1. Pakistan is one of the few, fortunate states in the universe, rich in natural resources, with plentifulness of human endowment and creativeness complementing this wealth, waiting to be discovered. Once the available human potency is put into pattern, the state will be good on its manner to success and prosperity. The lone and possibly the toughest adversary barricading a bright hereafter for the state, is the vastly low rate of literacy. With respect to its literacy rate, Pakistan ( harmonizing to UNESCO figures ) is in 142nd topographic point among 167 provinces. Since the origin of Pakistan, instruction has ever been given a backseat by consecutive authoritiess.
2. The current sad province of Pakistan ‘s economic system is the consequence of a figure of complex and interconnected factors, including the continued disregard of the instruction sector since our independency in 1947. Although consciousness about the job exists, as is apparent from voices raised at forums both in the public and private sectors and through the mass media, nevertheless a conjunct attempt has been missing all along. From clip to clip, several efforts have been made to do a discovery in this of import societal sector for radical reforms and attendant part to the economic development of the state. But there have been no important consequences so far.
3. In the first educational conference held in 1947, it was expressly announced that the system of instruction in Pakistan will be developed and organized on spiritual evidences but, unluckily, this purpose could non be achieved. Alternatively we continued to follow the old system of British epoch whose aims were:
- To pull work force for running the lower degree disposal.
- To prophesy Christianity
- Erase the effects of Islamic regulation and civilization
4. To transport out a survey of instruction system in Pakistan, foregrounding the weak countries and strength of instruction policy 2002 and propose steps to better the literacy rate.
EXISTING CHALLENGES TO EDUCATION
6. Harmonizing to official authorities studies such as the Economic Survey and the National Education Policy, some advancement has been made in the instruction sector over the last decennary. Datas from the latest Economic Survey of Pakistan points to indexs such as an addition in the figure of educational establishments and the elevation of the national literacy rate from 26 % ( 35 % male / 16 % female ) in 1981 to 49 % ( 61.3 % male / 36.8 % female ) in 2000 as grounds of advancement made. However in the face of such factors as quickly increasing population, bing low degrees of literacy, engagement rates, criterions of instruction, gender disparities, it is apparent that the bing installations and attempts remain unequal.
7. A big portion of the job with the instruction system lies in the fact that the bing instruction system has non evolved to run into the altering demands of the population and economic system. Learning across the board is still mostly done by the talk and rote larning method in which the instructor talks and pupils memorise big piece of lands of information for an scrutiny on which their full class and frequently publicity to the following degree of instruction depends. The system has non been antiphonal to alterations in the accomplishments that are required to work in the universe today. Engagement and treatment is non at the centre of the methodological analysis. Students are non taught to believe analytically, to inquiry and dispute their instructors and stuffs. This starts in primary school and by the clip they graduate from higher instruction, many pupils may hold grades but no basic job resolution and analytical thought accomplishments. The jobs within the instruction sector are both qualitative and quantitative.
8. Low literacy rate.
Pakistan has a literacy rate of 49 % . Literacy rate in urban countries is 68 % and in rural countries it is 37 % . Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the part. The status of female instruction is even more distressing. It is merely 32.6 % due to assorted factors.
9.Gender Bias. Although adult females ‘s instruction witnessed a major betterment in the 1990s, Pakistan still has a big gender spread in literacy ratio. The spread has gone up from 16 per cent in 1980 to 21 per cent in 1990 and so to 33 per cent in 1997. Despite these dismaying statistics, adult females in Pakistan have remained far off from formal instruction and professional independency. It is a typical 3rd universe job, related to societal force per unit area and imposts.
10.High Population Growth Rate.Population growing rate of Pakistan is 3.22 % as compared to economic growing rate of 4.2 % in 2003. It must be brought down to a degree where installations provided do non dawdle behind the demand, by great extent. Due to a deficiency of resources, province instruction policy can non maintain gait with the demographic development.
11.Teaching as a Profession and Teacher ‘s Training. Teaching in Pakistan has lost its prestigiousness. As a profession it does non earn the position and regard which the other professions enjoy. In fact, the position of instructors, peculiarly male instructors, has suffered so badly that work forces, who possess high makings but are unemployed, become instructors, merely as a last resort. Even in this instance though, instruction is seen as a impermanent occupation that will be left one time a better chance comes along. Other major jobs are:
- A primary school instructor earns approximately between Rs 1,400 and Rs 2,860. This is less than what a cook, nurseryman or chauffeur frequently earns. Therefore many primary school instructors in Pakistan are forced to take on excess occupations to supplement their incomes. Thus they are frequently absent from the schoolroom.
