Malaysia Has Select The Runway Construction Economics Essay

Malaysia has choose the track building. Wawasan 2020 could non be achieved without transforming the economic, societal, and the authorities. To travel the state before, the authorities has formulated a model for Malaysia surged towards developed state position aligned with Wawasan 2020.

Malaysia ‘s economic growing and sustainable growing has lifted the state from a lower-income economic system based on agricultural trade goods and to a successful middle-income economic system. Malaysia narrative of traveling from low-income position to middle-income position is one of the success narratives of the universe in a few decennaries ago. Since 1945, Malaysia is one of 13 states[ 1 ]that have achieved growing of over 7 per cent for more than 25 old ages.

This strong economic public presentation has helped to further sustainable economic development thereby bettering the quality of life of Malaysians and back up advancement in instruction, wellness, substructure, lodging and public installations and so on.

Along with this growing, the local governments were expected to play an of import function in supplying basic installations to foreign investors in line with the increasing Foreign Direct Investment in Malaysia, which increased by 10.35 % from 2001 until 2007.[ 2 ]

Consequently, the disbursals for transporting out the duty of supplying basic installations to the foreign investors and the local population as services, sanitation, sewage, drainage and irrigation, conveyance and local authorities etc. particularly municipalities require equal fiscal resources to supply such installations.

However, harmonizing to the Economic Report of the Ministry of Finance, gross of the aggregation public presentation in local governments throughout the state showed a distressing diminution in the rate of lessening of 11.7 % recorded in 2007 and 0.3 % in 2008. The deductions of these consequences diminution has seen addition due to hapless direction and will burthen the local governments. This will has an impact on the quality of work and services performed.[ 3 ]

This survey looks into relationship between Direct Revenue with Indirect Revenue and Non- Revenue Receipt towards Total Revenues. This survey besides focuses in Subang Jaya territory which is all grosss collected by Subang Jaya Municipal Council.

1.1 Background Of Study

Local Authority is the 3rd in the disposal of authorities. Local Authority is transporting out policies at the grassroots level that straight deliver services to the citizens of the local population. By and large, the Local Authority is a organic structure corporate established by the Local Government Act 1976 ( Act 171 )[ 4 ]A A 1 as a organic structure responsible for pull offing and administrating an area-based local involvement.

Based on the Local Government Act 1976 ( Act 171 )[ 5 ]A , Local Authorities interpreted as follow: means any of the City Council, Municipal or District Council, as the instance may be, and comparative to the Federal Territory means the Commissioner Kuala Lumpur appointed under subdivision 4 of the Federal Capital Act 1960 [ Act 190 ] .A


Local Governments are by and large authorized by jurisprudence to guarantee that the disposal is in a safe status and planning of a development in perfect status harmonizing to the status of the local community. Basically, the Local Government disposal systems were carried out onA two principals, that is outside the legal power ( extremist vires ) and the ability of the competent ( general competency ) .A

Therefore, local governments are given the duty to find the local community is at the optimal degree. In transporting out the responsibilities and function, the Local Authority must execute the maps set includes maps of the discretion gave by jurisprudence.

By and large, people rely to a great extent on local governments. Society requires local governments to the full to implement the functions outlined in the jurisprudence to guarantee the development and life in conformity with the demands of the local community.A

It is good known revenue enhancement appraisal is a major subscriber to the grosss of the local governments in Malaysia, up to 65 % or two-thirds of the entire gross of local governments. Apart from being used as an disbursal to pull off things municipality disposal appraisal is besides used as the primary beginning of expense Local Authority in dispatching its duty provides the perfect base in line with the demands of occupants in their country of aˆ‹aˆ‹jurisdiction. Harmonizing to Act 171 of Part V Section 39 of the Local Authority may seek finance from several beginnings of gross such as rent, licence, payment, net income, one-year grants, contributions or parts, mulcts and revenue enhancement appraisal

Entire gross is refering with direct gross which chief income. It is besides been back uping by two others grosss such as indirect gross and non- gross reception. By these three major constituents it is influenced for entire gross. As we know, local territory is an liberty entity which is local territory demand to roll up income by owns ego from people to run into demands. Entire gross is really of import to direction and staff local territory because with that gross can convey them to switch frontward. All grosss will be transportations to salary and emoluments, fillips, direction cost and development. The function and relationship of direct gross, indirect gross and non-revenue reception is critical to guarantee entire gross increasing.

