Find Justice In A Male Dominated World English Literature Essay

All three authors I will be researching hold written about adult females fighting to happen justness in a male dominated universe ; nevertheless each author has different thoughts on the portraiture of this. The first text I will be looking at is “ Tess of the d’Urbervilles ” , written by Thomas Hardy. Hardy writes about adult females in Victorian times being victims of male laterality, and presents his female character Tess in a tragic visible radiation. The 2nd text I will be analyzing is a aggregation of verse forms called “ The World ‘s Wife ” , written by twentieth century author, Carol Ann Duffy. Duffy writes about adult females in a positive visible radiation, guaranting the reader perceives the adult females as strong and intelligent. This is the complete antonym to Hardy ‘s portraiture of female characters. The 3rd text I will be analyzing is “ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof ” , written by Tennessee Williams. It is set in 1950 ‘s Southern America, where male laterality is widespread, and Williams nowadayss to us several different female characters each holding to cover with dominant work forces. All three texts are focussed on how adult females are subjected to male laterality but I will be looking at how each author Tells of their battles otherwise.

Hardy ‘s “ Tess of the d’Urbervilles tells the narrative of a immature adult female who is invariably subjected to male laterality by all the males in her life. We are foremost introduced to Tess at a May Day dance, where she is described as have oning a white frock and holding “ big, guiltless eyes. ” This instantly gave me the feeling she was beatific and guiltless, as white represents pureness and artlessness. Hardy besides smartly tells the reader Tess is have oning a ruddy thread in her hair. This instantly gives the reader a hint that bad things are to come as ruddy is normally associated with danger, but it is besides associated with sexual desires and passion so this is an index of things to come for Tess. We subsequently see that the subjects of sexual desire are important in the ruin of Tess. Hardy lets the reader know Tess ‘s personality defect is that she is naif and vulnerable. Tellurium is vulnerable because of her low place in society, even though she holds high ethical motives and criterions. The male laterality in Victorian times would hold made it impossible for Tess to better upon her societal position independently ; she would hold had to get married person in a higher societal category in order to go less vulnerable. There are three chief work forces in her life whom each take advantage of her personality defect and do her ruin. The first male to do Tess unfairness is her male parent, John Durbeyfield. An incident occurs when Tess is forced to take the household ‘s Equus caballus to market after her male parent comes home rummy and does n’t carry through his gender function of traveling to work, and the Equus caballus dies after a hit. As a consequence, Tess feels to a great extent responsible for the decease of the Equus caballus, “ Cipher blamed Tess as she blamed herself. ” Tess ‘s female parent, Joan asks Tess to travel and “ Claim kin ” off their nearest relations, the d’Urbervilles. Tess is persuaded on the affair and merely state ‘s “ Well, as I killed the Equus caballus, female parent… I suppose I ought to make something. ” Tess shortly arrives at “ The Slopes ” , believed to be the place to their relations, merely to be intimidated by a character called Alec. Alec d’Urbervilles description makes the reader uncomfortable and the audience knows Tess must be experiencing vulnerable. He is described as holding “ Full lips ” and a “ Well-groomed black mustache with curling points. ” The reader can feel Alec ‘s organic structure linguistic communication besides makes Tess a small frightened and more vulnerable, which was frequently the purpose of work forces in places of power. Alec made Tess experience “ uncomfortable ” around him. Alec first exercises his male laterality over Tellurium when he forces her to eat a strawberry from his manus. Not merely is he mistreating his power over her by intimidating her into eating the strawberry ; “ Nonsense! He insisted ” , he is besides being sexually dominant over Tess, as strawberry ‘s are widely considered to be symbolic of passion and sexual desires as they are an aphrodisiac. The ambiance set is full of sexual tenseness on Alec ‘s portion, with Hardy utilizing descriptive linguistic communication with sexual intensions underneath such as “ in a little hurt she parted her lips and took it in ” . The word “ hurt ” shows us that she did n’t desire to eat the strawberry but because he insisted and he is a male in a place of power, she had to obey his orders, which was what was expected of her in a Victorian society. There is farther grounds of Tess being submissive to Alec ‘s demands when he is giving her flowers to topographic point in her bosom and on her chapeau. Hardy writes that Tess merely “ Obeyed like one in a dream. ” Further on in the novel, Alec ‘s laterality is seen when he is driving recklessly with Tess and demands a buss from Tess before he will decelerate down. Alec demands “ Let me set one small buss on those holmberry lips Tess or even on that warmed cheek, and I ‘ll halt. ” This farther supports my statement that Alec needs sexual laterality over Tess because one time once more, by seting her in an impossible state of affairs, Tess will hold no pick but to give in to his demands.

