Looking At Dorian Gray English Literature Essay

Oscar Wilde and Edgar Allan Poe use the storytellers voice and symbols to reflect mental-illnesses in their chief characters and this similarity in the use allows a descriptive research. Therefore, this drawn-out essay involves one of the dealingss between literature and psychological science and the research job was: How do the voice of the storyteller and the symbols support the psychological building of Dorian Gray in The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Narrator in Tell-Tale Heart? Furthermore, it is deserving observing that the job was analysed under a literary attack with a psychological attack as a support and this research briefly analyses how these literary elements highlights the character ‘s head.

The research is divided in two parts, the first is an overview to analyze the variables expressed in the research inquiry: the storyteller ‘s voice and his point of view, the narrative fragments, the symbolism and the psychological building of characters. Subsequently, the 2nd portion presents the analysis on how the storyteller ‘s voice and the symbols support the psychological building of Dorian Gray and the Narrator in Tell-Tale Heart. As a consequence, it was stated the relation of support between the variables comparing the uses in both literary plants.

Finally, I can reason by stating that in both literary plant, the storyteller ‘s voice strengthens and corroborates the thought of the character ‘s mental unwellnesss ; it besides deeps in the supporters ‘ heads and expedites the building. As for the symbols, they represent the mental province of the supporters and the elements which disturb them. They support and expedite the psychological building by marking and clarifying their huffy side.

Word Count: 263




INTRODUCTION aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..5

Chapter I: Literary Elementss… … … … … .aˆ¦ … … … … … … … … … … .aˆ¦aˆ¦.6

The Voice of the Narrator and his Point of views… aˆ¦ … … … … … … … … … … … ..6

Narrative Fragments… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..7

Symbolism… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..8

Psychological Construction of Fictional characters… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..8

Chapter II: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION OF DORIAN AND THE NARRATOR… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..9

The Narrator ‘s psychological building aˆ¦ … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .9

Dorian Gray ‘s psychological building… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .15

Decision… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..21

Bibliography… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … twenty-two


Edgar Allan Poe and Oscar Wilde were two of import authors in the nineteenth century ; the former was from United States, he wrote The Tell-Tale Heart in 1843 and his narrative nowadayss Gothic and charming elements ; his storytellers frequently present some mental upsets. The latter was from Great Britain, he wrote The Picture of Dorian Gray in 1890 and his narrative nowadayss plentifulness of descriptions and his puzzling characters by and large are controlled by their passions. Both writers highlight the mental upset of their characters.

Thence derives the research inquiry: how do the voice of the storyteller and the symbols support the psychological building of Dorian in The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart? This research will turn out that the storytellers ‘ voices and the symbols support and hasten the psychological building of both characters by marking and clarifying their mental diseases.

My personal motivation is my esteem for both authors because I like their narrative and their plants are the most read in Peru. Furthermore, I want to show the importance of the psychological attack in the characters ‘ building because through its analysis we can understand them better.


The Voice of the Narrator and his Point of views

The storyteller is the fiction Teller of a literary work and the words used by him are considered as the storyteller ‘s voice. This voice can state the narrative from different points of position like in first, 2nd or 3rd individual. In Oscar Wilde ‘s book, he presents a third-person storyteller in his novel that is all-knowing. On the other manus, Allan Poe presents a first-person storyteller that is besides a character. The characteristics of both storytellers are shown in the following chart:

Made by Angel Hernandez Ortega[ 1 ]

Narrative Fragments

Every narrative can utilize three narrative manners: The narrative itself, the descriptions and duologues or addresss. The writer combines the descriptions and duologues in different ways to do the narrative more enriching. In the instance of characters, the descriptions provide a better image of them, besides show different facets of them that help to hold a better comprehension.

The duologues or addresss could be conversations between characters or soliloquies. They are really of import because through the analysis of their content the reader can cognize the character ‘s characteristics and confirm if all what is said about him is true. More inside informations are added in the undermentioned chart:

Made by Angel Hernandez Ortega[ 2 ]


Symbolism, as Graham Hough[ 3 ]provinces, is “ the inclination to laud the non-discursive elements ” ( Hough ; 1967. p.128 ) It involves the concealed messages of things, scenes, characters or actions ; it is besides the intent ‘s disclosure for which the writer topographic points those elements in his work. And the reader ‘s purpose is to detect that concealed messages.

