Impact Of Watershed Development Works On Rainfed Farming

Rainfed agribusiness plays an of import function in India in footings of economic part and biodiversity and nutrition. In malice of the assorted benefits, rainfed agriculture is on the diminution over old ages, due to grounds like unequal policy, research and investing attending, vagaries of monsoon, and deficiency of effectual hazard direction tools. In the last two decennaries, there has been big scale addition in fallow land, loss of supports and migration. In the procedure, rainfed agriculture is losing its position as feasible support for many. But it is of import to better rainfed agribusiness. As the growing of irrigated agribusiness has reached a tableland and the land H2O beginnings are dwindling really fast, future lies with rainfed agribusiness. Enhancing nutrient security of the state itself would depend a batch on heightening rainfed farming in the long tally. What is more, since rainfed countries support the poorest of the hapless and are home to many hapless autochthonal cultural minorities, a rise in productiveness in this sector would hold an immediate impact on poorness relief.

The Government of India has accorded high precedence to the holistic and sustainable development of rainfed countries and made high investings in watershed undertakings. One such undertaking is Restructured National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas ( NWDPRA ) . DHAN Foundation is one of the Project Implementing Agencies for Restructured NWDPRA in Tamil Nadu. The Restructured NWDPRA strategy of ten percent five twelvemonth program was started in the fiscal twelvemonth 2002-03 and will come to an terminal by March 2009. An rating of the same was made to understand the benefits of the strategy and to place the countries in demand of betterment. The acquisition and recommendations emerging from the survey can feed into the Forth coming watershed strategies.

To turn to assorted issues of rainfed agriculture, Rainfed Farming Development Programme ( RFDP ) was initiated by DHAN Foundation, with the vision of “ Making rainfed agriculture as a feasible support ” . Currently the plan is in the pilot phase, where in the acquisition gained so far would be tried out in few other locations falling in similar or different ecosystems. So it is indispensable to understand the important benefits of the plan, rules and patterns that have led to the same and besides the countries of in demand of betterment. So this research survey was carried out with the primary intent of understanding the impact of RFDP of DHAN Foundation and Restructured NWDPRA.

Location: Kothur Middle Watershed

Kothur Middle Watershed, falling in Kothur and Kondakinthanapalli panchayets in Nattarampalli block of Vellore territory, Tamil Nadu, was selected as the survey country. Entire country of this watershed is 800 hour angle. This pocket has undulating topography with ruddy loamy dirt of changing deepness and falls in Upper Palar macro watershed. The mean incline of this watershed is 5 per centum. There were nine crossroadss with a population of 2405 as on 2003. The survey country experienced frequent shortage rainfall phenomena. The major irrigated harvests were paddy, veggies and finger millet. The major rainfed harvests were Indian potatos, redgram, horsegram, cotton, finger millet, fresh fish sorghum, small millet ( samai ) and garden beans. Small and fringy husbandmans constituted 90 per centum of the entire husbandmans. Livestock was the major back uping support besides beedi peal and incense stick devising. Migration for work on impermanent and lasting footing was really common.

Aims of the survey

The major aims of the survey are,

To document the attempts and investings done in the watershed in a systematic mode

To analyze the impact of Restructured NWDPRA strategy and Rainfed Farming Development Programme in the survey country

To place the policies and patterns that have led to important positive impacts and

To place the alterations needed in current intercessions and the demand for other new intercessions, to heighten the effectivity of the watershed undertakings and RFDP in future.

Methods & A ; Process followed

Procedure followed

Purpose and necessitate for this survey was explained to the members during watershed association Executive Committee run intoing to acquire their consent and support.

At the petition of the local squad one or two office carriers in each crossroads have volunteered for assisting the interviewer. The volunteered office carriers ensured the handiness of sample members for questioning and besides facilitated the interview procedure, specifically by doing the sample members to portion the information without vacillation. They besides acted as cardinal sources for the survey and shared their experience and cognition.

Most of the information sing the common plant was given by the office carriers who have volunteered to back up the survey.

Besides these support, the watershed community besides gave embarkation and lodging support to the interviewer.

After the completion of the survey, the consequences emerging from the survey were shared with the watershed community to formalize them and to acquire suggestions. The proof meeting was conducted on 1st December, 2008.