Overview Of Subang Jaya Municipal Council

The Subang Jaya Municipal Council ( MPSJ ) get downing from the pattern of upgrading Petaling District Council to Subang Jaya Municipal Council under Section 4 of the State Government Gazette No: 26 dated January 2, 1997 under the Local Government Act 1976 ( Act 171 ) . Upgrading enterprises are intended to reconstitute the organisation to run into the current disposal the physical, societal, economic and environmental recovery. Subang Jaya Municipal Council is an organisation that tends to a civilization of excellence. In the 14 old ages regulating a municipality of 161.8 square kilometres covering 3 chief zones viz. Zone Damansara ( Subang Jaya, Bukit Lanchong ) , Zone Puchong ( Puchong overall ) and Zone Seri Kembangan ( Serdang, Seri Kembangan, Universiti Putra Malaysia and Hutan Simpan Ayer Hitam ) . Subang Jaya Municipal Council continues the challenge to develop a “ smart Township, City of Commerce, Residential Reach ” with energy and faith excellence. Therefore, the municipal attempts and enterprises to heighten service invention are non merely to better the quality of service bringing Subang Jaya Municipal Council to people, but besides bring a richer life. Subang Jaya Municipal Council has the three nucleus maps and their inside informations are list as below:

Administration Division:

Organize and run council unit ‘s disposal ;

Handle human resource direction including constitution and staff services, assignment, preparation and retirement ;

Facilitate and arrange meeting on council degree and other related meeting ; and

Implement the enforcement of Council jurisprudence, regulations and ordinance.

Management Division

Control and organize activities and programmed from both authorities and private bureaus ;

Run, reappraisal and form the Urban Poverty Eradication Programme ( PPKB ) for the community within Subang Jaya Municipal Council country ;

Review and send all studies refering to PPKB for Ministry action ; and

Managing and form MBJ meeting.

Enforcement Division

Handle affairs refering indirect gross ;

Take prehending belongings actions on those fail to settle assessment revenue enhancement ;

Hand out compound for offenses in conformity to local authorities Acts of the Apostless ; and

Guaranting that administrative and development policies of the council precedence client ‘s public assistance and involvement.

Overview of Direct Revenue, Indirect Revenue and Non-Revenue Receipt

Chiefly, direct gross focuses on belongings revenue enhancement which is the chief income for the local territory itself. In simplest manner, it can be describes as direct revenue enhancement which is straight born by the revenue enhancement remunerator who pay twice per twelvemonth for services and care. On the other manus, indirect gross means load can be shifted to others. For illustration, it consists licence and license, premises and land for rent, punishment, program procedure fees, services, involvement and assorted income. Meanwhile, non – gross receipt consist draw back paid, grants, adoption, and arrears[ 6 ].

Problem Statement

Based on the survey conducted from the old literature, the treatment of this relationship can be referred through the comparative survey of direct revenue enhancements and indirect revenue enhancements for authorities of Pakistan and India is examined ( Muhammad Aamir, Arslan Qayyum, Adeel Nasir, Shabbir Hussain, Kanwal Iqbal Khan, Sherish Butt, 2011 University of Central Pujab ) , they conclude that authorities of Pakistan generates more gross through indirect grosss whereby India generates more on the direct gross. The survey besides focused on the relationship of direct gross with indirect gross that might act upon to entire gross. Recently, Subang Jaya Municipal Council indicates the aggregation of entire gross remain uncertainness. This uncertainness aggregation gives a immense impact to Subang Jaya Municipal Council because they depend on this sort of grosss in order to switch frontward. Therefore, the survey will analyse the most contribution constituents of entire grosss which are important to Subang Jaya Municipal Council and identified other indirect gross and non-revenues that receipt higher aggregation than direct grosss aggregation. The survey will establish on historical informations gathered and utilizing specific arrested development technique and tabular matter and per centum in other to acquire the specific consequences.

Aim Of Study

The chief aims of this survey are summarized and following the chief aim as follows:

To find the relationship between direct gross, indirect gross and non gross reception towards entire gross.

To place which constituents of gross contribute most.

To give suggestion to policy shaper in order to heighten their public presentation and efficiency of aggregation gross.

Restriction And Scope Study


There are Numberss of restriction while carry oning this survey:

Data collected and gathered from secondary beginning. All information consists direct gross rates, indirect gross rates and non-revenue reception rates and concentrate on 8 old ages back ( from 2002 until 2010, annually footing ) .