The concluding illustration of the power and control Alec holds over Tess is when he rapes her on the manner place from a dance. Tess finds herself in a battle with her colleagues and Alec ironically rides in on a white Equus caballus, which Tess could construe as Alec coming to protect her. However, the reader knows by this point how manipulative Alec truly is and we know he has no purpose of protecting her so we are leery of his actions. The colza is the ultimate manner to demo Tess who holds the power in their relationship. The reader is given hints as to what is traveling to go on to Tess when Hardy writes “ He touched her with his fingers ” and “ He plunged into the webs of vapor. ” These create titillating images in the readers mind and we sense he is about to ravish her, but we are left with an air or uncertainness. The reader is eventually led to believe Alec colzas Tess when Hardy writes “ He knelt and dead set lower, until her breath warmed his face, and in a minute, his cheek was in contact with hers. ” Phrases such as “ Upon her ciliums at that place lingered cryings ” and “ Where was Tess ‘s guardian angel? ” I think all these phrases show that he is ravishing her and the cryings show she is objecting to it but she can non physically halt him, she can merely demo him her emotions. This is complete unfairness for Tess as she did n’t desire for the colza to happen, nevertheless she understands that because of male laterality and power, cipher would believe she objected ; everyone would hold believed she gave her full consent to Alec. This makes the modern reader further sympathise with Tess as, being modern adult females we understand that it is illegal to ravish anyone, so we could contend for justness unlike Tess.

However, the critic Raymond Chapman disagrees with the sentiment this was a colza scene, as he says the scene does non demo us any formal inside informations of what is go oning, the reader is left in suspense and has to deduce a colza has occurred from assorted hints Hardy has written, such as the red of the strawberry in chapter 5, showing danger is coming. I disagree with this sentiment nevertheless and I think the sexual linguistic communication such as “ touched ” and “ plunged ” are adequate grounds to state the reader a colza scene is go oning.

As a direct consequence of the colza, Tess falls pregnant and her babe, Sorrow, dies. Tellurium is made a societal castaway because of this gestation, and this one time once more displays the Victorian attitude towards holding kids out of marriage. Harmonizing to the critic James Walvin, Hardy was n’t accurate plenty in his portraiture of Tess ‘s agony as individual adult females who had kids suffered the worst of society ‘s penalties, and they were non accepted and they were shunned by society. I disagree with this position as Tess has to cover with some of the harshest of fortunes, such as when she has to travel and work on a murphy farm where disease is prevailing and the wage is hapless, after being left with no fiscal security. The chief ground Tess is outcast by society is because she sticks to her ethical motives, even after Alec takes her virginity, she still refuses to get married him as it is non what her bosom wants. This would hold shocked a Victorian audience as Victorian adult females were n’t supposed to hold their ain free will and heads. Hardy received rough unfavorable judgment for this and harmonizing to Ann Mickleson, “ Tellurium is portion of a stratified society, which regards the provincial as an inferior member of society and adult female as inferior to adult male. ” This fact meant Hardy received tonss of unfavorable judgment for non portraying the female as conserved and weak in her strong beliefs, the manner she would hold been in the Victorian period. Hardy does non portray the colza every bit unfair as “ ravishing ” adult females was common among lower category adult females in the Victorian period. Another adult male who lets her down is the priest, as after her babe dies, she begs him to give her babe a Christian entombment even though Tess is to the full cognizant that her babe was born out of marriage. The priest refuses, and this farther supports my statement that females struggled to happen justness under the opinions of male laterality, as Tess believed she could depend on the priest but he disappointed her.

After the decease of Tess ‘s babe, we meet Angel Clare for the 2nd clip after a brief meeting at the May Day dance, at a dairy farm, where Tess has now moved to derive employment. Tess moved off to derive some independency, even though Hardy shows to us that the wanting of independency and strong will were n’t enviable qualities in a adult female in the Victorian period, as some characters such as Mr Crick seem shocked and surprised by her character, “ to the surprise – so, slight contempt – of Dairyman Crick, ” intending he disliked Tess ‘s uneven character upon their first meeting.