In Kothur Middle watershed, 363 husbandmans were organized into 20 groups as on June, 2008. As the focal point of the survey was impact, merely members from three twelvemonth old groups were taken for sample. The group and member inside informations of the watershed association were collected from PIA office. All the members in above three old ages old groups were divided based on their landholding size. Ninety members were selected through graded random trying from 188 farming households, go forthing out members from the same household. The members were stratified based on landholding size into four classs viz. fringy husbandman ( up to 2.5 estates ) , little husbandman ( 2.5 – 5 estates ) , average husbandman ( 5 – 10 estates ) and landless.

Primary & A ; secondary informations aggregation

Primary information was collected through administrating semi structured interview agenda to the sample members, questioning the cardinal sources, focused group treatment ( FGD ) , instance surveies and observation. Semi-structured interview agenda was used as the activities varied across the respondents. The interview agenda for the survey was pre-tested with five husbandmans. Based on the feedback necessary corrections were made to finalize the interview agenda. During administrating the interview agenda, the land development plants were visited wheresoever possible, to do necessary observations about the impact of those plants. Experienced leaders and staffs who have been working in the water partings for long clip served as cardinal sources and gave qualitative information. The secondary information was collected from Project Implementing Agency ( PIA ) office and from Watershed association office, utilizing relevant paperss of Kothur Middle Watershed Association and group records.

Datas analysis

Data was analyzed through mean analysis and designation of scopes. Wherever relevant projection was done for the whole water parting.


The analysis of informations collected clearly indicates that there has been important impact at the single household degree and at the small town degree and it is expressed in the impact profile given below. This was the instance in malice of the fact that the impact of many activities, like big figure of loans used for assorted intents other than farm animal, veterinary cantonments and supply of seeds and seedlings, were non considered.

Change in land usage in the survey country, largely from rainfed to irrigated land, was about 30 eight per centum of the entire treated country.

Majority of the members, who have cultivated the same harvest after land intervention in the survey country, has experienced addition in productiveness, irrespective of the activity with regard to groundnut, finger millet and Paddy.

There was important addition in country under Paddies based cropping form.

Land Development plants have generated extra pay employment to the melody of 1075 adult male yearss per annum on a perennial footing. This will increase by around 100 adult male yearss shortly after the survey period.

About 60 one per centum of members have realised addition in nutrient security, with bulk of them basking it for three to six months.

Execution of all Land Development plants by the community itself has resulted in high degree of part and ownership and entire riddance of contractual system.

Above 50 per centum part mobilised from members for private land plants, thereby indirectly making a fund for taking up plants for big figure of members, during and after the undertaking.

High degrees of private investing as a response to public investing on land development works.

On an mean, each member household enjoyed Rs. 3550 as addition in income per twelvemonth.

On an mean, each member household enjoyed an addition in plus value of Rs. 52,647, with the bulk of the members falling in the scope of Rs. 50,000 to 1,00,000.

Creation of member owned and member run microfinance substructure with the entire nest eggs of Rs. 8,38,073 and with entire loan outstanding of Rs. 13,41,841. Till the survey period members have availed Rs. 62,63,452 as recognition though 3720 loans.

Coverage of around 30 per centum of the members through life insurance, farm animal insurance and common harvest income insurance merchandises.

Significant impact of five out of six common plants taken up as entry point activity, like cheque dike, common pool and farm roads.

High degrees of adult females engagement in footings of rank, keeping places, go toing capacity edifice events and execution of activities. As a consequence their importance within the household has increased and their ability to speak in a public forum and to cover with foreigners has well improved.

Post undertaking sustainability was ensured by constructing up of important degrees of societal and fiscal capital, offering of big figure of activities on recognition and cost footing besides the grant based activities and practising of norms for cost coverage during the undertaking period.

The policies and patterns that have led to important impact:

Effective and sustainable societal structure- community administration theoretical account:

Integration of societal resource direction with natural resource direction

Organizing user groups around recognition and thrift in the form of SHG among husbandmans, based on solidarity and propinquity of their landholding, to avail all the advantages of SHG theoretical account, like participatory democracy in the group ( as there are merely twenty or less than 20 members ) , functioning as platform for nest eggs and recognition and entree to assorted Government strategies.

Promotion of group centred attack, with the SHG shaped user groups and SHGs moving as the foundation for organizing other groups and direction organic structures.