Harmonizing to Jonathan Raban[ 4 ], Symbolism besides “ allows an writer to associate the limited universe of his character to… the systems of values ” ( Raban ; 1968. p.101 ) . The symbols ‘ analysis is important to hold a better cognition of the characters because the character “ acquires a new importance when he is seen in the visible radiation of his symbolic opposite number ” ( Raban ; 1968. p.101 )

Psychological Construction of Fictional characters

The psychological building focuses its analysis on the character ‘s psychological science and head ; it considers their behavior, their manner of thought, what they say or what other characters say about them, the symbols and other facets. Psychology as Richards Ivor[ 5 ]considers: is an “ effort to depict head ” ( Richards ; 1961. p.82 ) and is indispensable in the building of characters because through its understanding the reader can find their personality and have a better comprehension of them. Therefore this drawn-out essay analyses the psychological building from the storyteller ‘s voice and symbols.


The Narrator ‘s psychological building

The protagonist-narrator in Tell-Tale Heart is a slaying who feels observed and controlled by an Eye. Apparently he suffers from paranoiac schizophrenic disorder because he depicts some features such as hearing internal voices, believe that other people can read his head, experiences hallucinations[ 6 ]and so forth. Allan Poe, to build the supporter ‘s psychological science uses the voice of the storyteller and the symbolical significances.

The storyteller ‘s voice is used from the beginning, when the Narrator says: “ True! -nervous- really, really awfully nervous I had been and am ; but why will you say that I am huffy? The disease had sharpened my senses. ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . In this citation, the supporter introduces himself as a nervous and ill individual. Although, he ne’er mentions what sort of unwellness he suffers from, the rhetoric inquiry about his lunacy gives signals of enduring from a mental disease otherwise he should non advert it.

Furthermore, it is of import to detect that the Narrator repeats the words “ really ” and “ nervous ” . This emphasizes one feature associated with the schizophrenic disorder that is a disorganised and insistent mode of speech production. This technique of reverberation or duplicating voice is used along the whole narrative in the storyteller ‘s voice. For case: “ Cautiously-oh, so cautiously-cautiously… how stealthily, stealthily ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) .

“ It was open-wide, broad unfastened… I moved it slowly-very, really slowlyaˆ¦ hark! louder! louder! louder! louder! ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . These thick and deformed addresss show the supporter ‘s despair to get away from his guilt ; corroborating at the same clip the thought of a mental-ill storyteller which has been so harshly affected that even his address has been damaged.

Concurrently, the huge bulk of words are adjectives used to depict how the slaying was carried out, therefore he shows his pride. This demonstrates that the Narrator can non peek at the moral effects of his actions because sane people will be afraid at the thought of killing person ; instead, this character things that it is normal and justified to kill other people. Furthermore he considers the slaying as an accomplishment and this atrocious thought demonstrates how far his unwellness has gone.

The impression of hearing internal voices is shown in the undermentioned extract: “ I heard all things in the Eden and in the Earth… in snake pit… am I huffy ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . In this case his lunacy of hearing unusual things goes with the exaggeration of hearing them from the Earth, heaven and hell. This means that something has altered his head and has started to hold audile hallucinations of voices from physical-non-existent topographic points, redounding in his craze.

It is of import to recognize the perennial rhetoric inquiry about the Narrator ‘s mental disease and its intent. The storyteller ‘s voice is invariably inquiring him or to the reader whether he is huffy or the reader considers him as a brainsick individual. This highlights the insecurity about his interior position and contributes to believe that the supporter does non cognize himself ; therefore the thought of his lunacy is strengthened.

