ) . The concentration of benzine is within national criterions but the national criterion of 20Aµg/m3 is itself reasonably high. Although Nepal does non hold any criterions for PAH, supervising done in 2003 indicated reasonably high degrees of these pollutants in Kathmandu Valley. ( ICIMOD, 2007 )
PM2.5 is considered to be more risky than PM10. Although Nepal does non hold any criterions for PM2.5, some monitoring has been carried out for PM2.5 in Kathmandu Valley. ( ICIMOD, 2007 )
Statement of Problem
Kathmandu, the capital metropolis of Nepal is the focal point of all the major aspects of the state, viz. economic system, touristry, civilization, political relations, disposal and natural environment.
Due to the above grounds, the population of Kathmandu vale is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Apart from this, the substructure development has ne’er been able to maintain up with the unmanaged and accelerating growing. As a consequence, this has led to increase in slums, inadequate and polluted imbibing H2O supply, polluted air to take a breath, hit-or-miss mode of dumping the solid waste in the vicinities.
Every people have right to breath clean air. Addition in population, vehicular fleet, energy ingestion and industries, chiefly brick industries have contributed to degrade air quality in Kathmandu vale. Overall, the bowl or the cup shaped topography of the vale besides has prevented the scattering of air pollutants to longer distances.
The research will turn to following issues:
1. What is the chief air pollution facing by local people in Kathmandu vale?
2. What are the chief institutional alterations that have been made to command the air pollution?
3. What are strength and failing of these institutional alterations?
4. What farther policy steps should be instituted to cut down air pollution to acceptable degrees?
Kathmandu is the capital metropolis of Nepal. The Kathmandu vale consists of three major metropoliss i.e Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Kathmandu Valley is situated in 27A° 37’30 ” N and 27A° 45’0 ” N latitude and 85A° 15A?0aˆ? Tocopherol and 85A° 22A?30aˆ? E longitude. And the Kathmandu vale is located at an height of 1350meters. The Kathmandu vale is egg-shaped molded and surrounded by high hill scope. And the country of Kathmandu vale is 340 sq.km and the entire population of Kathmandu vale is 1,442,271 ( CBS 2001 ) . The clime of Kathmandu vale is sub tropical temperate. Along with it have four seasons pre-monsoon, monsoon, station monsoon and winter. In general, mean temperature in summer is 32A°c and in winter is 5A°c. Due to economic activity and high opportunities of chances and installations many people from all around the state has been migrated in the Kathmandu vale and is been extremely heavy. Air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley has been one of the major jobs. It can be said that air pollution started as the innovation of route webs and cars.
High population with unplanned and unmanaged urbanisation, rapid increasing of cars, vehicles and industries are the factors in the causes of air pollution.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif
( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif, date:30th November 2010 )
Harmonizing to the presentation given by traffic constabulary, route length per traffic constabulary has improved since 1995 from 2.3 kilometers to 1.6 kilometer that is good mark for better traffic direction. Nevertheless, due to tremendous rise in the figure of vehicles in Kathmandu, the traffic constabulary are laden with duties of higher figure of vehicles than they had to be for 1995. From 2002 to 2009, the entire figure of vehicles in Bagmati zone increased by 1.25 times than that was before 2002 from 176415 to 396151. The statistics show that the vehicles has increasingly increased from 2002 to 2009, the lone exclusion being at 2006/07 likely due to the cause of modern-day political state of affairs. The figure of vehicles for single traffic constabulary has increased from 165 in 1995 to 415 in 2008 i.e. more than 2.5 times. In world, the figure of vehicles a traffic constabulary should look for is even higher because non all the traffic constabulary within Kathmandu are in responsibility at the same clip during a twenty-four hours.
In the context of route length and vehicle Numberss, the nominal addition in route length has resulted in crowding of roads. The population denseness per kilometre route length during 1995 was 1668 that rose to 2353 in 2008 while, the figure of vehicles per kilometre route length in Kathmandu was 70 in 1995 that has risen by about four times i.e. 255 in 2008. Furthermore, in instance of Kathmandu the traffic congestion, in pattern, is observed due to the unequal route breadth and deficiency of proper designation of the route lane for vehicles traveling from the opposite waies. The proper traffic direction can therefore be initiated with the limit of lane, which can, as extra benefit, cut down the vehicle hit and traffic accident.