Lack of experient and cognition in carry oning this survey.

Time restraint in roll uping, garnering, analysing and construing the information.

Variables to be tested are based on old surveies. There are no new variables introduced.

Scope of survey

The survey will analyse the most contribution constituents of entire grosss which are important to Subang Jaya Municipal Council and identified other indirect gross and non-revenues that receipt higher aggregation than direct grosss aggregation.

Significance OF STUDY

The survey conducted to see all constituents revenues income of the Subang Jaya Municipal Council that leads into the relationship of direct gross, indirect gross and non gross reception towards entire gross. From this consequence of analysis, it can give a batch of part to:

Subang Jaya Municipal Council

The aggregation of direct gross, indirect gross and non- gross acknowledge normally important to Subang Jaya Municipal Council because it might help them to place the constituents of variables which give immense influence to their entire grosss. Thus, will assisting them in revising their policy about gross in future.

University Teknologi Mara ( UiTM )

The survey gives significance to UiTM in order to reexamine the procedure conducted and applied by Subang Jaya Municipal Council in roll uping gross.

Future Study

The survey as a supporter in assisting the local governments to carry on a hereafter survey on entire grosss sing local governments in Malaysia and will cognize the major constituents of grosss collected.


Peopless who live in Subang Jaya Municipal Council country will aware about the aggregation and cognize how to assist their council increase their gross.


Entire Gross

The Entire Revenue ( TR ) is primary is income to Subang Jaya Municipal Council to switch frontward. As we know Subang Jaya Municipal Council is entirely autonomy and need to seek their income by ain. The maps of entire gross are to pay salary, emolument, and fillip to the employees and for urban development and cares.

Direct Gross

Direct gross is usually known as belongings revenue enhancement gross. Property revenue enhancement gross is the chief income for a local authorization which is used to pay services cares in the local governments ‘ administrative country[ 7 ].

Indirect Gross

Indirect gross is created to back up chief income and known Value Added Tax ( VAT ) and being major portion of gross system. The constituents that consist of indirect gross is license and license, premises and land for rent, punishment, program procedure fees, services, involvement and assorted income[ 8 ].

Non – Gross Receipt

Normally come from grants like federal authorities particular grants, province authorities particular grants. The intent of federal and province authorities gives this uncertainness allotment to Subang Jaya Municipal Council for urban development and community services attention. Other than that, it ‘s come from assorted return back income for case, Subang Jaya Municipal Council give particular loans like vehicle loan for theirs employees. Monthly wage by employees will be sedimentation to this income[ 9 ].

Chapter 2


Previous Study

Survey on the analysis of relationship between direct grosss with indirect grosss and non – grosss receipts towards entire gross is focus on seeking informations within 8 old ages ( annually footing ) because it will give precise fact to public. The information and information are mentioning on academic and professional diaries and old research undertaking to acquire more inside informations. Some of them are:

David Martin Juanil, Wan Zahari Wan Yusof & A ; Fazira Shafie. Property Tax Perfomance of Local Authorities in Malaysia, ( 2011 ) .This documents focus on public presentation aggregation of belongings revenue enhancement within local governments in Malaysia which is needs more emphasizes because of sum of gross collected is diminishing. The writers used the dimensions of the belongings revenue enhancement aggregation and arrears and used A-E classs based on accomplishment by the finding the place or degree of the public presentation. They found that the most of the belongings aggregation in Malaysia performed under unequal degree.

Muhammad Aamir, Arslan Qayyum, Adeel Nasir, Shabbir Hussain, Kanwal Iqbal Khan, Sechish But. Determinants of Tax Gross: A Comparative Study of Direct Taxes and Indirect Taxes of Pakistan and India ( October 2011 ) . They investigated and comparing types of direct revenue enhancements and indirect revenue enhancements in India and Pakistan. They wanted to cognize which most influential gross wheather are direct or indirect towards entire gross. To mensurate the direct and indirect gross done by bring forthing two simple arrested development lines. The intent for bring forthing arrested development line was to see the single consequence of direct revenue enhancements on entire gross and comparison for both. By comparing the two arrested development equations and the standardised betas, Pakistan more gross is charged by imposing indirect revenue enhancements and India is opposite side of it.