However he ne’er recognizes his mental jobs. For case: You should hold seen how sagely I proceed… ” “ Would a lunatic have been so wise as this? ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . Thence the supporter ‘s insisting in showing his saneness is a double-edged blade that serves to escalate the thought of his lunacy due to the fact that this eager desire to convert everyone at all costs truly annoys and is a nuisance for the reader. Thus the writer compels to believe that the Narrator is insane.

The storyteller ‘s voice continues along the whole narrative with this bothering technique which leads to believe that the Narrator is demented, for illustration: “ If still you think me huffy, you will believe so no longer when I describe the wise safeguards I took for the privacy of the organic structure. ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . It is indispensable to appreciate that cipher is judging him of being huffy, instead he Judgess himself.

This proves that there exists a certain something inside him which is ever reminding his malady. The interior something could be his tormenting guilt scruples and through the relation of his slaying the Narrator tries to acquire rid of it. Nonetheless that scheme does non work wholly because, as it was shown, his voice reflects a despairing and stricken adult male.

Although the first-person-narrator attempts to talk in a manner to dissemble his schizophrenic disorder, this effort is overshadow by the reverberation technique and the repeated rhetoric inquiries along the whole narrative. Therefore the chief aim of the use of the storyteller ‘s voice is to foreground and reflect his lunacy alternatively of hiding it. It is evidenced in this extract: “ aˆ¦ am I huffy? Hearken! and detect how healthily-how calmly I can state you the whole narrative. ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . Hence it could be stated that his vaunt of self-denial is a self-betrayal because it shows the antonym.

From the foregoing, the storyteller ‘s voice helps to dig into the Narrator ‘s head and psychological science. However, other back uping component is the concealed significance of symbols. In Tell-Tale Heart the cardinal symbol is the Eye ; the secondary symbols are the Old Man ‘s organic structure, the Watch, the Lantern and so on. As it was shown once, he is obsessed with non accepting his lunacy, otherwise he should non inquire for it excessively many times. Simultaneously, he is obsessed with the Old Man ‘s oculus that bothers him.

The old thought is depicted in this transition: “ I think it was his oculus! yes, it was this! ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . But, why this portion of the organic structure and what is it making to him? The ground is that this Eye comports as a scruples ‘s regulator, which tells him that he has something bad and inquiries his Acts of the Apostless. Furthermore it is better than any other portion of the organic structure to stand for the feeling of being gazed. When he tries to acquire rid of The Eye it means that he tries to hush his scruples which reminds his mental jobs.

Besides it is of import to see the analogy of The Old Man ‘s oculus alike a vulture ‘s oculus: “ One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . First, because a vulture is a bird which flies above us and from there it can see about everything that happens below therefore it can besides see the Narrator ‘s purposes, feelings and head. Poe could hold made this symbol-metaphor, to demo how the storyteller is upset at being watched and even controlled by it, corroborating the construct of paranoia.

Due to the fact that the vultures are black, this could bespeak the writer ‘s desire to mark the Narrator ‘s dark side of schizophrenic disorder. Apart from it, other of import thought to see is that if the Eye is like a vulture oculus, this could intend that the storyteller is deceasing indoors in his mental crazes. This useless Eye merely can see in black symbolising that the Old Man is the alone individual who sees the storyteller ‘s dark side.

As a item of thereof, the Eye is the chief ground to kill the Old Man and it makes him experience nervous or stop dead his blood: “ Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . This is an radical shown of the Narrator ‘s disease because it makes him believe that the Eye has world powers. These hallucinations cause that he can non separate the world from phantasy. Hence derives his compulsion with the Eye, which leads him to believe that if he destroys the Eye, it would quiet his tormenting head.

Example of the foregoing is: “ … rid myself of the oculus for of all time… He was stone dead. His oculus would problem me no more. ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . It demonstrates that the supporter lives obsessed in an eerie universe of hallucination caused by the Eye. As a complement, the Narrator ‘s encephalon is tormented by the Old Man ‘s death-body and bosom which remind his offense. The writer shows a mental-ill individual through these organic structure and bosom because they are invariably upseting the Narrator ‘s muzzy head.