Figure: Comparison on Transportation Attributes for 1995 and 2005
( Beginning: Valley Traffic Control, 2009 where Blue coloring material shows 1995 and red is 2005 )
Causes of Air pollution:
If any unwanted atoms mixed in the air, it is called air pollution. It can do for both human
Well as environment besides. Air pollutants can be in the signifier of solid atoms, liquid every bit good as
gas signifier. They are may be either natural or unreal. Main unreal air pollutants are Sulfur
Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Volatile organic compounds,
Particulate affairs, land ozone, ammonium hydroxide etc. ( Wikipedia ) .
Beginnings of unreal air pollution are as follows:
I ) Rapid Urbanization
two ) Vehicular emanation
three ) Industrial growing
four ) Unmanaged disposal of waste etc.
3.1 Concept of Institution:
An establishment is any construction or mechanism of societal order or it may bee said as a set of some formal regulations, ordinance and norms of some formal regulations, ordinance and norms formulated to set up the smooth running society or to regulate the behaviour of human being in the society. Institutions are formed to formalise the society and to demo the human being to move as a societal animate being. It is the result of the society and can be said as the demand in the human community to harmonise the behaviour of the people. “ The term establishment is normally applied to imposts and behaviour forms of import to a society, every bit good as to particular formal organisations of authorities and public service ” ( Stanford Encyclopedia: societal establishments ) .
“ Although single, formal organisations, normally identifies as “ Institution ” may be intentionally and deliberately created by people, the development and operation of establishments in society in general may be regarded as an case of exigency, that is institution arise, develop and map in a form of societal ego organisations, which goes beyond the witting purposes of the single homo involved ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/institution # aspects_of_institutions, 28th nov. 2010 ) . The establishment that has been established to heighten the quality of ambient air quality in Kathmandu is the result of the consequence from the air pollution. Those are non demand of the people but the consequence of the job. The forbiddance of two shot vehicles in Kathmandu, forbiddance of brick kiln mills was non in favour of people. It merely hit on the caput of the hapless people in the society, but that was the results of the jobs non as the knowing results.
3.2 Resource Use and Resource Regimes:
Those goods which consists of a natural or human made resource system whose size or features makes it dearly-won but non impossible to except the people from acquiring benefits from its usage are by and large known as common-pool resource ( CPR ) or it may be called as common-property resources. Since the common-pool resources are unfastened entree, there is the job off congestion or over usage. Unlike public goods, they are subtractable. A common pool resource for illustration air is a big stock but merely provides the limited measure of extractible unit and over usage will make jobs as we are here to discourse the air pollution in Kathmandu. “ A common belongings government is a peculiar societal agreement modulating the saving, care, and ingestion of a common pool resource. The usage of the term “ Common belongings resource ” to denominate a type of good has been critized, because common pool resource is non needfully governed by common belongings governments. “ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikkipedia.org/wiki/common/pool/resource, date26th Nov.2010 ) .
Example may be taken as the air in Kathmandu which is the common pool resources. It allows certain sum of pollutants but beyond this the gets polluted. There will be assorted effects as it gets polluted. Because the nucleus resource is vulnerable, it is subjected to congestion, over usage and finally pollution. Any system has their ain certain capacity to get by with the alteration and beyond that the system gets disturb and in instance off air in Kathmandu, state of affairs came due to the dramatic addition in population and inordinate usage of vehicles that run by the fossil-fuels. The usage of common pool resources can be continuously done as the cringle if they are managed decently and carefully exploited because they form the positive feedback cringle since they are stock variable but the haphazard usage of it deteriorates the stock and interrupt the flow variable for good.
3.2.1 Resource Use in Kathmandu:
Consequence of distribution
As shown in the above figure, the air in the Kathmandu was unfastened entree and there was no any regulations refering the usage of it and the ownership for it. As the clip passes, there araised several agents and market introduced. The result of the dramatic addition in the population in the metropolis consequences in the inordinate usage of vehicles for the transit system. Unfortunately those vehicles are run by dodo fuel which when used emit air pollutant in the ambiance. So there is the pollution job in the vale. Now authorities has their caput towards it and they are explicating establishment to heighten thee quality of it.