- Teacher ‘s preparation is hapless and based on old methods of instructions. Their aptitude and attitude is non checked when using them in learning profession.
- There is small chance for calling promotion in the instruction profession in Pakistan, particularly for primary school instructors. The lone 1 available to most instructors is to travel into secondary school instruction. This nevertheless, has negative effects on the primary school system, since it is frequently the good instructors who leave learning primary school for secondary school.
- Finally, there is virtually no system of answerability for instructors. This means they can acquire off with absenteeism. There is no local authorization to guarantee that instructors attend categories and learn their pupils. Head instructors have small authorization to animadversion instructors who do non turn up for work.
12.Poor Management and Supervision Structure.A cardinal proviso of the policy should be the creative activity of an effectual monitoring system designed to supervise the proper execution of reforms to the system. This is where authorities tends to run into problem since they do non be after and transport out execution of their plans. The authorities has virtually no mechanisms in topographic point to supervise and measure the success of those plans that it does set about. In add-on to weak and faulty execution mechanisms, unequal forces, hapless preparation, low political committedness and absence of inducements have besides caused the failure of most reform attempts.
The result in fiscal footings has been cost over tallies, holds in run intoing marks and hapless return to the state.
13. Low Operating Budget. With respect to fiscal outgo on instruction, Pakistan has the lowest outgo on instruction amongst Asiatic developing states, coming in at 2.2 % of GNP in 1998-99. This per centum of GNP is low sing the size of the school aged population and the development demands of the state.
14.High Dropout Rate.A great bulk of the kids are compelled to go forth the schools due to multiple grounds. 45 % of kids are dropped out at primary degree.
15.Poverty.Poverty is besides responsible to a great extent towards the really low literacy rate, low engagement ratio and high bead out ratio.
16.Outdated and Irrelevant Curricula. The instruction course of study is inactive and far behind the educational and scientific demands of present clip. There is no policy sing updating of stuff given to the pupils. There is no construct of research even at higher secondary school degree. No rating of the enforced course of study is carried out. Therefore no feedback is received to revise the course of study. Furthermore it caters least for the involvements of the pupils.
17.Political Intervention.Student unrest, political or otherwise has caused breaks in the academic calendar and interjected a degree of tenseness between module and pupils that is non contributing to larning. Campus agitation has been blamed for the impairment in the quality of instruction. However, one could look at it as pupils fall backing to unrest because they are profoundly frustrated with the unsatisfactory educational experience they are acquiring and with the doubtful chances of suited employment afterwards.
There is no system of counsel or reding available to pupils. Students are left on their ain to work out academic, personal and calling issues. This must alter if the pupil is to profit wholly from the educational experience. Therefore campus agitation can be seen as a symptom of the implicit in hapless quality of instruction and non a cause. The infiltration of partizan political relations into campus has farther deteriorated the state of affairs. Indiscipline will merely vanish one time long term and far making reforms are made.
18.Scientific Education and Research Potential.The quality of instruction available in most public establishments has significantly deteriorated over the last 20 old ages. Research, a critical index of a vivacious third degree instruction sector, has slowed to a drip except for some advanced work coming out of a smattering of Centers of Advanced Studies and Area Study Centers. In fact the National Education Policy identifies most universities as learning merely installations. Lack of support for research coupled with hapless research installations has led to small publication of internationally recognized quality coming out of Pakistani establishments. This in bend has an consequence on the quality of module that is learning at public establishments.
19.Lack of Physical Facilities.There are still non adequate installations to suit all the pupils of school traveling age. In many instances, clip and once more, in newspapers and giver paperss, authorities schools are frequently criticized for being sick equipped, ill staffed and in many rural scenes for missing basic comfortss such as electricity, furniture or H2O. The phenomenon of “ shade schools ” which are empty constructions eating up immense sum of financess, is prevailing in the rural countries, yet these schools are counted as portion of the statistics.
20. Private Sector Involvement in Education
- Private primary schools are concentrated in urban countries and engagement rates in these countries are already high. More schools are needed in rural countries. Therefore these schools are non spread outing the range of instruction to include those who have no entree to schools. Their function in universalization attempts is hence fringy.