Olaoye Clement Olatunji, Asaolo Taiwo and J.O Adewoye. A Review Generation in Nigeria Local Government: A Case Study of Ekiti State ( 2009 ) . The aim this survey to reexamine the gross aggregation in local authorities, and analyze machinery of internally generated gross, to reexamine assorted internally beginnings of generated gross and impact to local authorities. Data captured is analyzed through descriptive ad illative statistical methods. The descriptive analyses involve the usage of per centum, tabular matter and counts while illative statistical method employs chi – square. The different type ‘s gross coevalss were clearly enumerated and the associated jobs sometimes faced by the revenue enhancement aggregators were every bit emphasized.

S.Kuppusamy. Local Government in Malaysia: Back To Basics And The Current Scene ( 2008 ) . This survey focused on direction, disposal, town planning and the fiscal issue confronting local authorities in Malaysia. One of the issues is the dependance of local council on federal equalisation and developments grants. It is done by utilizing simple arrested development lines, per centum and tabular matter for all informations. They are many struggle that arose in local council in Malaysia particularly carry oning gross and his suggested that local authorities operate like corporate entity in order to cut down fiscal gross job and administrative.

Swaji Raju. The Revenue -Expenditure Nexus: Evidence For India ( 2008 ) . Investigated to conform whether a nexus exist between cardinal authorities and outgos by analyzing entire grosss and array of outgo. This done by applied trials for unit roots and augmented dicky Fuller trial and besides zivol and Andrews ( ZA0 trial. Other that that used trials for cointegration and mistake rectification. The determination provides important entire grosss with outgos.

Hazman Shah Abdullah. From Customer Satisfaction to Citizen Satisfaction: Rethinking Local Government Service Delivery in Malaysia ( 2008 ) . Public demands for efficient and satisfaction of local authorities in a manner wage revenue enhancement and what will they obtain from that revenue enhancement. It is done by utilizing simple arrested development lines and per centum. As a consequence showed non merely what current installations or service that local authorities offer but they should spread out in order to increase gross.

Loganthan, Nanthakumar. Have Taxes Led Government Expenditure in Malaysia ( 2007 ) . The aim of this studied to trials the function direct gross and indirect gross on the authorities gross and outgo. They were using the Vector Autoregressive ( VAR ) mold. This survey indicates that authorities is strongly depending on direct revenue enhancement gross than indirect gross.

Edward B. Sennoga. Local Government Revenues and Expenditures in Uganda: A Var Appoach ( 2006 ) . This paper through empirical observation tests temporal relationship local authorities grosss and outgos in Uganda. This survey employs the Vector Autoregressive ( VAR ) and the Granger causality analysis. From that their survey shows the direction local authorities raises revenue enhancement gross and/or petition for or receives grants before prosecuting in new outgos.

Joshua Aizenman, Yothin JinJarak. The Collection Efficiency Of The Value Added Tax ( VAT ) . Theory and International Evidence ( August 2005 ) . This paper looked to value added revenue enhancement issue and how it can give part to gross. They calculate VAT aggregation efficiency utilizing Cefficiency ratio and Efficiency ratio. C-efficiency ratio refers to consumption ratio – type VAT and Efficiency ratio refer to an income – type VAT. They found out by anticipation of a political economic system and public finance attack to revenue enhancement can doing an efficiency of aggregation.

Barak.D Hoffman, Clark C. Gibson. Fiscal Governance and Public Services: Evidence From Tanzania and Zambia ( September 2005 ) . They argue authorities beginnings of gross give affect to public outgos, independent of establishments. They use OLS with robust standard mistakes and cross behavior analysis. What they happening local authorities consequence gross beginnings on public outgos, independent of establishments.

Mohamad Tayib, Hugh M. Coombs and J.R.M Ameen. Financial Reporting by Malaysia Local Authorities, A Study of The Needs and Requirements of The Users of Local Authority Financial Accounts ( 2002 ) . They are studied about jobs that arise which is the aggregation of local revenue enhancement governments is slow and diminishing. This state of affairs gives impact to local governments and so increasing of in aggregation of local revenue enhancement governments ‘ arrears. These work forces used 15 municipal councils in peninsular and categorized them harmonizing their public presentation and one was selected as a representative from each class. Based on sample a of 305 local taxpayer in 3 major municipal showed that in order to increase the rates of local revenue enhancement governments by published fiscal information to Malaysian local governments.

