“ Air pollution is the presence in the outdoor ambiance of one or more contaminations such as dust, fumes, gas, mist, smell, fume, or vapor in measures and of features and continuance such as to be deleterious to human, works, or carnal life or to belongings, or to interfere unreasonably with the comfy enjoyment of life and belongings. “ .
1. Air is the really basic demand of every life being. Air is indispensable to life on Earth. All organisms require reasonably pure air, and they can non last without it. Air is considered safe when it contains no harmful dust and gases. Air pollution effects planetary heating, ozone depletion, acid rain and assorted respiratory unwellnesss.
2. The air pollution has worsened in most big metropoliss in the underdeveloped universe. In Sri Lanka, Colombo metropolis is confronting this job due to the extremely increased vehicle emanation and few other environmental issues. The high denseness of population and industrialisation is the other most of import environmental issues that have drawn the attending of policymakers, decision makers, and conservationists in the recent yesteryear. Most states in the universe are seeking to give a solution to air pollution in their states by revising their policies, regulations and ordinances. However Sri Lanka is still non taken steadfast action to revise the environmental policies, regulations and ordinances to forestall air Pollution.
3. Colombo is the chief commercial and concern hub of Sri Lanka and as a consequence, many people are arrived into the metropolis daily. The cardinal territory, which comprises of Fort and Pettah, provides more than 100,000 occupations and is estimated to hold a daytime population of more than 650,000. The greater Colombo country contains more than 4 million people or 26 % of the state ‘s population, but covers merely 5.6 % of the full land country. Outside the metropolis, Katunayake Bandaranaike International Airport and the Free Trade Zone farther addition traffic congestion in Colombo. As the most of import commercial and administrative centre, Colombo attracts the maximal figure of vehicles and persons. Therefore it is extremely vulnerable to wellness jeopardies due to vehicle emanations.
4. Clean, dry air contains 78.09 % N by volume and 20.94 % O. The staying 0.97 % is composed of a gaseous mixture of C dioxide, He, Ar, Kr, azotic oxide and Xe, every bit good as really little sums of some other organic and inorganic gases whose sum in the atmosphere vary with clip and topographic point. Assorted sums of contaminations continuously enter the ambiance through both natural and semisynthetic procedures that exist upon the Earth. Man as a ‘pollutant ‘ has labelled that part of these substances which interacts with the environment to do toxicity, disease, aesthetic hurt, physiological effects or environmental decay.
5. The human activities are the primary cause of pollution and as the population additions, the attendant pollution jobs besides raise proportionally. The first important alteration in homo ‘s consequence of nature came with his find of fire. Prehistoric human built a fire in his cave for cookery, warming and to provide light. The job of air pollution came into being at this clip.
6. General Objective. To analyse the duty of the Government and its governments towards the reduction of air pollution in Colombo City and give recommendations to forestall Air pollution in Colombo City.
7. Specific Objectives. The specific aims of the research are as follows.
a. To analyze the assorted Air pollutants.
B. To analyze the impact of the air pollution.
c. To analyze the actions taken by the Government and its governments to forestall Air Pollution in Colombo City.
d. To analyse and propose the recommendations for executions based on the findings of the survey.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1. The air pollution in chief metropoliss in developing states is one of the taking critical environment jobs. The wellness impact of the air pollution looks likely to be greater in the capital of Sri Lanka. Therefore the duty of the authorities and its governments is to protect air and minimise the air pollution in the state.
2. However, the actions taken on air protection in Colombo are unequal and non accommodate the present twenty-four hours context. Therefore, this paper will place the effects of air pollution in Colombo and analyse the impact of air pollution in Colombo City. Further this paper will analyze the effectivity of bing legal redresss in forestalling air pollution.
3. Actions taken by the Government and its governments to forestall air pollution in Colombo City are unequal.
Scope OF THE STUDY
4. This survey will research the air pollution in Colombo metropolis and the duty of the Government and its governments and how air pollution can sabotage the ends of development.
5. Furthermore, policies that are necessary on economic footing can present important environmental benefits. However, these policies are non plenty to guarantee urban air protection. Therefore the strong public organisations and policies for urban air protection are really indispensable. The policies adapted by the Sri Lankan authorities over the past two decennaries to trust more on development. However, natural air protection is an country which authorities must continue a cardinal function.