- Because of their usage of English as a medium of direction and their high fee construction, these schools cater to the elite, which runs counter to the construct of developing an classless society, a premiss which is cardinal to the importance and purpose of cosmopolitan instruction.
- The ‘madarsa phenomenon ‘ is non new to Pakistan. Since the fourteenth century madaris have been the seats of larning, of reading of spiritual texts and values of Islam. At their tallness they produced great scientists, mathematicians and bookmans. Resistance to British regulation, and subsequent anti-west attitudes, day of the month from the division of spiritual and secular instruction in undivided India. At that clip madaris took on the function of supporting the Islamic educational tradition against the British formal instruction system of schools and colleges. They became the place of Muslim opposition to British regulation. There are presently more than 80,000 madaris in Pakistan. To day of the month about 4,500 have been registered and these are chiefly the larger establishments, supplying instruction up to PhD degree in Islamic surveies to 1000s of male and female pupils.
- Most of the madaris are, nevertheless, little schools supplying a Quranic instruction, nutrient and adjustment to the poorest of the hapless. They provide some signifier of instruction to kids, including misss, who would otherwise hold none. The poorest members of the community can non afford the uniform, books and fees. Additionally there are spiritual beliefs that support directing at least one kid to a madarsa to larn the recitation or memorising the Quran.
- These schools tend to hold untrained instructors, restricted course of study, rough subject and supply few employment chances to their pupils. Therefore these madaris have become birth topographic points of denominationalism and radical attack. They project a really nearsighted vision of Islam in which a individual of other religious order or beliefs is apt to be killed.
EDUCATION SECTOR REFORMS 2002
23. Education Sector Reforms ( ESR ) programme is cast in the long term position of National Education Policy ( 1998-2010 ) . It is an Action Plan for 2001-2004. The premier concern in the short tally is stemming the putrefaction that has set in the instruction system. The current structural and sector reforms in Pakistan seek to change by reversal the failure of the system to better educational proviso.
ESR-Maj Areas of Operation
24. ESR Targets for 2001-2004
- Literacy – from 49 % to 60 %
- Primary Enrolment – from 89 % to 100 %
- Middle School Enrolment – from 47.5 % to 55 %
- Secondary School Enrolment – from 29.5 % to 40 %
- Higher Education Enrolment – from 2.6 % to 05 %
25.National Literacy Campaign.Its aim is betterment in literacy rate and universalization of primary instruction in order to increase literacy rate from 47 % to 62 % during 2001-2004. Its mark is to do literate 13.5 million males & A ; females ( 10+ age group ) .
26.Madaris. Its aim is to reform madaris. These reforms include the prohibition of foreign pupils, plans to reform the madaris course of study and text editions and the development of ‘model ‘ madaris.
27.Universal Primary/Elementary Education.Its marks are
- Increasing gross engagement rate from 89 per centum to 100 per centum ( 4 % per annum )
- Reducing gender disparity by 10 % yearly
- Enhancing primary completion rate from 50 per centum to 70 per centum ( 6 % per annum )
28.Tawana Pakistan:School Nutrition Package ( SNP ) . The aim of this undertaking is Improvement of nutritionary and wellness position of the miss kid ( 5-9 old ages old ) . This undertaking is sponsored by the Ministry of Women Development and Social Welfare and it would be executed by Pakistan Bait-ul Maal ( PBM ) with aid from Agha Khan University, Provincial Education & amp ; Health Departments and District Governments. Its mark is to entree the hapless section of society, i.e. 500,000 misss ( both enrolled and non-enrolled ) from 5000 primary misss schools and communities of their location in 20 selected high poorness territories in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan over a three twelvemonth period ( 2002-2005 ) .
29.Early on Childhood Education. The end of this programme is To originate Early Childhood Education ( ECE ) as an inducement programme for bettering primary entree and keeping, turn toing good being of the really immature at the school degrees.Studies in 1995 and 1997/98 revealed that one tierce of primary school kids in authorities schools are sitting in a pre-primary category called ‘Kachi ‘ which needs to be recognized as an Early Childhood Education ( ECE ) larning group.
30.Good Governance and Decentralization in Education. Its aim is to construct capacity of territories to set about administration in instruction through effectual decentalisation in planning, direction and execution. A cardinal scheme for run intoing the ends of EFA and ESR is decentralized attacks to determination devising, closest to where the jobs may emerge Education has been devolved to the territories up to higher secondary degree with Executive District Officers ( EDOs ) Education and Literacy to pull off comprehensive instruction planning and execution at the territory degree.