Ahamad Zafarullah, Mukaramah Harun and Siti Hadijah Che Mat. A Study on the Responsiveness of the Malayan State Government ` Gross to Their Development Expenditures ( 2001 ) . The chief aim is to analyze relationship between province authorities gross in Malaysia and their development. They used method generalized of minutes ( GMM ) . The consequences showed entire gross that been collected significantly strongly relationship with outgos.

M.Gavinda Rao. Tax Reform in India: Accomplishment And Challenges ( December 2000 ) . Documents discuss about development revenue enhancement system in India that involve direct revenue enhancements, indirect revenue enhancements, entire gross. Researcher usage a per centum, tabular matter and counts. From that analyses even though important cut down in the rates for single and corporate income but entire gross showed increasing.

Chapter 3


Research Design

All the information for this research gathered from secondary informations. The information started obtain from twelvemonth 2002 until 2010 ( annual footing ) . Data is gathered from Subang Jaya Municipal Council Annual Report, on-line academic and professional diary, mention books and any website related in this survey.

Designation of Variables

Sample of Study

There are three variables used in the arrested development. These variables are: Direct Revenue, In- Direct Revenue and Non Revenue Receipt and Total Revenue. The variables will be explained in farther inside informations in the following subdivision.

Variable Definition

This subdivision introduces and explains variables included in the arrested development analysis. There are entire four variables: one is dependent variables and three is independent variables.

Dependent Variable

Entire Revenue is the most critical to Subang Jaya Municipal Council to keep their disbursals and to travel frontward.

Independent Variables

Direct Gross

Direct Revenues is usually come from belongings revenue enhancement. This belongings revenue enhancement is needed to pay by people twice per twelvemonth. Subang Jaya Municipal Council barely focuses about direct gross.

Indirect Gross

Indirect gross is created in order to back up aggregation of direct grosss. It besides known those whose load can be shifted to others. This revenues ever collected by officer of local council.

Non Revenue Receipt

Non gross reception ever comes from grants from province authoritiess to back up aggregation of entire grosss.

Hypothesis of Study

Statement of hypothesis will explicate the relation between variables and independent variable. It will demo that strong relationship among all variables. The hypothesis will lucubrate by utilizing the SPSS and other methodological analysis.

Ha-‹ = Null Hypothesis

It is means that there is no important relationship between dependant variable and independent variable.

HA? = Alternate Hypothesis

It is means that there is a important relationship between dependant variable and independent variable.

Hypothesis 1

Ha-‹ : There is no relationship between direct grosss and entire grosss.

HA? : There is relationship between direct grosss and entire grosss.

Hypothesis 2

Ha-‹ : There is no relationship between indirect grosss and entire grosss.

HA? : There is relationship between indirect grosss and entire grosss.

Hypothesis 3

Ha-‹ : There is no relationship between non- grosss grosss and entire grosss.

HA? : There is relationship between non- grosss grosss and entire grosss.

Theoretical Models

All the independent variables straight influence entire gross. The independent variables as a keyword to be explain and describe the information and information related theses factor. It can demo as:

Independent Variables Dependent Variable








Dependent Variable intends to analyze the important of relationship of each independent variable.

Independent Variable refers on direct grosss, indirect grosss and non- grosss grosss which is influenced on entire gross. In order to do analyze informations comparing for each variable, SPPS package will be used.


In this survey, multiple arrested development analysis is used to analysis the correlativity between constituents of gross like direct gross, indirect gross and non gross reception towards entire gross. It is used in order to explicate behaviour of the dependant variable which is more than one independent variable is involved. The theoretical account is demonstrated below:

Yt = Ba-‹ + BA?XA?t + BA?XA?t + BA?XA?t + Greenwich Mean Time


Y Total Revenue Dependent Variable

B Constant / Coefficients on independent variables

XA? Direct Revenue Independent Variable

XA? Indirect Revenue Independent Variable

XA? Non Revenues Receipt Independent Variable

T Observation

Datas Analysis

This analysis will find the three of gross constituents such as direct gross, indirect gross and non gross reception towards entire gross. All informations extracted from Subang Jaya Municipal Council statistical study. This survey besides used SPSS package in order to analyze correlativity between both dependent and independent variable. This survey besides used arrested development analysis to look into the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable.

F – Trial

The trial for purpose significance of arrested development is a trial to find if there is a additive relationship between the dependant variable and independent variable.

Chapter 6