Though the air in the vale is unfastened entree but there are some regulations refering the usage of it. Thee authorities have introduced green revenue enhancement, forbiddance of Diesel running three Wheelers etc. Now the system approaches where it is still the unfastened entree but with market, shown in the figure above. There are some regulations refering the usage of it and therefore thee distributional have came into action in this instance.
3.3 Framework for Analyzing for resource usage job
Air in the Kathmandu vale is common belongings and is unfastened entree. At the clip passes, the engineering has developed every bit good as the population of metropolis addition dramatically. This is partially due the centralisation and civil war in Nepal. “ If the natural resources was huge comparison to the capacity of people to utilize it, there could be no job ” ( vatn, 2005 ) , but here the thing is merely opposite to that.
Properties of the resources:
-state of resource
Agents and aagents picks
Forms of interaction
( Beginning: Vatn, 2005, )
( Figure: Model for analysing resource usage jobs )
Finally this facet has influence has chose new establishment and authorities of Nepal formulated some regulations and ordinance for the sweetening of air quality in Kathmandu vale. Along with this, different Medias, NGOs, INGOs are involved to actuate people sing air pollution. The establishment such as censoring of two stock vehicles, resettlement of Himal cement mill, debut of green revenue enhancement was introduced.
Although there are many such many regulations ordinance and Acts of the Apostless came into being but some the establishment deficiency 3rd party control system. The authorities formulated the regulations and people were non seemed to walk along with this alteration. Since there was deficiency of 3rd party no organic structure were at that place to look into and command the execution of such policies.
“ With respects to establishment we may besides separate between operational regulations, regulations refering the shaping of operation regulations and eventually external agreement / regulations. The operational regulation defines the mundane ordinance governments ” . ( Vatn, 2005 ) .
The following of import factor to take into consideration is agents and agent ‘s pick. Here the construction of establishment greatly helps to actuate the people. Institution in Nepal was so formed that people were motivated and cognizant of air pollution and its impact to some extent. But the engineering did non suit the resource usage. As being the developing county the people do non hold any option instead than to utilize fissionable fuels as the chief beginning of energy for the transit system. At the same clip dramatic addition in population in the metropolis force to devour more fuel energy and Kathmandu valley stood foremost in place in term of vehicle enrollment in Nepal. So the air being the unfastened entree was really vulnerable to hazard.
Finally due interaction of engineering and pick of agents the job of air pollution came in the vale. There troubles are chiefly due to four factors. Basically government is non able to actuate correlativity action in conformity with what is demanded given resource characteristic, engineering, figure of agents and corruptness by the authorities functionary. Corruption is so deep rooted that one can easy interrupt up the establishment formulated by the province. This can be seen as the drawback of the system or the deficiency of motive.
“ If results are non in conformity what is expected or wanted agents can alter institutional constructions. In chief this may happen at all degree, with respects to conventions, norms and formal regulations ” ( Vatn, 2005 ) . However, altering such regulations and ordinance surely need considerable clip and consequence of such alteration to the establishment can merely be noticed after some period of clip.
3.4 Air as a common pool resource in Kathmandu
Goods or resources can be by and large classified into two groups. They are Excludable or Non-excludable and Rivalry or Non Rivalry. When a individual or a house can put a barrier on his/her belongings like land to forestall the usage of it by other are called excludable goods and those where the limit is non possible are called non-excludable goods. When the goods at one clip forestall the usage off same good at the same time by other is called competition goods and on the other manus, merely like air, the of which can ne’er halt other to utilize it at the same clip is called non-rivalry goods or resource.
Exclusion costs ( TCs )
Competition in usage or
( Beginning: Vatn, 2005, pp 263 )
( Figure: Word picture of resources or goods harmonizing to the cost of exclusion and competition in usage or ingestion ) .