Promotion of work forces groups: It is a general impression that lone adult females groups are effectual, both as a group and as a local bank. But experience of Kothur Middle Watershed Association ( KMWA ) shows that if decently promoted, work forces groups are every bit effectual as adult females groups.

Practicing of norms for guaranting engagement of adult females: Specific norms for guaranting engagement of adult females as group members and as determination shapers in Executive commission of Watershed Association were evolved and practiced.

Casino attack for offering services by Watershed Associations and PIA: Casino attack means that the members and groups would be offered a group of services and they would choose a few among them based on their demands. The premise involved is that they know their demands much better than Watershed Association Executive Committee and Project Implementing Agency. Further offering of assorted services was instrumental in making bulk of the members through one service or other, thereby heightening engagement of them.

Offer of ‘repeat services ‘ : Be it is land development work, harvest production sweetening or microfinance, ‘repeat services ‘ , were offered by the Watershed Association and Project Implementing Agency and it has resulted in retaining of involvement of the members in the Uzhavar Kuzhu and Watershed Association and kept them alive and dynamic, as ‘repeat loan ‘ does in the instance of SHGs.

Different attack to natural resource direction:

Concentrating on development of private lands: Merely if the capableness of these lands is improved, any dent can be made on bettering productiveness of rainfed agriculture and in cut downing the hazard of losing the harvest due to vagaries of monsoon.

Restricting the estimation sum of land development work taken up by one member at a point in clip by repairing a maximal bound and giving penchant to members seeking first work over other members seeking 2nd and 3rd work, to avoid concentration of benefits to few households and to guarantee equity.

Livelihood- based development of natural resources[ 1 ]attack was chosen because this was in alliance with the position of the husbandmans and has the undermentioned advantages: 1 ) suiting broad figure of activities, largely autochthonal and unconventional and 2 ) consequence in support sweetening, in footings of addition in nutrient security, income and assets.

Supporting context specific activities, with penchant for autochthonal activities, as they can merely work: The rainfed agriculture contexts are so different from each other and there can be no cosmopolitan solutions in footings of activities. May be the procedures of placing the issues and seeking for solutions can be cosmopolitan. This means that considerable investing is needed to germinate context specific plan constituents and activities through uninterrupted interaction with community, affecting test and mistake. This once more requires flexibleness and liberty in plan execution.

Integration farm animal development: Livestock development was taken up as a major plan constituent, with the focal point of make fulling the spreads in the bing system and plus sweetening.

Integration of Microfinance for back uping rainfed agriculture

Integration of hazard direction: Understanding the cardinal function of hazard direction in rainfed agriculture development, hazard decrease activities ( like better dirt and H2O preservation and good quality seeds ) , hazard get bying activities ( like recognition ) and hazard transportation activities ( like insurance ) was offered as bundle for effectual hazard direction.

Prosecuting paid services and loan as instruments to accomplish assorted sub-goals besides grant: Normally grant with some minimal degree of part is used as the chief instrument to advance assorted RF activities. But the experience of KMWA shows that many RF activities can be taken up on hard currency payment and loan footing. Activities like supply of seeds, manures and seedlings were easy taken up on hard currency payment footing. In the same manner activities like adding farm pace manure, harvest variegation, and proviso of inputs were taken up through loan. So necessary proviso in undertaking design demand to be made for instruments, other than grant for effectual and holistic execution.

Flying of many new activities: Many new activities like aerophilic compost, Zero budget Natural agriculture, Mutual harvest income insurance, conditions insurance, dates cultivation, etc. were piloted for their suitableness to the survey country.

High investing was made in capacity edifice of assorted stakeholders

Effective execution structure- “ Agency ” attack: Integrated attack across agribusiness, farm animal, gardening, community organisation and agricultural finance is indispensable to do any dent at the single farm degree. The current “ bureau ” attack, with adult male power across sectors and considerable flexibleness to entree specialized adult male power was found effectual to accomplish this integrating.

Autonomy to Project Implementing Agency and support of District Watershed Development Agency: Many of the intercessions of KMWA became possible merely because the PIA had equal liberty and through the timely support of DWDA in easing new intercessions like wheat and maize debut in the survey country.


For the watershed strategy:

The undermentioned policy alterations are needed in flagship strategies meant for development of rainfed countries like Restructured NWDPRA, to do rainfed farming a feasible support.