We subsequently discover that Angel likes to populate by pastoral traditions, which was a motion that idealised rural life, but it was giving a false feeling because cipher realised all the difficult work that has to be put into working in the countryside. This means Angel likes to believe everything in the countryside is perfect, and as a consequence of this he idealises Tess, by naming her names like “ Tessy and “ My Tellurium ” every bit good as “ Demeter ” . Hardy uses pastoralist thoughts throughout the novel, ever mentioning to the countryside and doing it seem like the ideal topographic point to populate, nevertheless he besides tries to overthrow the thought and demo both sides to pastoralism. Hardy tries to get rid of the thought of rural life by demoing the rough life conditions at Flintcombe Ash, which besides depicts Hardy ‘s naturalism. Hardy shows through Angel ‘s character that pastoralism can be unsafe because the dark before the nuptials he idealises himself and Tess by leting himself to believe nil bad could hold of all time happened to Tess. Angel calls her “ Artemis ” , a goddess that is linked with birthrate, hills, woods, virginity and is frequently seen with a bow and pointer, and is depicted as a huntsman. This displays to us Angels merely position of Tess, as a goddess, whereas she is no huntsman, she in the “ hunted ” . This idealistic position is destructive to their relationship as Tess continuously asks Angel to see her for who she is but he refuses to listen. After Tess and Angel marry, Angel confides in Tess about a 40 eight hr matter he had with an older adult female whilst in London, so Tess feels it would be just that she told him about Alec and the decease of their babe. Tess feels relieved to be able to state Angel, merely to happen that he holds dual criterions, which were besides common in Victorian times. He exclaims to Tess that their wickednesss are n’t similar in nature, and that he can non forgive her. He says “ Forgiveness does now use to the instance. You were one individual ; now you are another. ” The audience can non believe how nescient he is being to Tess ‘s state of affairs, as we can see that the state of affairss are highly similar, and Angel ‘s instance may even be considered to be worse than Tellurium ‘s because he gave consent to the matter whereas Tess had no pick in the affair. Angel farther shows his domineering function when he says “ Different societies, Different manners ” every bit good as adding farther abuse to Tess by stating she is “ Childish ” , “ Unformed ” and “ Crude ” . This is complete unfair towards Tess as Angel is the one individual in her life that she can purportedly depend on to love her unconditionally, but Victorian dual criterions are mostly seeable here. Angel decided that he will go forth Tess and travel to Brazil to run a farm, go forthing her with no fiscal security. Tess falls in a downwards spiral of desperation from this point and we are lead to believe she has given up on happening any signifier of justness after allowing Angel merely walk off from the state of affairs. Tess ‘s fortunes become so desperate after seeking to last in the rough conditions at Flintcombe Ash, throughout the winter, that she has no pick but to return to Alec after his relentless persuasion and about blackmail, after he promises her he will look after both her and her household. The reader sympathises with this determination as we realise this is her lone pick, but we are shocked when she murders Alec shortly after Angels return. As a consequence of her perpetrating slaying, she is hunted down my males, farther demoing the power they held over adult females, and she is hung. Some critics think the decease of Alec was unneeded because Tess was promoted as a pure adult female, and a true pure adult female would n’t hold committed such a offense. However I think Tess was right to slay Alec after everything he put her through, as this showed the audience the small spot of justness she gained, until the justness was taken from her after her decease as she was punished for her lone incorrect in her life. I think Hardy intentionally takes away Tess ‘s life to demo that adult females truly did hold no opportunity of happening justness in a male dominated universe.

The 2nd text I have analysed is “ The World ‘s Wife ” , written by twentieth century author Carol Ann Duffy. The aggregation of verse form is written from the point of the position of the married womans of celebrated work forces, including Shakespeare and Charles Darwin. Duffy has written it from a adult female ‘s point of position as these adult females have antecedently been written about by work forces in a negative visible radiation, and Duffy wants to happen these adult females some justness by turn overing the old positions held of them, utilizing assorted techniques such as temper to win us over. Duffy ‘s technique is the antonym of Hardy ‘s, as she believes all adult females are strong, powerful and independent, whereas Hardy portrayed Tess as naif and vulnerable. Duffy shows adult females seeking to turn over male laterality, whereas Hardy disallows Tess to get the better of male laterality and condemns her to a barbarous life.

I will get down with a verse form called “ Small Red Cap ” , which is the first in the aggregation as this verse form represents Duffy happening her creativeness and going independent of male counsel and domination in her life. Duffy takes on the function of “ Small Red Riding Hood ” in this non riming verse form. The poem trades with subjects of childhood, sex and loss of artlessness. The verse form is about her first relationship with poet Adrian Henri. Henri is played out as the wolf, and is described as holding a “ wolfy drawl ” and a “ barbate jaw ” every bit good as “ large eyes ” . The image created by the wolf is intimidating, allowing us know that Duffy felt vulnerable, merely as Tess felt around Alec on their first meeting. Duffy shows us her battle against laterality through lines like “ The wolf, I knew, would take me deep into the forests, off from place, to a dark tangled thorny topographic point. The phrase “ I knew, would take ” shows us male laterality is present as she knew Henri would take the lead and take her off, as if he was “ In charge ” of their relationship, about mistreating his power as he was much older than Duffy. It is easy to conceive of the wolfs “ Lair ” as being a chilling topographic point for a immature miss as it is a new experience which left Duffy feeling scared and vulnerable. The reader sees Duffy ‘s loss of artlessness when she writes, “ Lesson 1 that dark, breath of the wolf in my ear, was the love verse form. ” This demonstrates how she discovered sex for the first clip with the wolf. The reader, on first feeling, sees that Duffy has no control in their relationship and that all the power lies with the male. Henri steals the spotlight from her poesy, but we subsequently discover Duffy finds justness in the signifier of detecting her passion for poesy and she escapes the relationship with her ain creativeness. The last line of the verse form shows us that she has found freedom and justness ; “ Out of the forest I come with my flowers, vocalizing, all entirely. ”