Furthermore, the Watch ‘s sound is compared with the bosom ‘s round because its ticks rarely times bother people who seek peace and composure. In the supporter ‘s instance, he gets annoyed at hearing the ticks because his head is excessively much distorted that he can non even defy the swoon sound of the 2nd manus showing the degree of the Narrator ‘s head disturbance. It is depicted when the officers talk to the Narrator and he hears the noise.

Poe submits two dialectical symbols which are Darkness and Lantern. The metaphorical intension of the lantern is that it can light the most darkness topographic points, but in this instance, the Narrator maintains the huge bulk of light hidden merely go forthing to get away one beam. This means that the storyteller dislike the visible radiation and prefers the darkness, because he feels better in a topographic point every bit dark as his head or because that visible radiation can uncover the concealed secrets of his head.

The old impression is shown in “ open a… really small cranny in the lantern ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . But this symbol raises its extremum in its confrontation with the Eye: “ a individual thin beam fell upon the vulture oculus ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) . This event is really of import ; because it elucidates that the Eye is his chief distorting component whereby the Narrator has paranoid schizophrenic disorder. Furthermore, all the Narrator ‘s actions happen at dark, because he feels more secure and familiarized with the darkness, it is evidenced in: “ I did for seven long nights-every dark merely at midnight ” ( Poe ; 2010. p.1 ) .

The symbolism of the unidentified Narrator means that the supporter is excessively much ashamed that he does non desire to state his name. However, it allows believing about the possibility that the storyteller could be female. Sing it, all the Narrator ‘s position could alter drastically, because the construct of a lunatic and how he carries out his slaying is different from a adult female who is more delicate in his Acts of the Apostless.

Finally in this chapter it is elucidated how the voice of the Poe ‘s Narrator serves to dig into the interior life of the character and its altered address represents strengthen the thought of schizophrenic disorder. As for the symbols, they represent the disturbing elements for the supporter and highlight his unwellness.

Dorian Gray ‘s psychological building

Dorian Gray is the supporter of Wilde ‘s book ; from the beginning is shown as a beauty immature adult male, pure, diffident and naif. But he finishes being ugly, obsessed with beauty, young person and pleasance. Apparently he suffers from Narcissism, Dysmorphobia and has a Mental Disorder because he shows features like an inordinate pre-occupation with a minor defect in his organic structure[ 7 ], psychotic beliefs of magnificence, carefree of moral values and a strong desire to be immature everlastingly. In order to convey these thoughts, Wilde uses the storyteller ‘s voice and symbols.

In this fresh Wilde presents a third-person storyteller. The storyteller employs three kind of address: the direct address or duologues and descriptions. The first thought of Narcissism commences in a duologue between Lord Henry and Basil Hallward when Henry sees the portrayal and says: “ … my beloved Basil, he is a Narcissus… ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.2 ) This demonstrates that his Self-love is overly perceptible that it is non necessary to run into him to hold a construct of Dorian.

The storyteller ‘s describes the character ‘s compulsion and Self-love by adverting his ideas, for case: “ He grew more and more enamoured of his ain beauty ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.93 ) Furthermore, his image enlightens him as a Narcissus when the alterations start to go on, it is elucidated through a storyteller ‘s description mentioning to the canvas alteration “ … in boylike jeer of Narcissus ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.2 ) . The portrayal evidences Dorian ‘s existent personality ; in peculiar the egotistic jeer confirms the supporter ‘s unwellness.

At the same clip this image is a symbol which takes the function of Dorian ‘s psyche, head, scruples and mirror of his inside. Trough this component, Dorian becomes obsessed with his ain beauty because he was non cognizant of it, like in this direct address: “ … as if he had recognized himself for the first clip. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.18 ) . Furthermore, all the supporter ‘s wickednesss appear on the canvas and as a consequence the portrayal becomes ugly and old, typifying how the Narcissism and egoism have devastated his head.