Making it compulsory that User Group ( UG ) should be organised around recognition and thrift activity as per their societal affinity and compatibility, even if they are to mange a peculiar community plus.

Making it compulsory that SHG shaped user groups and SHGs should move as the foundation for organizing other groups and direction organic structures.

Concentrating of investings on private rainfed land by design, in a contextually relevant mode.

Making it compulsory to follow livelihood- based development of natural resources.

Supporting context specific activities, with a penchant for autochthonal activities by design.

Provision of broad scope of services on a repeat footing by design, to guarantee making to bulk of the households and to guarantee keeping of involvement of the members and to give continuity to Community Based Orgnaisations ( CBOs ) .

Integrating farm animal development, microfinance and hazard direction as portion of all strategies meant for developing rainfed countries.

As there was high disparity across the member type, with the benefits increasing with landholding size, discriminatory footings are needed for the resource hapless. At least 30 per centum fund can be allocated entirely for resource hapless households and for adult females specific docket, as tried out in Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project.

As the financess provided for NRM activities from Restructured NWDPRA was non equal for run intoing the demands of all members for land development activities, extra fund could be allocated based on demand and approved action program.[ 2 ]

Guaranting institutionalisation of CBOs formed with the support of watershed strategies through guaranting meaningful linkages with Bankss, agribusiness, gardening and animate being farming sections during the undertaking period and in the station undertaking period. Here excessively the demand and determination related to linkage has to come from the CBOs and should non follow the usual supply dominant manner. For illustration the bankable rainfed farming intercessions, like Big Dipper animate beings purchase, could be funded by recognition establishments from the 2nd twelvemonth based on demand from the community without any mark.

The fund allotment design normally allows some test and presentation related to agriculture engineerings. But experimentation and navigation is needed in all domains of intercession as shown by the KMWA experience. So fund allotment design to be changed consequently.

Engagement of independent establishments at assorted degrees with watershed plants as the chief docket. There need to be equal liberty at each degree of execution to germinate, design and implement assorted intercessions.

For the Rainfed Farming Development Programme:

Bettering recording of intent of loans taken by members and supervising use of loans is needed, so that their impact can be ensured and known. This will besides convey ego ordinance at member and group degree with regard to use of loans for the intent they have borrowed.

Records need to be kept sing members availing services like veterinary cantonment, seed supply, etc. so that the impact information can be collected subsequently.

In malice of no favoritism based on land keeping and gender, there was disparity in benefits realised across the member type, with the benefits increasing with landholding size. So fresh intercessions should be piloted to heighten equity of benefits.

The list of members who have non benefited demand to be prepared and in deepness survey to be made to cognize the grounds. Based on the consequences, necessary intercessions to be made to guarantee realization of benefits by them.

The members of new groups need to be given discriminatory intervention over old members in the immediate hereafter.

Insurance instruction to be taken up on a big graduated table to make big figure of members.

Investing on good activities like aerophilic composting, Zero Budget Natural Farming and azolla cultivation for fresh fish to be increased to make more members.

Land development brings new life to rainfed farming

Mrs. Manikammal is a fifty-two years-old adult female husbandman. She has three kids, two male and one female and life in Gandhinagar crossroads in Kothur center watershed and her girl got married. She is populating with two boies and daughter-in-law. She is taking attention of her household and agribusiness, because her hubby died in 2003. She is a fringy husbandman with 0.75 estates of land. In 2003, she had 0.24 estates of irrigated land, 0.21 estates of rainfed land and another 0.20 estates of uncultivatable wastes land.

She came to cognize about Uzhavar Kuzhu activities and joined in Mariyamman Uzhavar Kuzhu at Gandhinagar in 2004. To increase production and income from her land she has taken up the land levelling work in 0.20 estates of uncultivatable wastes land in 2006 with a grant support of Rs. 4,570 from watershed association and ain investing of Rs.15,000. Besides that she besides invested Rs. 9,000 in puting pipes. After intervention she had cultivated paddy two seasons. After that she has applied 21 tonss of armored combat vehicle silt for heightening the productiveness of the land. For that she has received a grant support of Rs.1334 and her ain investing was Rs. 5000. Later she cultivated tomato in that secret plan. In 2007 she has taken up another land levelling work in 0.21 estates of rainfed lands with a grant support of Rs. 4166 and ain investing of Rs. 5000. Before this intervention she used to cultivate Indian potato, finger millet and ruddy gm but after the intervention she has cultivated Paddy.

