Opera is a word of Latin beginning intending the plants. It is a genre that combines ocular, audio and rational qualities, hence turn toing more than one of human senses1. The secret plan known as the libretto is an indispensable portion of the opera. It ensures the action on which music is composed. Opera was born in Italy sometime in the fifteenth century during the Renaissance. Initially the Italian linguistic communication dominated the librettos. Subsequently operas were played in other linguistic communications such German and Gallic. Operas were divided in the serious 1s ( opera sera ) and the amusing 1s ( opera buffa ) . The latter were often used to entertain non merely the nobility but the multitudes excessively and it was the locale used to do gags of the aristocracy1.
Mozart was one of the great composers of all times, if non the greatest. It is good known the easiness with which he wrote his music. In the movie ‘Amadeus ‘ although non a historical one, this was mentioned every bit good as that he made few if any corrections to the original score2. Among the many his many plants in his really short life-time, Mozart wrote operas excessively. One of them was Le Nozze di Figaro. This opera was written following Mozart ‘s release from the service of Archbishop of Salzburg. Until Le Nozze di Figaro Mozart ‘s efforts at composing an opera had non had existent success3.
Le Nozze di Figaro was foremost in Vienna with great success. It was a amusing opera ( opera buffa ) . The libretto was written in Italian by Lorenzo district attorney Ponte. Both the subject and the librettist were selected by Mozart himself, who wrote the music. It was the first coaction with district attorney Ponte. It appears that district attorney Ponte despite being an inexperient libretto author, managed to complete the libretto in six hebdomads.
The libretto was based on the Gallic drama, with political insinuation. It was written in 1784 by Pierre – Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais4.. This writer had written the following trilogy consisting of Le Barbier de Seville ( The Barber of Seville ) , Le Mariage de Figaro ( The Marriage of Figaro ) and La Mere Coupable ( The Guilty Mother ) . Beaumarchais was a undercover agent for and a provider of weaponries to the battle of the Americans to derive independency from the British colonial regulation. He was besides a political militant and captive. On the other manus Lorenzo district attorney Ponte was a friend of Casanova, a deist and became an American citizen subsequently on in his life, in 18284. It should be remembered that when Mozart decided on the subject of his opera and to join forces with district attorney Ponte, the Gallic Revolution with its major political and societal effects was literally around the corner5. Beaumarchais ‘ dramas were banned in France. In Vienna, The Marriage of Figaro was banned excessively by Emperor Joseph II. It seems though that it was banned non because of the political message it conveyed but on evidences of licentiousness6, property to its sexual content. Joseph II was considered a instead tolerant and progressive sovereign who tolerated free address ( to a comparative grade by today ‘s criterions ) , and attempted to get rid of some privileges of the nobility.
And yet Mozart decided on the controversial Beaumarchais ‘ drama and the every bit controversial librettist. Besides he decided his new opera to be in Italian. Were these done by opportunity? We should retrieve that Mozart populating in Vienna towards the terminal of the eighteenth century had become a Freemason. This was done in 1784, when he became a member of the 2nd most of import Lodge, the ‘Zur Wohltatigeit ‘ . Among the Masons the thoughts of Enlightenment were discussed and spread3. He should besides hold become cognizant of the privileges of the opinion nobility but besides the political message of Beaumarchais drama.
Da Ponte managed finely to conceal the political message under the sexual content and the opera should be viewed as a metaphor for political discontent that posed a menace to privileges of the aristocracy throughout Europe.
Beaumarchais first drama of his trilogy, The Barber of Seville had already been arranged into a libretto by Paisiello7.The Marriage of Figaro picks up the narrative from where it was left in The Barber of Seville. The secret plan takes topographic point in the castle/palace of Count Almaviva. The Count has become weary of his married woman and is sexually attracted to Suzanna. However, she and Figaro are be aftering to acquire married. Count Almaviva is be aftering to exert the medieval in beginning ‘jus primae noctis ‘ literally intending ‘the right of the first dark ‘ , the right for the Godhead to pass the first dark with the bride alternatively of the groom. The Count is hence portrayed as a lubricious, dishonest personality with low ethical motives. This sexual content of the drama should be seen as a metaphor i.e. the subjugation of the governing category on the retainers, peasantry and the on the job category by and large but besides the subjugation of the work forces on adult females. The secret plan has hence potentially tragic aspects. The drab tone of the libretto is contrasted with the major keys used by Mozart. But besides there were concealed messages in the music. These may be hard to detect today but they were common cognition of the audiences at the clip. For case, horns playing in analogue were implicative of possible cuckoldry and Mozart used this and other musical symbolisations8. In Le Nozze di Figaro another characteristic normally used in the amusing opera ( opera buffa ) is extensively used i.e. the misguided individuality or the hidden one normally through changing of costumes3. It was within the genre of opera buffa to include state of affairss were a common man would mask as an blue blood or frailty versa.