“ While goods of type I are typically labeled ‘ Private goods, type II and type IV are called “ goods ” and “ public goods ” , severally. With respects to type III, “ common-pool-resource ” is an frequently used construct. In the tradition of spring of resource features to regime deduction, type I is frequently equated with private belongings and markets, II with nines, III with standard common belongings or unfastened entree and IV with state/public belongings ” . ( Vatn, 2005, pp 263 )
3.4.1 Rivalry goods
As we are discoursing about the in the Kathmandu vale, it can bee seen that the resource is rivalry type. In Kathmandu vale, different types of mills, industries, vehicles are continuously run intoing the air pollutant which finally invited the pollution job and all the citizens are enduring from it. “ In the instance of rival goods, the nucleus job is that of external consequence. This is typically the instance for many environmental resources where use-at least beyond the certain level-reduce its measure and/or quality ” ( Vatn, 2005, pp263 ) . Therefore air in instance of Kathmandu vale can be considered as rival goods.
3.4.2 Non-Excludable goods
When the goods are private or owned by certain people or organisation, than the limit is really easy that means dealing cost is really low. But when thee goods or resources are unfastened entree or common belongings, the exclusion cost is really high because the typical limit is non possible. In this instance, air is common belongings and everybody in the metropolis can utilize it undoubtly and the dealing cost is really high
3.5 Mechanism to cut down air pollution:
The pollution job in Kathmandu can be seen as the result of inordinate energy used and technological development. This can merely be framed as follows:
3.5.1 Taxation input
Basically the major pollution job in the vale is due to the inordinate usage of the vehicles which are runic letters by the crude oil merchandises. So air pollution can be reduced by presenting the revenue enhancement in the dodo fuel. This is the best manner because there is low dealing cost in making so. High revenue enhancement in the fule wills automatically cut down the usage of private vehicles and the public vehicles utilizations will be increased to the considerable extent.
3.5.2 Tax in production and engineering
On the other manus, this can be done by presenting the revenue enhancement in the engineering that means motor auto, private vehicles, and mills, industries which use energy and breathe the pollutants in the air and besides supplying the subsidy to those who use bike or electronic agencies of transit. As the authorities of Nepal is making, censoring of Diesel running three Wheelers, two stock vehicles are besides the manner to heighten the air quality to some extent. This is a really simple manner and there is low dealing cost in debut such establishments but this dominantly hit the hapless in the society.
3.5.3 Tax in Output
There is another manner of commanding the air pollution but the dealing cost in really high in making so. The debut of emanation revenue enhancement can be really good manner to heighten the air quality. Here the dealing cost will be reasonably really high.
For carry throughing the survey aims, a systematic survey attack was followed. The major base for research founded with the aggregation of relevant secondary informations and information from assorted national and international beginnings. The field-based survey could non be done.
The undermentioned procedure are done:
Secondary Data Collection
Draft Report Preparation
Increasing figure of vehicles without extension of roads is diagnosed to be the major job in Kathmandu. The growing of the vehicles in Kathmandu is a major concern to traffic constabulary, vehicle drivers, and walkers. From the consequence, it is observed that the route length of Kathmandu is increasing really nominally while the Numberss of vehicles are increasing with an exceeding growing rate and it finally help to increase air pollution.
5.1 Causes of Air Pollution
Air pollution causes by both anthropogenetic every bit good as natural beginnings. Anthropogenic beginning is the chief cause in Kathmandu vale than that of natural beginning. Chiefly fossil fuel burning and other activities like brick mills, unmanaged route system, rock grinding mills are added pollution. Vehicle system is the chief beginning to breathe C monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide. Approximately 67 per centum of Particulate affair is supplied by vehicular emanation in Kathmandu vale.
5.1.1 Beginnings of air pollution
Beginnings of air pollution are of two types: Natural and unreal.
Main beginnings of unreal air pollution are as follows:
A ) Rapid Urbanization:
Kathmandu vale has really fertile land, but nowadays it is known as unmanaged urban country. The chief cause of this is Kathmandu-centric development and migration of people due to insurgency and political struggle. It is the biggest metropolis of the Nepal and about 20 percent urban people live here. The population addition rate here is every bit twice as national rate of 2.2 % . ( ICIMOD, 2007 ) .
B ) Vehicular Emission:
It is the chief beginning for air pollution. Harmonizing to the Department of Transportation and Management, Government of Nepal, the first coach service in Nepal commenced in1957 and since so the fleet has grown well. The cumulative vehicular figure in Bagmati zone ( administrative zone where the vehicles of Kathmandu Valley are registered ) was 176,415 in 2001 and it reached 396,151 in 2008. Most of the vehicles registered in Bagmati zone is used in Kathmandu vale. This record shows the rapid increase of vehicles in Kathmandu vale. Vehicle figure in Kathmandu has been increasing quickly in the last five old ages.