With all these intercessions she has converted all her land into irrigated land through land development plants and she is be aftering to make uninterrupted cultivation throughout the twelvemonth. For that she has bought plough animate beings worth of Rs. 25,000 on her ain. So, a entire investing of Rs. 69,070 was made in her farm of which Rs. 10,070 was grant and Rs. 59,000 was her ain investing. She is yet to bask the full benefits of her effects. The benefits she has taken up rice cultivation that helped run into nutrient demands of non merely to her household but besides to her girl ‘s household. She has earned Rs. 6000 by selling paddy straw. She is anticipating income from standing tomato harvest. Her first boy stopped migrating on board as equal work in the farm and in engaging out plowing services. All other household members were besides engaged in their farm to a big extent. She gave 60 adult male yearss of employment during land development works at a pay rate of Rs.120/man twenty-four hours. She is besides bring forthing 30 adult male yearss of employment every season through cultivating paddy harvest at a pay rate of Rs.40/man twenty-four hours.

On sharing her point on the ground for significantly puting on her farm she said that “ I knew about land levelling ; but I did n’t make it due to fear of big investing. But after fall ining the group I was motivated by how other members have benefited from land development plants and the grant support available from watershed association for land levelling, which I really much wanted to make. Even though I invested important sum of money, due to that now I have 0.75 estates of irrigated land and could able to cultivate paddy harvest ” .

The Animal Power

Mr. C.Nagan is a 52 old ages old husbandman life in Kannalaparai kolli crossroads, in Kothur center watershed. He is a fringy husbandman and agricultural laborer. He has two kids. His girl got married and his boy is immobilised due to encephalon febrility. For handling his boy, he has spent a batch of money. But the status of his boy did non better. He became indebted and sold portion of his land to pay back the debts that he incurred for his boy ‘s medical disbursals. As his married woman has to take attention of their boy, he is the lone staff of life victor in the household.

He had 1.75 estates of rainfed land and he used to cultivated Indian potato, finger millet, horsegram and cumbu in his land. He besides cultivates chilly and tomato in really little secret plans. Whatever he gets from his field goes for household ingestion. He has joined Omshakti Uzhavar Kuzhu at Ottrupadi four old ages back and taken up the rock bunding work in his land with a grant support of Rs. 4,000 from association and an ain investing of Rs. 5,000. For pressing demands he used to acquire loans in the group. From his group he has availed 13 loans amounting to Rs. 22,424. The intent of loans taken includes family outgos, outside debt salvation and agribusiness.

Long back he had bought Big Dipper animate beings through a loan taken from a local co-operative society and was engaging out plowing services on pay footing. But he was non able to pay back the co-operative loan as per agenda due to hard currency flow jobs. Due to force per unit area from the co-operative later he sold the Big Dipper animate beings and repaid the loan in full. After that he was non able to buy plough animate beings and so founded hard to engage plowing services for cultivating his land and besides non able to gain income through engaging out plowing services.

He has availed Rs. 10,000 loan from the group in 2006 for buying immature plough animate beings merely ready for plowing. The cost of animate beings was Rs.12,000. Through plough animate beings he could salvage an sum of Rs.1,962 per twelvemonth through plowing his ain field and he could besides able to gain around Rs. 9,912 per twelvemonth as net income. He was able to make repeated plowing in his land and seed in clip. He used to plow seven times for Indian potato harvest. But if he did non have Big Dipper animate being, he used to plough lone twice or thrice, as he could non afford to pay in hard currency. During plowing and seeding season he becomes a much sought after individual by the community. This is peculiarly applicable for the Indian potato husbandmans as Indian potato can be sown merely with a support of Big Dipper animate beings.

He used to acquire two tonss of Farm Yard Manure per twelvemonth worth of Rs. 2,000, which is used in his ain land. He has wholly repaid the loan as per agenda. The value of plough animate beings at present is Rs. 25,000 and so it can be considered that the plus value of the household has increased by Rs. 25,000. So the Big Dipper animate being loan has resulted in important sweetening of his support through assured employment during seeding period, well addition in household income, seasonably land readying and sowing and well increase in plus value.