31.Course of study Reforms, Teacher Education & A ; Training.Its aim is choice Assurance at all degrees of instruction. Its marks are:
- Revision of Curricula
- Teacher Education preparation and professional development
- Academic Audit – linkage of grants/incentives with quality
32.National Education Assessment System ( NEAS ). In order to evaluate/assess larning accomplishments of pupils at primary ( Class-V ) and simple ( Class-VIII ) degrees, National Education Assessment System is being introduced in coaction with states. The aims of NEAS are:
- To measure, proctor and addendum existent larning environment in schools.
- To specify and develop assessment/achievement ends at simple degree.
- To put up minimal standards/norms for public presentation at relevant degree.
- To place strengths and failings of course of study, text books, instructors ‘ bringing, school direction and the instruction system as a whole.
- To heighten quality of instruction through improvement/revision in course of study, text editions, teacher instruction & A ; preparation and scrutinies.
33.Reforms in Examination System. Structural alterations in the behavior and quality of scrutinies are being done to accomplish the undermentioned aims: –
- Bettering rational abilities of pupils, such as cognition, comprehension, application, analysis and synthesis
- Determining and heightening cogency, public credence, transparence and equity of scrutinies
- Having a feedback for guaranting uninterrupted appraisal of the whole instruction procedure by bettering learning schemes, school effectivity, course of study design, rightness of text editions and the whole bringing system.
- Quality audit for recognized criterions and value of enfranchisement to be regularized for planetary equality.
34. Thymineechnical and Vocational Stream at Secondary Level. This bomber sector links instruction with employment supplying chances for accomplishment based instruction. Its aim is integrating of schooling with labour market accomplishments for young person. Its marks are:
- Integration of accomplishment development with the general watercourse of instruction in secondary schools, an option for those who consider secondary degree instruction as a terminal phase
- Expanding options for employment for 120,000 immature work forces and adult females
- Introduction of a proficient and vocational watercourse at secondary school degree ( Classes IX-X ) analogue to scientific discipline and humanistic disciplines group
- Upgrading bing Polytechnic institutes and linkages with industry for professional accomplishments and employment.
35.Video Textbook-Libraries. In order to better the criterion of secondary instruction in the field of scientific discipline, the picture textbooks-libraries are being formed which will enable the pupils to better upon the quality of scientific discipline instruction at the secondary degree. These attempts will supplement the learning acquisition procedure. About 70 % of families in Pakistan have entree to TV sets, so these video textbooks-libraries can be available to the bulk of people and to all the pupils at the secondary degree through proviso of Television and a picture participant to all the schools.
36. Higher Education Sector. Under the commissariats of ESR Higher Education Commission has been formed. Its marks are:
- Increasing entree to higher instruction chances by 10 % yearly
- Increasing registration in the universities from 100,000 to 200,000 pupils by 2004
- Private sector to raise its portion of registration to 40 % of the sum by 2010
- Increasing allotments to higher instruction from 0.39 % to 1 % of GDP by 2004 and increasing the budget of universities for research.
37. Public Private Partnership. The function of public sector in instruction is being enhanced. Public sector will be given assorted inducements to advance quality instruction. Its chief aims are:
- Increasing entree to quality instruction in Pakistan at all degrees.
- Meeting the demand for instruction through public private partnership
38.ESR Financial Requirements for 2001-2004. Given the budgetary restraints for societal sectors including instruction, ESR bundle has been prepared at a cost of Rs. 55.5 billion for twelvemonth 2001-2004. ESR financess are being distributed among States in conformity with NEC expression after puting aside 10 % for Federal Areas including FATA/FANA/ICT and AJK. Four classs of fiscal support to ESR Action Plan 2001-2004 are as follows:
- Government / national resources
- Grants from Development Partners
- Loans from Development Partners
- Support to and from Private Sector, Education Foundations, Private Sector NGOs, and Communities
Strengths and Major Accomplishments
- Policy on Improvement in Literacy.National literacy Campaign supported by assorted organisations sets its end of increasing literacy rate by forming literacy rhythms and by mass media mobilisation run.