6. Analyze the effects of air pollution in Colombo and cogency and practicableness of the bing environmental policies and ordinances in Sri Lanka.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
7. The primary survey shows that the Colombo metropolis would be the country where the air pollution can be seen preponderantly. The both primary and secondary informations will roll up sing the topic of air pollution in Colombo City from the available resources like publications, books and cyberspace web sites.
8. The chief decisive factor is to look at this job in authorities and citizen ‘s positions. Therefore, the positions of authorities governments and citizens will seek to acquire their outlooks of the coveted schemes and policies. Scholars on the topic and professionals on this topic will be interviewed through treatments. A preset questionnaire will be distributed among the selected citizens in Colombo metropolis to absorb their positions.
9. This research survey was done within three months of period and with limited clip. Hence it was hard to cover all the pollution proven countries in Colombo country. Therefore the computation might be showed little difference if comparison with another research. It besides faced the trouble of acquiring echt replies from the community.
ATMOSPHERE, AIR POLLUTION AND AIR POLLUTANTS
Fig 3.1- Atmosphere
1. The atmosphere surrounds the Earth. It is composed of gas molecules held near to the Earth ‘s surface by gravity. It consists of Nitrogen ( 78 % ) , Oxygen ( 20 % ) , Carbon dioxide ( 0.03 % ) and little sums of inert gases such as Ar, Ne, and Kr. It besides consist altering sums of H2O. Dust participials called as particulates are besides consist with changing sums.
2. The Earth ‘s current ambiance consists of several beds as Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. The mean composing of the atmosphere varies little from topographic point to topographic point, except for its wet contents. The fluctuation of wet status is a really of import natural status impacting works growing. Air temperature is another of import environmental status that deeply affects both works and carnal life. Air is in changeless gesture and its motion is creates air current.
3. Some of the atmospheric gases have the capacity to absorb heat. These are called Green House Gasses. Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor and Ozone are three of the of course make green house gasses in the ambiance. Green house gasses are apt for keeping the degree of temperature of the Earth. If the measure of these gasses additions in the ambiance so extra heat will be trapped and the Earth ‘s ambiance will acquire warmer. These gasses have been increasing in the ambiance in recent old ages in the Earth.
4. In the normal status the ambiance contains a bed of ozone in the ambiance. This bed traps a portion of Ultra violet beams and X raies, cut downing the sum of these hurtful beams reach to the Earth. However, the debut of Chlorofluoro C ( CFC ) in to the ambiance has been shown to damage the ozone bed. CFC is chemical that have been used for many old ages in aerosol, air conditioning and in infrigidation.
5. Air Pollution is the presence in the ambiance of one or more foreign stuffs such as dust, exhausts, gases, mist or fume in measures and in continuances which are harmful to human, works or carnal life or to belongingss. A gas like CO2 which is a normal component of the ambiance can in certain conditions, go a pollutant, when its concentrations increase to degrees that threaten the wellbeing of life things or interrupt physical or biological procedures.
6. Air pollution is every bit old as civilisation itself. The first air pollution incident took topographic point, when early worlds made fire in ill ventilated or set fire to a dry wood. But it was the growing of industries after the industrial revolution that became the largest engine of air pollution foremost in Britain, Europe, North America and so distribute to the other topographic points of the World.
7. Damage to the clean air has three possible costs to show and future human public assistance. The Health of Human may be harmed. Besides the economic productiveness may be reduced. In add-on, the pleasance or satisfaction obtained from an good natural air may be lost.
8. Since spoilt urban air job vary across states and with the phase of industrialisation, each state required to measure its ain precedences carefully. Emissions from conveyance industry and population growing impose serious costs for wellness status and productiveness in Sri Lanka.
TYPES OF AIR POLLUTANTS
9. Basically air pollution can be classified as primary and secondary types. Primary pollutants get into atmosphere straight by assorted procedures. Major portion of this is added to the ambiance due to the combustion of fossil fuels in conveyance vehicles and by industries. Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur oxide and Hydrocarbons are some illustrations for primary air pollutants. Secondary air pollutants are those formed in the air through assorted chemical reactions. Some of the primary pollutants undergo chemical reactions once they are in the ambiance and produce secondary pollutants. For an illustration Sulphur oxides will respond with atmospheric H2O vapor and bring forth acids. This manner acerb rain is produced and it leads to break of assorted eco-systems. Another illustration is the smog produced by the action of sunshine on car fumes emitted in to the ambiance.