In Le Nozze di Figaro, the gap scene is of Figaro mensurating the nuptials bed. Figaro and Suzanna program to get married. At that clip Suzanna discloses the Count ‘s sexual involvement in her. There is legitimate concern that the Count may exert his blue right of passing the first dark after the nuptials with her alternatively of Figaro. Under these fortunes Suzanna and Figaro some up with a secret plan to flim-flam and mortify the Count by non merely halting his progresss on Suzanna but to make this in the presence of his married woman. The retainers program is for Cherubino, a page of really immature age to be dressed in Suzanna ‘s apparels, so the Count invited by Suzanna ‘s missive to run into her in the garden, will be humiliated for doing base on ballss to an minor male. However, Cheubino is non available because he has been sent place in penalty because he got into problem earlier that twenty-four hours. It is so the Count ‘s married woman who agrees to mask as Suzanna to run into her hubby. In the garden the Count is punctually abashed when he discovers that he has in fact met his married woman and non Suzanna. He has therefore been exposed. He so apologises to his married woman and declares his deathless love for her. As it was often the instance in operas of the clip, the moral every bit good as the societal order is restored at the end3.
However, the insurgent content of Le Nozze di Figaro even disguised maps at the same time on several degrees. There is in the secret plan the fact that members of a lower category outwit a member of the nobility. In Europe of that clip picturing such an event on phase was unsafe.
Let ‘s present now some characteristic transitions from the libretto9. In Act I, No2 Dilettino, Figaro says: ‘to London, eh? You as curate, I as a messenger, and Suzanna as confidential attach & A ; eacute ; . It will ne’er go on ; I, Figaro, say so! ‘ It is of note the assurance with which Figaro is opposing his maestro. A metaphor meaning the altering times? Besides in Act II, No3 Cavatina. Figaro says: ‘If you would dance, my pretty Count, ………I ‘ll lief learn you the capriole………’In this transition Figaro will hold the Count dance to his melody of capriole. This dance was a provincials ‘ dance. It is clearly a metaphor. The nobility will hold to take into history the working categories. Another insurgent phrase hidden behind a signifier of dancing. In Act II, no10 Cavatina, the Countess negotiations about her hubby and state: ‘ He is like all modern hubbies, obsessively unfaithful, of course froward and covetous out of pride ‘ . Besides in Act III No 19 Recitative and Aria the Countess describes how she was treated by her hubby ( first loved her, so abused and eventually betrayed her ) . These transitions in Acts II and III portray articulately the place of adult females in that epoch. So apart from category tenseness there is clearly a tenseness between the sexes i.e. between the underdogs ( the adult females ) and the powerful work forces. Finally, in Act IV Finale. Everything becomes clear. The societal order and ethical motives are restored.
In a society in kernel patriarchal, adult females were in consequence the ownerships of their Masterss or their hubbies if they were married. In that epoch sexual dual criterions were clearly runing. Although it was expected of adult females to detect celibacy and remain faithful the work forces enjoyed much more freedom and to hold excess matrimonial escapades was socially acceptable. Le Nozze di Figaro show the disempowered adult females beat the superior male sex that holds the power in society. This is achieved through clever thought and misrepresentation and besides by coaction for the common end. To us misrepresentation may look something to be condemned. However, one has to appreciate the deficiency of the adult females ‘s alternate action. Therefore misrepresentation becomes a legitimate agencies. In this manner both Suzanna and the Countess addition. The former is safe from the Count ‘s sexual progresss and the latter additions the confidence that her hubby remains faithful from so on.
Quite apart from the female gender actions an analogy can besides be drawn. Merely as the disempowered adult females in the opera secret plan collaborate and through clever craft and actions manage to abash the Count by analogy the disempowered lower categories could band together to accomplish the overthrowing of the tyrant opinion blue categories. It is about certain that this analogy would non travel unnoticed in the audiences of the clip. For this ground entirely the opera should be considered insurgent. Despite its success merely 8 public presentations were allowed. It may be that its insurgent message had become obvious. But this is merely guessing.
So, why Mozart decided to supply a musical frock for such a insurgent drama and present it in the signifier of an opera in Italian, when he had antecedently decided to hold an opera in German ( Die Entfuerung aus dem Serail ) . Again it will be guesswork as it is impossible when direct information is missing to be certain sing Mozart ‘s determinations. He might hold chosen the Italian Language for two grounds. First for the opera to derive wider credence, as the Italian linguistic communication was in trend at the clip. Second to abash the Emperor ‘s Italian musical cortege by showing an opera in their linguistic communication for immediate and direct comparing. Despite of coming from a in-between category household Mozart had first-hand experience of the opinion category. While in the service of Archbishop of Salzburg, he had to have on a unvarying, like the remainder of the retainers and eat with them. This and other experiences from his life may hold resulted in understanding for underdog and would back up anyone reasoning for his rights, freedom of address and human dignity5. Besides his engagement with the Masons and the ideals of Enlightenment such as the thought of a civil society may hold played a important role3.
Although Mozart was a radical in musical footings he was non a radical in political footings. However, he was ‘the kid of his clip, a merchandise of the Enlightenment who was able to reflect absolutely in his art the general clime of the age in which he lived’5. Therefore he succeeded in uniting in Le Nozze di Figaro a musical chef-d’oeuvre with profound societal messages.