Land Ownership And Rubber Plantation Industry In Srilanka Economics Essay

Introduction

Presents, Urbanization and globalisation constructs are really important issues in this universe. These constructs are partly related with industrial sectors. Industry is a cardinal influence of fast traveling universe and it has ownership construction which influences industry. Therefore, the ownership construction in the public presentation of industries is really of import facet to transport out their activities efficaciously. Further, due to the altering public presentation and by revisiting the failings, restrictions and oversights in past activities in industrial public presentation, the importance in the effects of ownership construction in the public presentation of industries in Sri Lanka.

Industry can be defined as economic activities of goods or services. It is portion of a concatenation from natural stuffs to complete merchandise or finished merchandise to service sector. It includes primary, secondary, third and quaternate. Primary industry involves natural stuffs or natural resources, secondary industry involves merchandise from primary industries which is processed or manufactured into another merchandise, and third industry involves a broad scope of services which is the largest group of industries. It is the newest industrial sector and is turning quickly due to developments in information engineering and communicating. Industrial development is precursor for economic development of a state ‘s economic system which is apparent by the diverseness in production end product and coevals.

Sri Lanka developed industry under British regulation, trusting alternatively on the returns from agricultural exports to purchase manufactured goods from other states. Sri Lanka is still and will be for close hereafter considered as a state dependant chiefly upon agribusiness including no-good plantation sector. Challenges posed by external factors due to globalisation and unfastened economic policies have directed the state ‘s agribusiness to travel off from the autonomy. Most agriculture industry involved treating the chief export trade goods: tea, gum elastic, and coconut. Rubber plantation industry was foremost introduced into Sri Lanka in the latter portion of the nineteenth century ; it was grown merely on big estates. Rubber is the 2nd most of import plantation harvest and is one of the state ‘s chief foreign exchange earners. The 50 % of the natural gum elastic is exported as natural stuff ; from the half locally processed a 58 % is exported, the chief exported gum elastic merchandise are industrial solid Surs, latex dipped merchandises, flooring and pneumatic Surs and tubings. The local industry comprises SMI 74 % of the entire units, and 5 % big companies[ 1 ]. The big companies are largely export oriented while the little units serve the domestic market.

In this industrial field, Land ownership affects public presentation of the gum elastic plantation industry. So, the connexion between land ownership and public presentation has been the topic of an of import and on-going argument in gum elastic industrial sector. Rubber plantation industry ownership can be categorized into two sectors[ 2 ].

Estate Sectors: An agricultural retention of 20 estates or more in extent and under the same unit of direction was considered as an estate sectors.In the cases where different packages of the retention may add up to 20 estates or more if so it was non considered as an estate sectors. Estate sectors should hold at least one package of which the extent should be 20 or more in estates.

Small Keeping Sectors: All other retentions, which do non fall in to the class of estates were defined as little keeping sectors. Basically they are the retentions below 20 estates in extent.

However last three decennaries, figure of important jobs can be identified in this industry than tea and coconut industries which are largely related with land ownership construction, fiscal exposure of husbandmans, low agribusiness engineering, limited accomplishment, really small enterprise in inventions, low instruction of gum elastic land proprietors, fluctuation of natural gum elastic monetary value in international market and merchandise of unreal gum elastic in developed states are intervened the gum elastic industry. So, this research chiefly focuses on the gum elastic plantation industry public presentation and its land ownership.

In no-good plantation industry, the most important alterations occurred with regard to ownership of gum elastic retentions and the form of retentions. After independent, foreign land ownership bit by bit declined, and more gum elastic land ownership came under local ownership. The smallholders emerged as a strong sector than estate sectors in the industry. But, smallholding sectors ‘ profitableness did non gnaw every bit rapidly as for the big estates in yesteryear. Because, the labour used by smallholders comes from their ain households and even costs that are incurred are non really high. The gum elastic replanting activities are the constitution of a gum elastic replanting subsidy strategy. Its chief aim is to help husbandmans in covering some replanting costs. This is necessary because replacing of a continuously yielding plus requires postponement of present incomes, which may be a serious restraint, peculiarly on smallholders. But replanting began to worsen much later in little keeping sectors. Therefore, the gum elastic industry is affected by smallholders through its output and estate sectors ‘ public presentation is better compared to smallholders. Even though, rubber industry public presentation still depends on smallholding sectors.

Land ownership influences the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry which is a important factor of industry public presentation. Estate sectors are more effectual than little keeping sectors in maximising industrial public presentation and several signifiers of land ownership have comparative efficiency in industrial public presentation. Land ownership in gum elastic industry is endogenous. Rubber plantation industry should be controlled while analysing the effects of land ownership on public presentation. Therefore, this research survey has been analyzed the laterality of land ownership in the public presentation of the gum elastic plantation industry in Sri Lanka.

The overall purpose of this survey is to analyze land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry in Sri Lanka. The specific aims of the research survey are to happen out the land ownership in the gum elastic plantation industry in Sri Lanka and compare its public presentation. From this, the specific aims of this survey are:

Identify the factors which are act uponing on public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry.

Identifying if there is any important disparity between little keeping sectors and estate sectors in gum elastic plantation industry.

Identifying the factors which are act uponing on the effectual land ownership construction in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry.

Identifying and analysing factors that lead industrial non-performance and besides supplying suggestions to do a better pick of land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry.