Duffy writes about adult females in chiefly scriptural and Shakespearian periods, as opposed to Hardy ‘s Victorian context, for illustration the verse forms Anne Hathaway and Mrs Lazarus. Duffy creates a strong sense of context in order for the reader to understand that male laterality ruled in these periods. This besides lets the reader know what struggles and jobs the adult females would hold had to get the better of in order to go independent.

The 2nd verse form I will be looking at is “ Anne Hathaway ” , which is written from the point of position of Shakespeare ‘s married woman, Anne Hathaway. It is written to seek and give Anne some justness against all the unfavorable judgment her matrimony received, as when Shakespeare left his will, he left Anne the “ 2nd best bed ” which some people said was due to an unhappy matrimony. So in Duffy ‘s verse form, she subverts this position and makes readers see that possibly their 2nd best bed was the one the twosome shared the most memories in. The verse form is written as a sonnet and is 14 lines long, which is extremely dry as a sonnet is a love verse form, and as the twosome were said to hold an unhappy matrimony, this is unexpected.

In my sentiment, it is besides written in the signifier of a sonnet to propose that Anne could compose poesy merely every bit good as Shakespeare, demoing her audience that adult females are merely every bit good as work forces. The verse form contains phrases such as “ Living, express joying love ” which demonstrates the usage of initial rhyme to do the reader sense a loving tone in their relationship, with the usage of such pleasant words. The word “ Living ” besides suggests that his memory is still alive in her memory and that their relationship was passionate and full of life. There is besides a extremely titillating temper throughout the verse form, with phrases such as “ Dive for pearls ” and “ Kisss on these lips ” . This titillating temper is set to give Anne some justness over male ‘s sentiments that their matrimony was unhappy, as it suggests their love life was antic and they had no jobs. Overall, the verse form stands up to the original train of idea which was that Shakespeare ne’er truly loved Anne, and it demonstrates to the audience that they can happen justness over male laterality by talking their head and turn overing people ‘s thoughts. Duffy shows that adult females win and Hardy shows that adult females fail in get the better ofing the battles involved in male laterality.

A 3rd verse form from the aggregation is “ Mrs Darwin ” . The verse forms written from the point of position of Charles Darwin ‘s married woman, and suggests that adult females are the anchor to all good work forces, and gives us the feeling that it was in fact Charles ‘s married woman that came up with the theory of development. So the verse form uses humour to do it look as if adult females came up with the constructs. This train of idea is the complete antonym to Hardy ‘s, and in Victorian times, this thought that adult females thought of good constructs would hold been deemed pathetic, as they received no formal instruction. Duffy uses temper in this verse form in peculiar to do work forces experience victimized and for adult females to portray work forces as pathetic for one time, and so they can be laughed at. Some critics feel Duffy ‘s demand to abash work forces is non needed and unjust, nevertheless I think it is wholly acceptable after all the old ages of male laterality. A critic, Deryn Rees Jones, says Duffy “ goes beyond squarely feminist poesy and shows us the troubles that patriarchy nowadayss to both work forces and adult females. ” However, another critic, Martin Edwards, disagrees with this position and say ‘s “ Duffy ‘s poesy displays nil but disdain for males ” , demoing that he believes Duffy is merely knocking work forces throughout her poesy, which I believe to be untrue.

The concluding text I will be looking at is a drama written by Tennessee Williams, called “ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof ” . It is set in 1950 ‘s Southern America, where male laterality was prevailing. The drama presents us with several female personalities, all of which are different but can associate to characters found in the old two texts. There are 4 chief females I will be analyzing, Maggie, Mae, Big Mama and Aunt Sal. Maggie is a strong, ferocious character who knows what she wants, much like the females displayed to us in Duffy ‘s poesy like “ Penelope ” , who additions independency after her hubby leaves her. Maggie is besides similar to Tess in the manner that she besides has a vulnerable side, which we do n’t frequently see.