“ It is a adult male ‘s ain head, ” the great spiritual figure Buddha says, “ non his enemy or enemy, that lures him to evil ways, ” ( Quotes on Evil ) . This thought, in kernel, is what the two great spiritual authors of Dante and Milton argue over in their monumental plants Inferno and Paradise Lost. Dante maintains that the evilness in world is derived from the innately wicked nature of every adult male and the appealing nature of wickedness while Milton argues that world strives to make good, being itself God ‘s favorite creative activity, but is brought down to evil Acts of the Apostless by the malicious purpose of the Satan. Therefore, the chief difference in the two writers ‘ stances is the grade of optimism or hope for the hereafter that each work contains. The writers ‘ argue their points on the affair through the different literary techniques employed in each verse form, like the imagination invoked to depict Satan, the personification of the devils in Hell, and the predicament of worlds when confronted with immorality. Compared to Milton, Dante makes a more convincing statement through his consummate word picture, symbolism, and ability to arouse emotion.
Satan, evil personified, has been utilized for 100s of old ages by adult male to explicate the nature and cause of the bad lucks of the universe, so it is merely natural that this figure be so cardinal to both verse forms. Dante spends less clip depicting the figure of Satan, but his one focal point on the swayer of Hell is so graphic and detailed that it successfully can be compared with Milton ‘s ain vision of the Devil. As both Dante and Virgil-his guide through Hell-approach Satan, Dante describes, “ That it my Master pleased to demo to me the animal who one time had the beauteous gloss, ” ( Alighieri XXXIV.17-18 ) . This transition hints at the fact that even Satan is non the beginning of immorality, but instead the unfortunate foremost victim to fall into its trap. Dante makes clear that from Satan ‘s first ‘beauteous visual aspect ‘ as Lucifer, the angel, he falls prey to transgress the same manner as many work forces besides do. Dante goes on to depict the unusual visual aspect of Satan, observing, “ I beheld three faces in his caput! The one in forepart, and that vermillion wasaˆ¦ And the right-hand 1 seemed ‘twixt white and xanthous ; the left was such to look upon as those who come from where the Nile falls valley-ward, ” ( XXXIV.38-45 ) . The point in Dante ‘s description of Satan as holding three faces on one caput is to contrast with the besides triform nature of the traditional position of the Christian God. The typical traits associated with God are those of love, omnipotence, and omniscience. The three faces of Satan ‘s caputs are given the specific colourss of ruddy, xanthous, and black to match to the converse of each of these godly virtuousnesss. Black evidently can be seen to stand for hatred or immorality, the antonym of love ; yellow is closely related to cowardice-which most closely contrasts omnipotence. Red so is left to stand for ignorance, the antonym of omniscience, which makes sense as ruddy is frequently used to typify passion or anger-both emotions that impair thought. Dante assigns these three traits to Satan through his adept use of colour symbolism so that it is understood that Satan himself has no existent power, and that evil controls him-and non the other manner around. Finally, the reader gets one last powerful glance at the impotence of Satan with Dante declaring, “ Underneath each [ face ] came away two mighty wingsaˆ¦he was beckoning them, so that three air currents proceeded forthaˆ¦thereby Cocytus was entirely congealed, ” ( XXXIV.46-52 ) . Through this whole scene, Satan has been described as being trapped within ice, fighting in vain to get away. Dante makes it clear that these flight efforts simply keep Satan frozen in topographic point, foregrounding his truly weak and nescient nature. Even though he must merely halt crushing his wings and delay for the ice to warm to liberate himself, Satan blindly continues his battle. This concluding image of the Devil proves that Dante considers him much excessively weak to command the destinies of world, and that adult male ‘s corruptness lies elsewhere than in the powers of Hell.
John Milton, on the other manus, spends much of Paradise Lost giving his portraiture of Satan. The narrative describes the strong-willed leading of Satan in Hell. After being thrown out of Heaven for his wickednesss, Satan and his protagonists are found aghast and broken in the bowels of Hell. Making a expansive address to stir up his followings, Satan urges, “ All is non lost ; the unconquerable will, and survey of retaliation, immortal hatred, and bravery ne’er to subject or yieldaˆ¦that glorification ne’er shall [ God ‘s ] wrath or might extort from me, ” ( Milton I.106-111 ) . Already, with his first words, the reader is presented with a immensely different portraiture of Satan than in Dante ‘s imagination. This Satan is free to plot and take retaliation, and more significantly still has the strength of will command the 1000000s of devils that followed him. Having therefore established himself as the dominant figure in Hell, Satan goes on to lucubrate that “ [ his ] labour must be to corrupt that terminal, and out of good still to happen agencies of immorality ” ( I.164-165 ) . Therefore, Satan in Paradise Lost is described as the accountant of immorality, instead than merely as a conduit. Satan means to destruct anything that God so chooses to make, simply to convey his immorality into the universe. This contrasts with Dante ‘s version of Satan, who is shown to be evil ‘s first victim and helpless to even get away the confines of Hell. Satan is seen deriving the throne of Hell through adept use, as in the arguments ramping in the halls of Pandemonium, the devils ‘ council chamber. When the devils begin reasoning about who should be sent to transport out the undertaking of world ‘s perversion, Satan speaks out, stating, “ Long is the manner and difficult, that out of snake pit leads up to lightaˆ¦but I should ill go this throne, O equals! … if aught proposed and judg ‘d of public minute, in the form of trouble, or danger, could discourage me from trying. Wherefore do I presume these royalties, and non decline to reign, ” ( II.432-451 ) . Satan therefore emphasizes his courage in offering to travel on this ‘dangerous ‘ ocean trip, and rapidly claims the throne as recompense for his heroism. Therefore, Milton maintains that it is Satan ‘s command of immorality and wicked ways that can overmaster even other devils in Hell, which makes it no surprise that he is the cause of wickedness the universe of adult male.
The universe of Hell is populated by a apparently eternal moving ridge of devils, those angels who chose to follow Satan in his rebelliousness of God. Through the scrutiny of how each writer chooses to portray these devils and their relation to evil, the authors ‘ differing point of view on Hell ‘s control of wickedness in the universe of adult male can be seen. One of the first sights facing Dante and Virgil in their descent into Hell proper is that of Minos, the infernal justice of wickedness in worlds. As Dante relates, “ There standeth Minos horribly, and snarls ; examines the evildoings at the entryway ; Judgess, and sends consequently as he girds him, ” ( Alighieri V.4-6 ) . From this glance into the workings of the underworld, it is clear that even the devils of Hell do non take active functions in doing wickedness, but act as merely inactive Judgess of the wickednesss that they see in the condemned worlds. Hell is shown to be in no manner responsible for immorality in the universe of work forces, but alternatively fills the necessary function of penalizing work forces that fell victim to transgress merely as Satan himself did. This is farther evidenced in Dante ‘s description of the centaurs that roam a circle subsequently on in Hell, who guide him through a transition over a lake of boiling blood. Indicating the manner to Dante, the centaur Chiron notes, “ I wish thee to believe that on this other more and more diminutions its bed, until it reunites itself where it behoveth tyranny to moan. Justice Godhead, upon this side, is spuring that Attila, who was a flagellum on Earth, ” ( XII.129- 134 ) . This transition illustrates that Dante believes that the devils of Hell are functioning a Godhead intent, that of penalizing the sinful. The devils themselves are cognizant of this, which explains Chiron ‘s remark on the fact. If God planned for Hell to come into being to penalize wickedness, so Satan himself must non be the ultimate beginning of immorality as Milton claims. Dante farther backs his point up in the word picture of Malacoda, another devil in Hell. When Virgil tells Malacoda that “ in Heaven it is willed that I another show this barbarian route ” Malacoda rapidly calls the devils under his bid off an onslaught on Virgil, stating, “ Now strike him non, ” ( XXI.83-87 ) . Clearly, the devils in Hell recognize the importance of any will of God and are speedy to subject, underscoring that they are non in resistance to God and worlds in Dante ‘s position, but instead a portion of the Godhead program. Since the devils of Hell volitionally allow God direct Dante through their sphere, this shows the entry of Hell under Heaven and the ultimate powerlessness of Satan.