- Madaris Reforms.For the first clip streamlining of madaris has been done. An Regulation called, the Pakistan Madrassa Education ( Establishment and Affiliation of Model Dini Madaris ) Board Regulation 2001 has been promulgated on 18 August 2001. Pakistan Madrassa Education Board ( P.M.E.B ) has been established. The President/Cabinet approved the release of Rs. 30.00 million for the Pakistan Madarassa Education Board Fund. The pupils of Model Dini Madaris will hold all the privileges and installations as are available to the pupils of any other instruction establishment in Pakistan. The vocational and professional instruction in the Model Dini Madaris will besides supply greater occupation chances to their pupils besides helping them in going more utile and productive members of the society.
- Improvement in Health Status of Girl Child.This is a construct which is present in all the developed states. In Pakistan it is being started from misss because of high prevalence of malnutrition in adult females peculiarly among misss. Initially it is being launched in 20 selected high poorness territories in all the four states of Pakistan. This step is besides of import with respects to enrollment ratio which will decidedly better. Similarly it will cut down the dropout ratio.
- Better Foundation for a Child.Childhood instruction is the footing of future behaviour and utility of a individual. Keeping in position this, the upgradation of construct of Kachi category will certainly supply a good foundation to the immature. These schools, being specially equipped, will raise the IQ degree of a kid. It besides addresses the well being of really immature
- Improvement in Examination System. Examination System reforms are still in the procedure of execution. Examination reforms if implemented throughout the state will convey the instruction criterion at the same degree. Then the hapless criterion of instruction in a peculiar country will pull full attending of governments. Consequently remedial steps will be taken.
Appraisal and Monitoring. For better appraisal and rating of primary and simple degrees, National Education Assessment system ( NEAS ) has been evolved. This will eliminate, though partially, hapless direction and supervising of educational criterions. This will besides work out the job of instruction of out-of-date course of study as it is its authorization to place strengths and failings of course of study.
However its execution will necessitate following administrative reforms:
( 1 ) The Boards shall convey organisational betterments by:
- Establishing Research Cells so every bit to supply feedback for betterment of the system as a whole to carry on research oriented professional activities and to develop instructors, paper compositors, testers and invigilation staff
- Paper Setting Cells, to develop assortment of inquiries, inquiry documents in different topics
- Computerization of procedure and assignment of good qualified honest, dedicated and experient staff, sooner on contract footing to guarantee equity, transparence and cogency in the scrutiny consequences
( 2 ) Wage for paper scene and marker must be reviewed and enhanced to guarantee quality and crystalline appraisal.
- Associating Education with Employment. It is a major measure towards the obliteration of unemployment. This will assist in preparation of skilled labor as most of our labor is untrained and unskilled.
- Use of Media. Up till now, media of Pakistan is least used for educational intents. Leaving this of import country is adding to our low criterions of instruction. The Erythrocyte sedimentation rate reforms take into history this of import topic.
- Higher Education System. The most of import facet covered in ESR is the higher instruction reforms. Constitution of Higher Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr Ata ur Rehman has started demoing its productiveness. It will certainly increase the research potency. Already higher instruction committee is offering Ph D from abroad on Government disbursals in any subject.
40. Major Accomplishments of ESRs Program. Major accomplishments of ESR plan as on 30th June 2002 are following:
- 10,000 schools rehabilitated
- 2000 Non Formal Basic Education schools opened and 6000 Adult Literacy Centers established
- Technical Stream introduced in 50 secondary schools during 2001-02.
- 385 scientific discipline labs constructed and 150 under building.
- First adult females ‘s polytechnic institute established at Quetta.
- Regulation on Higher Education Commission ( HEC ) promulgated and HEC established
- Rs.1 billion Fund for publicity of research, for Engineering Universities
- Developed National Curricula on Early Childhood Education
- Launched Diploma in Education to upgrade instructors ‘ making
- National Educational Assessment System ( NEAS ) launched
- Agha Khan University given permission to put up private Exam Board.
- Rs.800 million allocated in FY 2002-03 for mainstreaming Madaris
- Pakistan Madrassa Education Board established
- 6240 schools have been upgraded through Public Private Partnerships. Failings
41. Following weak countries have been identified:
- Aim of Education. ESR does non mention to any aim of instruction instead it focuses on the ways to achieve them. The footing of ESR would hold been solid if clear aims of instruction in Pakistan were defined.
- Teaching Quran and Sunnah. As Pakistan was founded in the name of Islam its instruction system must supply steps to bring forth good Muslims. However ESR does non even touch the issue of learning Islamic instruction. It has emphasized more on the issue of madaris.