The portrayal is a instructor of Narcissism ; it is depicted in the storyteller ‘s direct-reported address of Dorian: “ … when one loses one ‘s good expressions… one loses everything. Your image has taught me that. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.19 ) . Or when the storyteller references: “ It had taught him to love his ain beauty. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.67 ) . Other Narcissism ‘s instructor is Lord Henry, who in a duologue with Dorian says: “ You have a wondrous beautiful face ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.16 ) . Those elements transform Dorian into a Egotistic, because they are ever reminding him that he is highly fine-looking.

On the other manus, Narcissism is besides depicted with the adjectives used in the storyteller ‘s voice to foreground his beauty such as: Adonis, Prince Charming, Masterpiece ( the portrayal ) and so on. This adjectives are reported in a direct address trough characters as Lord Henry: “ … this immature Adonis ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.2 ) ; Sibyl Vane: “ I must name you Prince Capturing ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.39 ) Basil Hallward: “ It is my chef-d’oeuvre ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.15 ) ; or the ain storyteller ‘s voice: “ He could be made a Titan ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.26 ) .

Other Dorian ‘s head job is his compulsion with young person. His young person shows a freakish personality and makes of him an arrogant because he scorns all the people who lack of young person, beauty or appeal. He wants to last immature everlastingly ; this aspiration is evidenced when he pronounces: “ If it were I who was to be ever immature, and the image that was to turn old! For that-for that-I would give everything! ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.19 ) The vernal energy degenerates the supporter ‘s manner of thought because it makes him to want young person to all costs.

This character becomes shallower with Henry ‘s influence. It is proved through duologues reported by the storyteller like: “ Recognize your young person… Young person! Young person! There is perfectly nil in the universe but young person! ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.17 ) . These kinds of thoughts lead Dorian to try to stand for the domination of young person transforming him from adult male to about an object. A show that he is a degenerate adult male is that “ I love beautiful things that one can touch and manage. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.80 ) . It demonstrates that his head merely focuses on physical visual aspect and non on feelings.

The character ‘s Self-love adhered to his compulsion with beauty and young person depicts that Dorian suffers from Dysmorphobia because he shows an inordinate preoccupation with his ain visual aspect.[ 8 ]It is displayed in the undermentioned extract: “ I am covetous of everything whose beauty does non decease… of the portrayal ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.20 ) This exaggeration shows how his head has been distorted that he is besides covetous of material things like in “ I am a small covetous of it for being a whole month younger ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.41 )

The old transition high spots Dorian ‘s aging preoccupation and green-eyed monster of objects. This sickness makes him over-worried about his psychical facet, thence the storyteller describes Dorian as a adult male who ever is inquiring and comparing the beauty and age of things or people with his ain. Furthermore the portrayal supports this brain-sickness because it is perpetually reminding his perfect organic structure. Due to the fact that Dorian ever looks at the image, it can be stated that he deems himself as the greatest look of young person and beauty.

Dorian ‘s compulsion with the image confirms the diagnosing of Dysmorphobia owing to the fact that it represents his beauty and a portion of him. When Dorian ‘s portrayal starts to alter ( Chapter V ) he is terrified of its atrocious physical transmutation and he does non desire to accept it perchance because he considers that every portion of him should be perfect, even his image. Hence can be stated that Dorian can non bear the thought of being without his psychical properties and it makes him experience afraid because “ young person is the one thing worth holding ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.16 )

The storyteller ‘s voice corroborates this mental malady because as a scruples, it manages to place the ground of the supporter ‘s day of reckoning. In the undermentioned extract, it is depicted how the storyteller describes his young person and beauty utmost compulsions ( Dysmorphobia ) as causes of his ruin: “ It was his beauty that had ruined him, his beauty and the young person that he had supplication for… His beauty had been to him but a mask, his young person but a jeer. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.162 ) . Thence can be established that the storyteller tells straight the kind of brain-sickness.

The Mental Disorder and alteration are the most outstanding jobs. Apparently, his upset is rooted in his childhood because in a duologue between Lord Fermor[ 9 ]and Henry Wotton ( Chapter III ) , Fermor references that Dorian ‘s household narrative had been really uncomfortable. The deductions of this fact and that he is an orphan are Dorian ‘s deficiency of love and parental counsel. Besides it is represented through symbols, the principal is his portrayal and the secondary symbols are the Yellow Book, Lord Henry, the White Colour and Flowers, the Opium Dens, Sybil and Basil.