C ) Industrial Emissions:
About two-fifth industries in Nepal are located in Kathmandu vale. Harmonizing to the Department of Cottage and little industries, there were 14,971 up to 2006. Out of them, 111 are brick kilns and 89 are stone crushers. They contribute 14 % of the entire particulate affair in Kathmandu vale. Management of solid waste is another job which besides causes air pollution and vulnerable to wellness. ( ICIMOD,2007 )
5.1.2 Effectss of air pollution
The consequence of air pollution is high in human wellness. High exposure in air pollution may do chronic bronchitis, lung malignant neoplastic disease, asthma and other respiratory jobs. It besides affects cardio vascular system and nervous system ( Lahiri, 2003 ) . Particulate affair is the chief job of Kathmandu, which non merely affects the wellness but besides the touristry industry. Due to the hapless wellness, human productiveness is besides loss. All these impacts eventually affect the economic system of single every bit good as of province.
The long term survey of wellness impact due to air pollution is yet to be conducted in Kathmandu Valley. However, Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre ( CWIN ) surveyed about 60 kids who were working as staffs on three-wheelers in vale and consequence showed that 84 % staffs were enduring from oculus job, 82 % thorax strivings, 66 % were enduring from coughs and 58 % by concerns. Similarly 45 % kids were enduring by respiratory job.
Shakya S conducted a survey integrating questionnaires to the traffic constabulary. He observed that out of 90 traffic constabulary, most of them were enduring from diseases related to nervous and respiratory systems. Similarly, Clean Energy Nepal ( CEN ) besides did a questionnaire study for the people who live near to the brick industries and in control country. The survey revealed that 54 % out of surveyed people near to the brick kiln were enduring from respiratory job and 41 % people in the control country were affected by respiratory upset.
The other jobs due to air pollution are as follows:
Ozone bed depletion
Decrease of visibleness
In context of Kathmandu, the issues of acid rain and ozone bed depletion are non really important as both of these issues are the results of the heavy industrial pollution. The formation of the photochemical smog and acerb droplets due to hydration of the SOx and NOx are non good defined in the pollution position of the ambient air of Kathmandu. As mentioned in the earlier subdivisions the concentrations of both these gases are good below the criterions set by the Government of Nepal and WHO. However, sing the visibleness the job perpetuates in Kathmandu during all seasons with even more marked effects during the winters when temperature inversion takes topographic point. The visibleness job is fundamentally caused by the particulate affairs and the job subsides merely during the periods of heavy rainfall.
5.2. Policies and institutional agreements for pull offing emanations from motor vehicles:
A figure of plans have been done to contend against the air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Some are given below.
aˆ? In 1991, authorities stopped to register three-wheelers. It was the first response related to air pollution of Kathmandu vale.
aˆ? In 1994, authorities topographic point emanation criterions for in-use vehicles. Green spines were given those vehicles which met emanation values.
aˆ? Ministry of Population and Environment was established in 1995.
aˆ? Environmet Protection Act 2000 and Rules were enacted in 1997.
aˆ? In 1998, the authorities formulated NVMES in 2000 ; these criterions, tantamount to EURO-I emanation norms, went into consequence from January 2000. All new agencies of transit imported from abroad since so hold had to run into the footings.
aˆ? In 1997 the authorities decided to supply fiscal support to battery-operated electric three-wheelers. It was given in the signifier of revenue enhancement interruptions.
aˆ? In 1999, diesel three-wheelers were banned in Kathmandu Valley. Similarly it was banned in other metropoliss besides. Vehicle proprietors were given revenue enhancement inducement to purchase new vehicles.
aˆ? In November 2000, the authorities decided to censor public vehicles older than 20 old ages. Similarly it banned all two stroke vehicle in Kathmandu Valley. The policy was followed from 16 November, 2001. Government tried to follow this regulation purely but was unable to set into pattern the determination.
aˆ? In late 2000, two-stroke bike enrollment was restricted.