- Future of Reforms. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate reforms are based on really echt concerns about the instruction in Pakistan nevertheless it has no value till the clip these steps are institutionalized. Our failure in policy execution stems from personality oriented attack. These reforms do non supply any step to protect and upgrade these reforms. So the hereafter of these reforms is a inquiry grade.
- Curriculum Review. These reforms cover course of study reappraisal but one can easy place its failing. Since authorities is under the terrible unfavorable judgment on the alteration of course of study. It is apparent from it that no audiences were carried specially with bookmans and educationalists to make on a reciprocally approved course of study. More over authorities failed to unclutter its place sing this issue despite holding unhampered entree to media.
- Decentralization. Although it is a really feasible and productive attack but it is confronting jobs due to following:
- Ambiguity about the function and duties among DCO/ EDO and other officers
- Mismatch between officers and nature of occupations
- Allotment of about 80-90 % for repeating outgo, meager sum is left for developmental activities
- The non-availability of equal substructure at territory degree
- Medium of Instructions. These reforms do non supply any intimation to the medium of instructions. Where as it has become an issue in Pakistan. A determination must be taken to leave instruction either in Urdu or in English. Then it should be implemented consequently. Similarly the course of study should be some for all types of schools, whether authorities or private.
- Private Sector Involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate reforms talk at great length about the public private sector relationship but it does non mention to present province of private establishments, dearly-won instruction and concern oriented attack of private school proprietors. This must hold been dealt with saying feasible steps to rectify the system.
- Teachers Training. Teacher, s preparation is non dealt in item. It has been merely given a cursory touch. There is no reference of steps to raise their image, prestigiousness and societal position.
- Ignorance about Reforms. There are really utile steps for betterment of instruction ask foring active engagement of parents but due to ignorance and non apprehension, these steps are non paying dividends.
- Ambitious Planning. The planning has been done determinedly but the practical stairss to accomplish these purposes are losing. It is apparent that it was planned to accomplish literacy rate of 60 % by 2004, which has non been achieved.
42. Education is the key to development in any society. It is besides true to state that the status of the instruction and the educational establishments in any given society reflect the criterion of life and the attitudes towards life of that society. The citizens reflect the quality of instruction they have received. Bing a Muslim society the importance of instruction is much more. The Holy Quran and Sunnah gave extreme importance to instruction. Above in position following steps are recommended to rectify the instruction system of Pakistan.
- Education- A Consultative and Evolutionary Process. The development of a productive instruction system is non a months clip occupation but it is a long procedure stretched over old ages. It involves leaders, think armored combat vehicles, educationalists, bookmans and parents. The aims are ever come in head while doing any betterment or altering the system or course of study. It is recommended that this system be continued for at least 10 old ages. Structural, procedural and curricular alterations be made after deliberate and comprehensive audiences and arguments.
- Move Towards Islamic Education. Good Muslims can non be produced by mere offering of supplications and fasting. This can merely be done by holding clear apprehension of Islam. This under standing will come up if Quran and Sunnah is taught in schools by bookmans and non in mosques by an nonreader sermonizer. For this intent, the most of import thing is debut of Arabic as a 2nd linguistic communication at the appropriate phase. This may non be every bit hard as it seems. It is once more, non an nightlong procedure but it is an evolutionary procedure.
- Elimination of Multiplicity in Education. For distributing Islamic political orientation, making sectarian coherence and learning regional and societal para, a unvarying course of study, system of scrutiny and medium of instructions should be enforced in all educational establishments. A unvarying system of instruction should be introduced bit by bit to eliminate the jobs multiplicity of systems creates.
- Urdu-The National Language. In conformity with the Constitution, Urdu should be made the province linguistic communication. Status and function of regional linguistic communications should be maintained. However medium of direction up till higher secondary school degree, should be in Urdu in all the states. Regional linguistic communications may be the subjects for alumnus or station alumnus surveies. This should be done with the position to advance national individuality and to better develop regional linguistic communications. Concrete stairss should be taken to decrease function of English as an official linguistic communication. English should non be the medium of direction yet class may be adopted for its instruction as a foreign linguistic communication.
- Declare Educational Emergency. The present authorities should declare a national educational exigency and affect the whole state in engaging a war against illiteracy. Some stairss that the authorities might see taking in this respect are:
- Declare instruction as the highest precedence of the authorities.
- Make it a compulsory demand for assorted grade coders that the campaigners, after taking their tests, shall pass a specified period of clip in learning at assigned establishments.