This survey ab initio comes from an involvement in proving resiliency thought in industry sectors impact on economic public presentation on production. It is measured on the footing of the public presentation of plantation industry, land ownership influences based on its yesteryear, present and future position. In this manner we can happen out the effects of land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry. This will be of benefit to the gum elastic plantation industry. Therefore, through the measuring and comparing of the land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry can be identified the effectivity.

They can be after their future public presentation of land ownership with intervening activities efficaciously.

They can explicate the plantation of gum elastic and land ownership schemes in gum elastic industry

They can be after to increase the public presentation of land ownership sectors in order to accomplish their ends.

So, these comparings besides help to help in understanding the land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry to foretell how land proprietors invest their hard currency excess and how to extinguish their land ownership influences.

Research Question and Hypotheses

The job of the research can be defined as Land ownership that affects no-good plantation industry in Sri Lanka. Thus job can be formulated as research inquiry which is “ How does the laterality of land ownership affects towards the gum elastic plantation industry public presentation in Sri Lanka? ” and its hypotheses of the research is Based on the false causal relationship given in the undermentioned conceptual theoretical account, the undermentioned hypotheses are developed for proving:

H1: – The laterality of land ownership has negative impact on gum elastic plantation industry in Sri Lanka.

H0: – The laterality of land ownership has no negative impact on gum elastic plantation industry in Sri Lanka.

Restriction

There are some restrictions in any survey and no outlook in this survey besides.

It was impossible to acquire to the full relevant and accurate informations on information from the beginning.

The identified restrictions are.

Annual study and other statistical studies are released by Government. So, it is non to the full independent informations.

Interview method will non be considered in this survey. Therefore, fresh information of gum elastic plantation industry public presentation can non be acquired from land ownership.

This survey will be based on land ownership that affects the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry. But other factors will act upon on the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry.

The analysis portion will non be in deepness. Equally far as this survey is concerned these are the sensed restrictions.

Methodology

To turn to the aim of the survey, this thesis will be examined by Quantitative methodological analysis. It is used to analyse the relationship among variables and their predictable form.

Percentage Analysis: This method is used to happen out the per centum and to show their tendency about gum elastic plantation industry of land ownership which is affected by certain factors.

Time series method: Time seriesA forecastingA is the usage of aA theoretical account to foretelling future values of random variables based on known past events. It is to calculate informations points before they are measured. This method is past informations presented in regular clip intervals such as hebdomads, months, or old ages to exemplify the motion of specified variables. It is bivariate information of a dependent variable, y, such as production with an independent variable ten stand foring clip. Very frequently in showing clip series informations is indicated the clip period by utilizing numerical codifications get downing from the figure 1, instead than the existent period. This is particularly the instance when the clip is assorted alphameric informations since it is non ever convenient to execute computations with such informations. In this method, Seasonal prediction is when in a clip series the value of the dependant variable is a map of clip but besides varies frequently in a sinusoidal manner harmonizing to the season.

Correlation analysis: This technique is used to happen out the relationship among the variables and their strength. This is a quantitative technique ; hence, two variables such as independent variable and dependent variable are taken in this survey.

Independent variable – Land Ownership.

Dependent variable – Performance of Rubber Plantation Industry.

X – Mugwump variables

Y – Dependent variables

r – Co-efficient correlativity

Pearson Co-efficient of correlativity

R =

na?‘XY – a?‘Xa?‘Y

a?s ( na?‘X2 – ( a?‘X ) 2 ) . ( na?‘Y2 – ( a?‘Y ) 2 )

The coefficient of correlativity ( R ) takes the value from +1 to -1 ( including plus one and minus one ) Therefore the correlativity Coefficient expresses the undermentioned relationship.

Positive perfect relationship + 1

Negative perfect relationship – 1

Moderate relationship + 0.5 or – 0.5

Strong relationships + 0.9 or – 0.9

Weak relationships + 0.1 or – 0.1

No correlativities 0

In this research, in order to happen out the relationship between these two variables Pearson co-efficient of correlativity is used. On this equation at co-efficient of correlativity following symbols are used.

Conceptualization is of import to organize a frame work when understanding any analysis. It is better to obtain the consequence through this frame work. Then it is easy to happen out the relationship among them. The conceptual theoretical account clearly depicts the form of relationship among cardinal variables. In this manner, this analysis caused a relationship between land ownership and its public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry to organize a conceptualisation theoretical account. Further, land ownership can besides be connected with gum elastic plantation industry ‘s efficiencies and effectivity. Based on the false causal relationship given in the undermentioned conceptual theoretical account, the undermentioned statements are found out the proving consequence.

Performance of Rubber Plantation Industry

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Land Ownership

In this research, causal mechanism of land ownership in the public presentation of gum elastic plantation industry is chiefly intervened by fiscal exposure of husbandmans, Low agribusiness engineering ( low giving up ringers and autochthonal patterns and direction schemes ) , Limited accomplishment ( inefficient determination doing procedure ) , really small enterprise in inventions and low educational degree besides intervenes the gum elastic plantation industry.

In this chapter, background of survey, significance of the survey aim of survey, research inquiry, hypotheses, restrictions, research methodological analysis and conceptualisation are clearly explained. Following chapter will supply more inside informations and understanding with the aid of literature reappraisal. It tries to place what has already been done sing a peculiar topic.