aˆ? The vehicle run by LPG and CPG ( tight natural gas ) was improved from 2000.
aˆ? In 2001, authorities decided adds 10 % excess revenue enhancement for the vehicle holding older than 15 old ages. This is the first instance that authorities linked between revenue enhancement and vehicle age. It helped to deter the usage of older vehicles.
aˆ? In 2001, The National Transport Policy was formulated. This policy is straight related to clean transit system.
aˆ? In 2003, the National Ambient Air Quality System for assorted air pollutants was established.
aˆ? Two-stroke three-wheeler vehicles were banned from 2004 in the Kathmandu Valley.
aˆ? Government closed Himal Cement Factory to command the air pollution which was situated near the vale.
( Beginning: Dahal, 2006 )
Government has formulated and applied many regulations and ordinances to turn to the air pollution of Kathmandu vale, but the graph below shows that the chief air pollutants Total Suspended Particulates ( Particulate affairs ) is increasing every twelvemonth.
( Beginning: MoEST Report 2006 )
5.3. Strength and failing of these institutional alterations:
It is found that reforms in bing institutional set up is likely to convey some positive impact on the air quality of Kathmandu vale. Removing two stroke vehicles from the vale have reduced the air pollution every bit good as noise pollution. It has besides helped to cut down the energy ingestion because the two shot vehicles use more fuel than other. However, the regulations and ordinances are no enforced because of the political instability and corruptnesss. The economic status of the state has besides impacted on the execution the establishments because the authorities has non allocated sufficient fund for environment. In Nepal there is separate ministry covering with environment ( Ministry of Environment ) , nevertheless, the constitution of the local authorization like environment section and its associated regional and territory organic structures, to efficaciously cover with the jobs related to environment has non been materialized yet, even after more than a decennary has passed with the constitution of environment ministry. The constitution of environment section is still in the phase of planning and authorities has made attempts to set up it in close hereafter, but harmonizing to the authorities fiscal restraint is the cardinal hurdle in finishing the undertaking. The job of air pollution ca n’t be resolved with the current weak institutional set up. Government has mandated municipality for the direction of urban environment. Although Local Self Governance Act 1999 provides all the authorization, municipality do non hold no adequate fiscal and proficient resource to pull off the urban environment. Municipalities straight depend upon the cardinal authorities for budget for transporting out even the local development activities. There is an Environment Department in Kathmandu Metropolitan metropolis, but most of the staffs are making their occupation to pull off the metropolis refuse. There are merely two members who are responsible for air and H2O pollution control and about verdure.
There are no good dealingss among the governmental organisations who are responsible for air pollution extenuation. Department of Road ( DoR ) , Department of Transportation and Management ( DoTM ) and Traffic constabularies are the chief responsible governmental organisations. But still there is lack organizing establishment to convey these three major stakeholders to a common floor to work out the air pollution job.
5.4 Recommended hereafter policies:
The hereafter policy steps should turn to the undermentioned points:
Government should end the licensing for any new industrial constitution within Kathmandu Valley and the industries already in operation should be punctually monitored to update the position of gaseous and particulate emanations from those industries.
Promoting people to utilize electronic vehicle and bike
Government should increase revenue enhancement for private vehicles and give subsidy for public vehicles.
Strict control over prevalent patterns of firing Sur and making hearth in unfastened areas.Open fires and combustion of tyres should non be allowed, it should be purely controlled.
Non-motorized transit system should be promoted with a clear policy. There should besides be clear policy on electric motor rhythms and bi-cycles.
There should be progressive one-year enrollment fee on vehicles based on age, size, efficiency.
Introduction and enlargement of electric vehicles for the mass theodolite.
Government bureaus like NOC should concentrate in providing the people with clean fuels so that the consequence on both human wellness and environment could be reduced.
Having consciousness plans on urban environment and other issues
6. Decision and Recommendation
The weak establishment, corruptness and deficiency of engineering are the chief job for the air pollution of Kathmandu vale. The authorities is seeking to work out air pollution job of vale but it has been unsuccessful because of inconvenient regulations. The part is the county is hapless and it ca n’t bear new engineering that reduces the air pollution. There is besides deficiency of cognition and consciousness among people about the air pollution.