- Offer revenue enhancement benefits/exemptions and other such inducements to private sector groups to put in instruction in rural and less developed countries.
- Make it compulsory for each industrial unit/agricultural estate of an country above a specified bound to supply for a school within the premises/area. Alternatively, the proprietor can be asked to portion costs with the authorities for puting up such school. Another option is giving assorted financial/tax inducements.
- Introduce licensing and enfranchisement of instructors to better criterions ( as is done in the USA ) . Introduce high quality choice process for higher degree instructors and offer the campaigners better inducements.
- Use electronic media more extensively for educational intents. A channel could be devoted to merely instruction. the talks can be delivered by televising them or by playing recorded cassettes even in schools in far flung countries where quality instruction is normally non available
- Minimizing Educational Abuse. Exploitation by private educational establishments in the name of instruction should be regulated rightly through statute law. These establishments should be made to hike standardised instruction on the one manus and on the other, to encompass all categories of society on footing of virtue.
- Use of Media. Government should utilize media to propagate its policies. For illustration course of study and madarsa contention. Government should come up with true facts and figures in both the instances so that people are taken into assurance.
- Promotion of Female Education. Women instruction be propagated through mass mobilisation of resources in the visible radiation of Muslim instructions. Every state should hold a adult females university of its ain and agreements be made at every degree to run into the educational, economic and societal demands of adult females.
- Discipline in Educational Institutions. The issue of subject and campus life should be dealt in a more comprehensive manner. Such steps as the creative activity of a Dean of Student Affairs place in each campus, the proviso of extended counsel and guidance services by instructors and the constitution of calling planning and arrangement services on campus will hopefully relieve some of the defeat felt by pupils in the system. Grudge Committees should be created to cover with the demands and concerns of instructors, employees and pupils. Another important step will be the riddance of the quota/reserve seats system, which earmarked topographic points for pupils from “ backward ” countries irrespective of their readiness. This proviso is frequently abused by political parties, which place big Numberss of their people into the system in order to do unrest. Students from these countries must vie for entry. In add-on all political activities should stay prohibited.
- Poverty Alleviation. As highlighted earlier poorness is a major cause of hapless province of instruction. Poverty relief should take precedence on the cards of authorities. The first thing is realization by leaders and policy shapers. Austerity is the first measure towards a booming Pakistan
43. Education, as a province policy, has mostly been dealt in a bit-by-bit mode in Pakistan. Unfortunately, the vacuity left by a deficiency of authorities sponsored instruction was abused by private educational establishments including Madaris. Education in Pakistan is undergoing a passage. Education reforms will necessitate to get down with a clear apprehension of the roots of the present crisis and a elaborate planning. To win, these reforms will necessitate clear mileposts to mensurate advancement and independent inadvertence to maintain the procedure on path. Merely so, it will be able to bring forth an enlightened coevals.
- Niazi, Dr Liaqat Ali Khan, Development of an Exemplary Educational System for Pakistan, Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2002
- Rashid, Dr Khalid, Education, Caravan Book House, Lahore, 2001
3. News Documents
- Particular Report, “ Curriculum Scan ” , The News on Sunday, April 25, 2004
- Inayatullah, Advertising Literacy, The News, Wednesday, March 31, 2004
- Hafiz u Rehman, Modernizing School Education, The News, Saturday, April 17, 2004
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.embassyofpakistan.org/pb6.ph
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.logos-net.net/ilo/150_base/en/init/pak_1
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.paksearch.com/Government/STATISTICS/Survey00
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pepfoundation.com
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.asianaffairs.com/oct2003
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.phaef.org
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jamaat.org/crisis/education
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.readfoundation.com
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pakistan-facts.com/article
- hypertext transfer protocol: //europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nawaetokyo.com
- hypertext transfer protocol: //esra.rti.org/strategies/index
- Education Sector Reforms: Action Plan ( 2001 – 2005 ) Chapter # 2 Key Features and Implementation Strategies of the Education Sector Reforms
- A. Coulson, “ Implementing Education for All Traveling from Goals to Action ” , Senior Fellow in Education, The Mackinac Center for Public Policy.
- National program of action on instruction for all ( 2001-2015 ) pakistan Government of Pakistan, Ministry of instruction, Islamabad, March 2003
- Education Sector Reforms Action Plan 2000-2003 Programme Summaries, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad