Sri Lanka is a lower in-between income state with 19 million people in South Asiatic part. Sri Lanka receives Official Development Assistance ( ODA ) from many many-sided organisations such as World Bank, Asian Development Bank, United Nations and bilateral giver states like Japan, Germany, Norway, USA, Netherlands, Sweden, Australia and Canada[ 1 ]. Sri Lanka is one of “ top 10 ” recipient states of Nipponese ODA plan. Since 1954, Nipponese authorities assisted to develop economic substructure edifice and human resource development. Among the developing states in South Asiatic part, Sri Lankans enjoy comparatively high quality life due to the uninterrupted giver aid.
Even though quality of life improved during past 50 old ages, unluckily Sri Lankan economic system is still depended on foreign loans and grants and 3.8 million people do non hold basic demands to run into day-to-day demands[ 2 ]. One major job in Sri Lanka is, its economic system has failed to use labour force efficaciously. The high young person unemployment degrees shows that present province run instruction system is non bring forthing current labour force demands and bulk of immature school departers ended up their long school life with out a hope.
The chief aim of this paper is to analysis Official Development Assistance from Nipponese authorities to develop instruction sector in Sri Lanka and detect the weak points in present instruction system.
Positions of Present Education System in Sri Lanka.
Poverty decrease is today ‘s universe chief subject. Walter W. McMahon mentioned that “ Knowledge is the cardinal subject for many economic developments ”[ 3 ].Among the developing states in South Asiatic part, Sri Lanka has higher literacy rate around 90 per centum due to the province run instruction system[ 4 ].However, at present mismatch is turning between instruction end product and labour market demands. Many bookmans pointed out present instruction system has to reform harmonizing to the labour force demand.
Saman Kelegama showed that effectual instruction system is one factor which could cut down poorness and he described that Sri Lanka needs speedy alterations in instruction system[ 5 ]. Recently, World Bank reported that junior secondary instruction course of study of Sri Lanka, has to be organized more on activity based acquisition and practical undertakings and senior secondary instruction course of study has to be focused on capable deepness, wide general cognition, job work outing accomplishments, strong logical thinking abilities and accurate comprehension[ 6 ].
J. Charitha Ratwatte mentioned that instruction must be demand led. Demand is in the employment market. He showed that linkage between employment market and the procedure of instruction must be developed in Sri Lanka. He accepted that the merchandise of instruction procedure is virtually unemployable and said significant retraining is necessary to present pupils into the employment market. Ratwatte showed that deficiency of chance to larn English is a major failing in the instruction system[ 7 ]. My sentiment is non merely English other foreign linguistic communications besides introduced in to the future coevals. In this planetary small town communicating is an of import tool to interact with other communities. AGW Nanayakkara pointed out current tendencies in labour market and causes of unemployment. He recommended some policy alterations in instruction, favourable to carry through spreads between instruction and labour market[ 8 ]. Entree to instruction and preparation is a major determiner of immature people ‘s future capacity to take part and boom in the society.
At present there is a high demand exists for vocational preparation in Sri Lanka. Department of National Planning of Sri Lanka has studied the quality of bing vocational preparation institutes and found that accomplishments provided by the populace sector vocational preparation institutes did non fit with the labour market demands[ 9 ].
2.2 Nipponese ODA
The Development Assistance Committee peer reappraisal 2004, pointed out still around more than half of Nipponese ODA focused on Asiatic part in-between income receiver states. Harmonizing to the OECD[ 10 ]statistics, in 2002 Japan ‘s top 10 assistance receivers were from Asiatic part and further it has mentioned that for 20 Asiatic states, Japan was the largest giver. Harmonizing to the information published in Ministry of Finance and Planning in Sri Lanka[ 11 ], and JICA Sri Lanka office, bulk of ongoing Nipponese ODA undertakings are concentrating on societal and economic substructure edifice.
In early 1980s Japan was the largest donor state in the universe and that clip, its trussed loans with high involvement rates and shorter adulthood periods was criticized by the remainder of the universe. Most of the heavy substructure development undertakings assisted by Japan were non to the full benefited to the receiver authoritiess due to high care cost[ 12 ]. I agreed with this statement, before giving the aid basic background has to be designed. Otherwise it ‘s a immense wastage of money every bit good as people in the giver states may let down by non accomplishing the ends. However Japan ‘s aid through JICA to better quality of human power is important. Every twelvemonth JICA has figure of developing plans to go through progress engineering, cognition and accomplishments to its receiver states while directing Nipponese experts and immature voluntaries in different Fieldss JICA maintain uninterrupted relationship with receiver states[ 13 ].
3.0 Education System of Sri Lanka
Education in Sri Lanka is considered as a basic human right and since independency instruction from rating one to basic grade, is free and compulsory for age group 5- 14 old ages. Sri Lankan authorities encourages parents to direct their kids to schools by supplying school text books and stuffs for uniforms. Even though installations are non every bit distributed over the state, every 6 km2 of the state has at least one school now[ 14 ]. The undermentioned information gives general thought about current instruction system.
Table 3.0 Number of Schools, Students, Teachers and Student/Teacher Ratio1.
No. of instructors
1 Lone authorities schools
Beginning: Education Statisticss, Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
In twelvemonth 2005 new entrants to rate one was 318,093 and primary net registration ratio was 98 per centum[ 15 ].In schools both males and females have equal installations. Average authorities outgo on instruction in Sri Lanka is about 2.7 per centum of states gross national merchandise[ 16 ].This map of Sri Lanka shows the distribution of schools and the mid twelvemonth population in 2005.
3.1 Current School and University Education System
Sri Lankan school instruction system has three chief subdivisions.
Primary instruction i? from Grade 1 to 5
Secondary instruction i? from Grade 6 to 11i? Government Exam ( GCE OL )[ 17 ]
Pre University instruction i? from Grade 12 to 13i? Government Exam ( GCE AL ) 18
The undermentioned diagram explains the current instruction system from rating one to basic grade with the completion rates at each subdivisions and measure uping rates at each national degree measure uping scrutinies.
New Entrants Grade 1
( Completion rate 98 % )
( G.C.E.OL ) ( Completion rate 80 % )
Passing rate 36 %
Pre University Education ( G.C.E.AL )
Passing rate 50 %
University Vacancies available merely for 16 %
Beginning: Education Statisticss, 2000, Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
Student dropout in early ages can be seen in hapless households in rural countries, due to many poorness related grounds. This figure is ineluctable until eradicate poorness from Sri Lanka. At present around 80 per centum of pupils complete their secondary school instruction but merely 30-40 per centum pupils can measure up for the pre university instruction.
The tabular array 3.1.1 supports the primary net registration ratio and primary and secondary completion rate from 2000 to 2004.
Table 3.1.1 Primary Net Registration Ratio and Primary and Secondary Completion Rate 2000-2004
Primary Net Registration Ratio ( % of comparative age group )
Beginning: Education Statisticss, Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka,
Table 3.1.2 and table 3.1.3 shows the pupil public presentations at two chief scrutinies in school system[ 18 ].
Table 3.1.2 GCE ( OL ) Performances of School Candidates 1997-2000
Number Sat for GCE ( OL )
% Qualified for GCE ( AL )
Beginning: Education Statisticss, Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
Harmonizing to the above informations it is clear that yearly around two tierce of pupils could non continue farther in this system. If there is an chance available in current instruction system, to develop accomplishments, these immature people could happen a occupation when they entered in to the labour market. Unfortunately, present school instruction gives merely paper based cognition. Therefore at the get downing these immature new entrants have no topographic point in the labour market.
Table 3.1.3 gives GCE AL public presentations of school campaigners. Even though instruction is free up to basic grade, chances available in universities are really limited. Therefore merely 15-16 per centum of measure uping pupils will acquire chance to come in to the university. In the twelvemonth 2005, figure of universities increased up to 15 and alumnus end product ( basic grade ) was reported as 10,525.
Table 3.1.3 GCE ( AL ) Performances of School Candidates 1997- 2000
Number Sat for GCE ( AL )
% Qualified for University
% Entered to University
Beginning: Education Statisticss, Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
3.2 Vocational Training Education
Vocational instruction construct is still developing in Sri Lanka. There are 902 vocational instruction institutes registered under the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission ( TVEC ) in Sri Lanka to develop school departers[ 19 ].
Under Public Sector 553
Private Sector 241
Non authorities Origins 108
The following tabular array shows the pupil consumptions for chief vocational preparation institutes.
Table 3.2.1 Student Intakes for Main Vocational Training Institutes- 2005
No. of Centers
1.Department of Technical Education and Training. ( DTET )
2.Vocational Training Authority. ( VTA )
3.National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority. ( NAITA )
4. National Institute for Business Management. ( NIBM )
5.National Institute for Technical Education. ( NITESL )
6.Ceylon German Technical Training Institute. ( CG TTI )
Beginning: Ministry of Vocational & A ; Technical Training, Sri Lanka
At present figure of vocational instruction institutes are non sufficient to run into the vocational instruction demand. And the quality of vocational preparation is dubious. Majority of vocational instruction institutes are clustered around chief metropoliss and hapless people populating in distant countries could non make to them. And there is no proper communicating between school departers and vocational preparation establishments. The table 3.2.2 gives groundss for present state of affairs of vocational preparation institutes in Sri Lanka.
Table 3.2.2 Number of Males and Females Departure for Foreign Employments
Type of work
Beginning: Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment
Foreign employment is one of the major income beginnings of Sri Lankan authorities and skilled labour demand is higher than unskilled labour in foreign labour market. Still half of the people depart as unskilled labour because vocational preparation capacity is non plenty. Similar tendency can be seen in export processing zones. The undermentioned graph shows that more than 10,000 of employees attached to the export treating zones were unskilled labour.
Beginning: Board of Investment of Sri Lanka
3.3 Youth Unemployment Rate
Mismatch of present instruction system and restriction in occupation chances create prodigious defeat among immature school departers. In other words after basking 10 to 13 old ages of school instruction bulk of energetic, immature population has to pass another few old ages to seek a occupation because their capablenesss are non valued at the labour market. The undermentioned graph shows that the unemployment rates among age group 20-29 from 1990 to 2002. Harmonizing to the graph more than half of 20-29 age group population is unemployed.
Beginning: Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
Even though instruction is free, parents have to back up their kids to hold a better instruction. In most of the rural parents could non afford these disbursals. These instruction cost leads poorness in most of the rural households. Educated unemployment is non merely immense wastage of human power and authorities investing[ 20 ]it is a load to hapless households.
It is clear that present school instruction system and vocational instruction system has drawbacks. Many bookmans pointed out bettering school instruction system taking to make productive labour force, Sri Lanka could cut down youth unemployment.
3.4 Japan as a Donor
Since 1950s Nipponese ODA is chiefly focused on Asiatic part as a policy. The undermentioned graph shows the Nipponese ODA in Asiatic part in 2004.
Beginning: DAC OECD statistics, 2004
The chief aims of Nipponese ODA are to lend peace and development of international community and thereby assure Japan ‘s ain security and prosperity. Japan ‘s ODA positively consider the receiver state ‘s ain development schemes and back up them to develop their substructure reasonably utilizing Nipponese ain experience and advanced engineering. Nipponese ODA protects human security and great consideration has been taken on gender issues, spread between hapless and rich and environment issues.
3.4.1. Analysis of Nipponese ODA in Sri Lanka
Japan, Asian Development Bank ( ADB ) and World Bank ( WB ) are the prime givers in Sri Lanka. Japan chiefly supported to the economic and societal substructure constructing during the last 50 old ages. At present Japan ‘s Country Assistance Program for Sri Lanka is chiefly diverted on human-centered and Reconstruction support, aid for institutional reforms, to construct up economic substructure, sweetening of foreign currency gaining capacity, and cut down poorness[ 21 ].
22.214.171.124. Grant Aids on Education System
Since 1983, Japan ODA has contributed vastly on develop current formal instruction system in Sri Lanka.Japanese grant assistance on instruction was focused on following facets.
Build instruction substructure
Supply stuffs and equipments
Teacher preparation plans and Improve quality of instruction
The following tabular array shows grant assistance extended for physical substructure edifice in instruction development from 1983 to 1998.
Table 126.96.36.199 Nipponese ODA Allocation on Education Sector from 1983 to 1998.
Description of Aid
Amount Y one million millions
1. University of Peradeniya, to better installations of the module of Engineering
Experimental and Educational Equipment
2. Ruhunu University of Sri Lanka, to better installations of Medical and Science modules
Equipment for Medical and Science Department
3. Ministry of Education for the building of Teacher ‘s Training College at Matara
New Building ( 8.189M2 )
A.V. System, Printers, Experimental Equipment, Agricultural Equipment
2.0 ( 3.3 )
4. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports for National Youth Services Centre at Maharagama
New Building ( 15.444M2 ) and Equipment
1.8 ( 2.8 )
5. Moratuwa University, to better research installations
Measuring Apparatus, Computer, Spinning & A ; Weaving Machine Etc.
7. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports to set up the Auto Mobile
Construction of Training Centre and Equipment
8. Ministry of Education for the betterment of installations for National Institute of Education, Maharagama
New Building ( 9.980M2 ) and developing equipment
0.9 ( 2.0 )
9. Open University of Sri Lanka for the constitution of Audio Visual Education Centre at Nawala Campus
Construction of AV Educational Centre including Production Studio Editing Room, Maintenance Workshop etc. ( 1.871M2 )
10. University of Colombo Faculty of Science
Analytic Equipment, Experimental equipment etc.
NMR, GC-MS, SEM Spectrophotometer etc.
0.4 ( 0.8 )
11. Ministry of Education & A ; Higher Education
Improvement of the Faculty of Dental Science
12. Ministry of Education & A ; Higher Education
Improvement of the module of Dental Science
13. Ministry of Education & A ; Higher Education
Improvement of the Education Equipment for the Faculty of Agriculture University Peradeniya
14. Ministry of Higher Education and Education Sri Jayawardenapura University
Improvement of the Educational Equipment for the module of Medical Science
15. Ministry of Education & A ; Higher Education Junior School Development
Construction & A ; Equipment Supply
16. Ministry of Education & A ; Higher Education
Supply of Equipment to Faculty of Engineering
Beginning: JICA[ 22 ]
3.4.2 Effectiveness of ODA
Current advancement in Dental School attached to the University of Peradeniya is a proper illustration to measure the effectivity of Nipponese ODA in Sri Lanka[ 23 ]. Surely, instruction leads to cut down poorness and better quality of life. At the minute as a underdeveloped state, Sri Lanka is on the path to accomplish Millennium Development Goals in 2015.
3.5 A New Model to better Education System
Today Sri Lanka needs more skilled based school instruction system to provide effectual and skilled labour force. Using Nipponese experience in instruction development and fiscal aid more efficient instruction system can be introduced in future.
Main failings of Present System
High fight for limited chances. Students have no cognition about different chances around them.
No communicating between school instruction system and vocational instruction system.
Lack of information about preparation plans.
Capacity of vocational preparation instruction is non adequate and present vocational preparation centres are non distributed equally.
Female engagement in vocational preparation is limited.
Limited figure of developing plans and low quality of preparation plans.
Not plenty trained teachers/ lectures/ resources.
No new engineerings and no updates in plans.
After analyzing the failing in the present system, I will urge following theoretical account to better the bing system.
Introduce vocational instruction construct in to school net work.
– My sentiment is vocational instruction should be a portion of secondary school instruction.
Degree 1 – Give a clear thought about their hereafter, future employment chances, how they can accomplish different accomplishments and from where they can acquire them, ECT.
Level 2- Improve different BASIC accomplishments harmonizing to their penchants and expand believing capacity in practical universe. Give chance to use their theoretical cognition into existent life. Promote pupils to detect the universe.
Level 3- Introduce more accomplishments and supply information about around the universe. Harmonizing to the labour force demands allocate pupils in to different vocational preparation institutes.
In this procedure instructors can place different accomplishments of different pupils in their early phases of life and easy to direct them in to different waies.
Better the coordination between Vocational instruction and School instruction.
– After confronting General Certificate Examination at class 11, pupils, who do non wish to go on up to basic grade, should present in to different vocational instruction institutes sing their accomplishments and abilities. This procedure has to organize by school. Then cipher will go forth outside. Capacity of bing vocational institutes has to increase to suit future demand.
Introduce demand based vocational instruction
Vocational instruction has to be planned harmonizing to the labour market demand and coordination between universities and vocational institutes has to be improved.
Make a nexus between university systems and vocational preparation institutes.
-School instructors and vocational preparation instructors can develop by bing resource individuals like University professors and university pupils every bit good as different experts in different fields/government officers
Media can make an effectual occupation in advancing vocational instruction. Then both pupils and parents will acquire information about preparation plans and at the minute trust edifice is of import.
Maintain contacts with labour market ( domestic and foreign ) and vocational instruction institutes in other states.
Update course of studies clip to clip harmonizing to the demands.
Skilled based Primary and Secondary Education System
Degree 2 and Level 3A New Model
Grade 11 GCEOL
Vocational Training Institutes
Pre University Education
Nipponese ODA and Experience
In the above theoretical account large pointers represents the topographic points and waies need more attending and fiscal aid. Nipponese ODA can widen to present vocational instruction in to school web and to better the quality and capacity of bing vocational instruction institutes. Sri Lankan authorities ‘s duty is to make links between resource individuals in to vocational preparation institutes and to present vocational preparation end product in to labour market decently. And by giving low involvement loans to originate ego employments, the trained people can actuate to hold their ain industries.
Education development is a long term effectual investing on poorness decrease. During the last 50 old ages Sri Lankan instruction system improved utilizing official development aid. School web expanded and quality of instruction improved. Vocational preparation institutes were introduced. And authorities of Sri Lanka maintained the system decently and able to better it in to some extent. Last 50 old ages 1000s of professionals like physicians, applied scientists, instructors created and employed them in the society and able to accomplish the maximal benefits from them.
But universe is altering. Present instruction system needs betterments to fit with the challenging and altering universe. Therefore capacity and quality of present instruction system has to increase. New constructs, methods and engineerings has to present.
However this sort of monolithic undertaking needs important sum of fiscal aid and proper counsel. At the minute Sri Lankan authorities receives important sum of official development aid from Nipponese authorities. Therefore, Sri Lankan authorities ‘s duty is to use them with the proficient counsel of Nipponese authorities and better the present instruction system for a better hereafter.