John Milton, of class, paints a much different image of Satan through his devils in Hell. First, as Satan speaks of the bad lucks that have late befallen him and his company, Beelzebub responds, “ O Prince ; O head of many throned powers, that led th’embattled seraphim to war under thy behavior ; and in awful workss fearless, ” ( Milton I.128-131 ) . The devils still acknowledge Satan as their leader, even though he has lost them the ageless cloud nine of Heaven. All of Satan ‘s followings strongly believe him to be godly, who can still dispute God from the deepnesss of Hell. Milton ne’er adequately explains why the devils have such unshakeable religion in Satan, and why they ne’er try to assume his regulation. Therefore, his devils seem level in character, holding no ability to ground for themselves. Other animals of Hell found in Milton ‘s heroic poem are those of Sin and Death themselves, near the gate to the underworld. Sin herself is personified as the progeny of Satan, as she states, “ Out of thy caput I sprung: astonishment seiz ‘d all th’host of Eden ; back they recoil ‘d, afraid at first, and name ‘d me Sin, ” ( II.758-760 ) . In Milton ‘s verse form, Satan himself is the conceiver of wickedness, as he creates it when his pride doing him to plot God ‘s ruin. It is he who causes world to fall to misery, as his ain progeny follows his way into the universe to bring mayhem. Sin informs Satan of his function in the eventual ruin of adult male, prophesying, “ [ Thou ] wilt convey me shortly to that new universe of visible radiation and bliss, among the Gods who live at easiness, where I shall reign at thy right manus juicy, ” ( II.866-869 ) . This anticipation of Sin of Satan ‘s triumph over world shows how he is motivated to derive power and destroy God ‘s plants. Unlike in Inferno, the devils of Paradise Lost do non acknowledge Heaven ‘s command and garbage to subject to God ‘s will. Moloch, fiercest of the devils, embodies this air of rebelliousness, as he incites, “ My sentence is for unfastened waraˆ¦let us instead take, arm ‘d with hell-flames and rage, all at one time o’er Eden ‘s high towers to coerce irresistible manner, turning our anguishs into horrid weaponries against the Torturer, ” ( II. 51-64 ) . There would clearly be no devils willing to allow person such as Dante base on balls into Hell in Milton ‘s verse form, as the devils are excessively cranky to obey God ‘s will.
Dante and Milton both focus their verse forms on the human battle against the immoralities of the universe, giving legion illustrations of evildoers being punished for their misbehaviors. This is peculiarly so in Dante ‘s instance, whose chief focal point in composing Inferno is to depict what penalty is given to those that bring wickedness on themselves. In the first circle of Hell, Dante sees how the lustful in life are punished, being invariably thrust about by violent air currents. Dante comes to understand why these evildoers were punished so, stating, “ I understood that unto such a torture the animal criminals were condemned, who ground subjugate to appetite, ” ( Alighieri V. 37-39 ) . Here Dante makes it clear that it is by the evildoers ‘ ain misjudgments in life that they got such a penalty, non through any 3rd party like the Satan. Merely as they allowed themselves to be driven aimlessly through life by their passion and sexual appetencies, now the evildoers are sentenced to be blown about wildly by strong storms. Dante carries this subject throughout his verse form like an expert, analyzing each evildoer in Hell and how they caused their ain ruin. Even the devils in Hell are shown to understand why the evildoers belong in their several circles, as when Chiron notes people enduring in rivers of boiling blood, stating, “ Tyrants are these, who dealt in bloodshed and in plundering. Here they lament their pitiless mischievousnesss, ” ( XII.104-106 ) . These people are despised even by the devils of Hell, as in this transition when Chiron refers to the evildoers as autocrats. The devils in Hell in this manner can be seen as transporting out the unsavoury parts of God ‘s plan-punishing those who refuse to accept the righteous life and alternatively indulge in wickedness. Dante farther enhances the disgusting nature of these immoral work forces upon his description of Count Ugolino, who describes his imprisonment along with his boies. As the count and his household runs low on nutrient, Ugolino begins to seize with teeth his ain flesh off. Upon seeing this, the count ‘s boies plead, “ Father, much less hurting ’twill give us if thou do eat of us ; thyself didst clothe us with this hapless flesh, and do thou deprive it off. ” Though he refuses to prosecute in this title, Ugolino finally succumbs, stating, “ Then hungriness did what sorrow could non make, ” ( XXXIII.61-75 ) . Dante really adeptly employs gross outing illustrations of wickedness, doing the victims of penalty every bit unsavoury as possible so as to endorse up his statement that it is adult male ‘s ain failing that causes his autumn from grace. That is non to state that merely the seedy, unscrupulous type are those that wickedness overcomes, as Dante has skilfully provided an illustration to the contrary. As Dante explores a circle of Hell, he finds Pope Nicholas III under the penalty of being stuck upside down in a stone, who explains his status, stating, “ So eager to progress the greenhorn, that wealth above, and here myself, I pocketed. Beneath my caput the others are dragged down who have preceded me in barratry, ” ( XIX.71-74 ) . Even those in high places can non contend the baser inherent aptitudes of the human spirit. This forms a trial that God applies to all world, those that refuse to prosecute in crying sums of wickedness are rewarded with a topographic point in Paradise upon decease.