As it was once mentioned, the portrayal symbolizes Dorian ‘s bad side, his witting and his head ‘s province, moreover it points out that he is poisoning his psyche with all his wickednesss. Therefore it is difficult for him to accept his dark side. His passage from an artlessness figure to a abhorrent silhouette is due to Henry Wotton and his book. Lord Henry in a duologue recognizes him as the wickedness ‘s symbol: “ I represent to you all the wickednesss. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.58 ) .

Furthermore, Dorian ‘s devotion to Lord Henry ‘s hedonism added to the Yellow Book represents the door to his down autumn because they lead him to act amorally. It is supported by the storyteller in the undermentioned transition: “ To a big extent the chap was his ain creative activity. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.42 ) . Both symbols Teach Dorian to pursuit his pleasances, chiefly the Yellow Book which represents Henry ‘s harmful influence because it contains the Hedonism[ 10 ]dogmas that teach him to populate below his ain moral codification and take him to a mental debasement.

The Colour White could be used to typify peace or pureness ( Cross ; 2003. p.114 ) . In the beginning Dorian resembles white because he is an guiltless individual, but in the terminal he represents the antonym. This added to the similes between him and flowers symbolize that he is stamp and pure. But in the development of the book the repeats of these metaphors are dwindling until they are non reference because Dorian ‘s alteration does non let being illustrated as a white flower or pure.

For case in the first chapters the characters and the storyteller usage repeatedly flowers-metaphors: “ His nature had developed like a flower, had borne flowers. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.40 ) . But when Dorian petitions flowers he says: “ as few white 1s as possible ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.229 ) , it shows his passage from visible radiation to darkness in his head because he can non bear white flowers that reminds his insane mental province. Besides the Opium Dens ‘ symbolism represents the soiled province of Dorian ‘s head and his corrupt life manner. In these topographic points Dorian distracted his head from the abominable of his offense by devouring drugs. Besides these topographic points symbolize his logical thinking ‘s debasement because drugs falsify his scruples.

Other symbols which affect Dorian ‘s psychological science are Sibyl and Basil because his guilty for the slayings is steadily torturing him. His crisis for Sibyl ‘s death marks the beginning of his psychological alteration. Henceforward the most of import thing is he and due to this he can kill Basil without compunction. But subsequently these factors are the chief grounds to perpetrate self-destruction because they weigh to a great extent in his scruples that he can non defy any longer: “ I want to be good. I ca n’t bear the thought of my psyche being horrid. ” ( Wilde: 1993 ; p.71 ) . And his self-destruction is the biggest shown of his mental deformation.

To sum up, in this novel the storyteller ‘s voice corroborates and gives marks of unwellness in the supporter, furthermore through his descriptions, directed address and duologues, the storyteller deeps in Dorian ‘s head, behavior and strengthens the impressions of Narcissism, Dysmorphobia and Mental Disorder. As for the symbols, they support every unwellness by stand foring the elements which affects Dorian and typifying his mental province.


I can reason by stating that the storyteller ‘s voice and the symbols support the psychological building by hastening the psychological building. Both of them strengthen and corroborate the thought of the character ‘s mental unwellnesss and in this manner they catalyze the building.

Wilde ‘s storyteller support the building by depicting Dorian through his directs addresss and duologues. In the same manner Poe ‘s storyteller through his addresss elucidates his ain psychological science ; thereby the huge portion of both buildings are established As for the symbols, they expedite the building by marking and clarifying the characters ‘ huffy side. Furthermore, the symbols represent the upseting elements such as the Eye or the Portrait ; this provides marks about their psychological science and helps to deep in their outlook.

However, there are some staying jobs to be solved, given the restrictions of this work, which are: How does the characters ‘ psychological science build the secret plan of both narratives? What other narrative techniques are used to build these characters? And so forth. I hope this research every bit good as the inquiries will function to promote farther surveies of these literary plants.