John Milton merely has two human characters in his heroic poem verse form, those of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. However, even these purportedly guiltless and pure sires of the human race still can non avoid being enticed by Satan upon his entryway into the human universe. This ruin is explained off as wholly Satan ‘s mistake, as Adam and Eve had no disposition to immorality before he appeared. Satan once more is described practising his art of misrepresentation when angels policing the gardens find him following to a kiping Eve, with Milton authorship, “ Squat like a frog, near at the ear of Eve ; assaying, by his diabolic art, to make the variety meats of her illusion, and with them forge semblances, as he list, apparitions, and dreams, ” ( Milton IV.800-803 ) . Satan is taking a more active stance in the corruptness of world than Dante elaborate, as he inserts ideas of immorality into Eve ‘s head, fixing to later wholly rule her will. Eve, of class, once more comes into contact with Satan, this clip awake and off from Adam. As she talks to Satan in the pretense of a serpent, he implores, “ [ Do ] non believe those stiff menaces of decease ; ye shall non decease ; how should ye? by the fruit? It gives you life to knowledge ; by the threat’ner… will God thurify his anger for such a junior-grade trespass, ” ( IX.684-693 ) . Much to the antonym of the vainly fighting Satan presented in Inferno, here Satan actively opposes world and God. Like in the earlier transition where Satan skilfully manipulated the devils in Chaos to do him prince of Hell, here he uses verbal hocus-pocus to do Eve gustatory sensation of the Tree of Knowledge. After these actions, Sin is literally released into the universe as she realizes that Satan has made it possible for her rule over the otherwise guiltless adult male. Sin, talking to her boy Death, proclaims, “ O boy, why sit we here each other sing lazily, while Satan our great writer thrives in other universes, and happier place provides for us his offspring beloved? ” ( X.235-238 ) . Therefore, Satan has successfully released immorality into the universe, which unlike Inferno is one Born wholly out of Satan himself. Upon his triumph, Satan gloats to his devils in snake pit, stating, “ [ Man ] by fraud I have seduc ‘d from his Creator, and, the more to increase your admiration, with an appleaˆ¦he hath given up both his dear adult male, and all his universe, to Sin and Death a quarry, ” ( X.485-490 ) . Having caused world to go detached from God, Satan revels in what he sees as his ultimate achievement and the fulfilment of his earlier vow to oppose God in all his programs.
Having considered these three characteristics in both heroic verse form, those of the imagination matching to Satan, the devils ‘ word pictures, and the struggle between the forces of Hell and worlds straight it becomes clear that Dante is able to use literary technique more successfully to convert the reader of his point. Using symbolism, like that seen in the colourss of Satan ‘s faces, and adept word picture of both devils and evildoer, Dante is able to paint a persuasive image of world dragging itself down to Hell through its ain iniquitous nature. While John Milton can non be said to be no less a great writer than Dante, his literary technique is less skilfully employed in Paradise Lost. Although Milton does exemplify Satan ‘s meteorologic rise to power, he ne’er adequately explains why there is no resistance in all of the 1000000s of his followings. With changeless failure following Satan ‘s finally ineffectual battle against God ‘s program, it is non apparent why the devils of Hell continually worship Satan as their rightful leader. This major country of failing undermines the remainder of Milton ‘s statement, as his back uping characters come across as level and forced. Therefore, with this weakness in head, Milton ‘s point of position on the nature of wickedness comes across as an implausible account, whereas Dante is able to convert that his mentality is nearer the point. These two writer ‘s conflicting beliefs serve to foreground the centuries old battle between faultfinders and pessimists over the immoralities found in humanity. This argument will probably ramp on into the hereafter, but certainly those who argue so will look to the texts of landmark plants such as these and justice for themselves how good each replies the inquiry of whether wickedness is external or internal.
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