10. Air pollutants can be either in the signifier of gases or in the signifier of atoms. Some of the common pollutants are Carbon Dioxide, Sulphur oxides, N oxides, methane and ozone. Particulate pollutants include dust, smoke, mist, fume and sprays.
11. Dust atoms get in to the air when stuffs are being handled or processed. Dust from cement, coal, and bricks and saw dust from wood working are few illustrations of such particulate pollutants. Exhausts and mist are non many solid atoms, formed in the ambiance due to condensation of bluess by sublimation or chemical reaction processes. Smoke atom are formed as a consequence of uncomplete burning of carbonous stuffs. Liquid particles referred to as spray are formed by the atomisation of a parent liquid.
Beginnings OF AIR POLLUTANTS
Fig 3.2- Beginnings of Air Pollutants
12. Some pollutants are formed and emitted by natural procedures. Pollen grains from flowers, smoke atoms from forest fires, volcanic eruptions and weave blown dust are illustrations of particulates of natural beginning. There are besides of course happening gasses such as nitrogen oxide and methane.
13. Man made beginnings of pollutants can be considered under stationary burning processes transit, industrial and the agricultural procedures.
14. When fuel such as oil or coal used in power workss, gasses and particulate pollutants are emitted in to air. These pollutants consist of a mixture of atoms such as fly ash and fume and gasses such as the oxides of sulfur and N. Carbon monoxide and C dioxide are besides produced in burning procedure.
15. In transit, peculiarly from vehicles, the pollutants are emitted in to the air. These pollutants comprise particulates such as fume, lead and gasses like C monoxide, C dioxide, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons. These pollutants are high in concentration around traffic light junctions in the metropoliss such as Colombo.
16. In industrial procedures, depending on the type of energy used, a broad scope of pollutants are emitted. If the industry burns oil as its energy beginning, fume, C monoxide, C dioxide, sulfur oxides and N oxides will be emitted to the air.
17. In Sri Lanka a big per centum of the energy consumed comes from fuel wood. Burning of fuel wood, used for industrial intents or domestic usage, besides produces pollutants. Some agricultural activities such as harvest dusting add particulate pollutants to the ambiance. Further, the combustion of woods for chena cultivation can be grouped in to this class.
18. Vehicle Emission: Increased vehicle emanation in Sri Lanka chiefly Colombo is the most important environmental issue that has drawn the concentration of policymakers, decision makers, and conservationists in the recent yesteryear. Assorted surveies undertaken by regulative bureaus and research workers clearly indicate that inefficient burning of crude oil in motor vehicles is the primary cause of turning air pollution in Colombo metropolis. Lack of information on economic and environmental costs of vehicle emanation and its betterment and bar have inhibited public response and enforcement, and impeded the execution of bing Torahs, and the development of farther ordinances. The worst prevailing air pollutants emitted from vehicles comprise particulate affair ( PM ) , lead ( Pb ) , non-methane volatile organic constituents ( NMVOC ) , nitrogen oxide ( NOx ) , sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) , and C monoxide ( CO ) . Of these, particulate affair and lead are the most damaging constituents of vehicle fumes that affect the environment and human existences.
19. Apart from pollutants emitted by petrol-driven vehicles, the sum of fumes from diesel-driven vehicles is big and hence a affair of major public concern due to its unwanted environmental effects. However diesel-engine fumes contains less toxic gases, it has a much higher particulate affair consideration than petrol-engine fumes. In Sri
Lanka, the ascertained degrees of TSP, SO2, O3, and lead are significantly higher than air quality criterions recommended by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) and the Central Environmental Authority ( CEA ) in Sri Lanka. This clearly reveals the particular nature of the vehicle emanation job in the state which is straight linked with a broad scope of factors such as composing and addition in figure of vehicles, monetary value construction of fuel, deficiency of traffic direction, usage of low-quality fuel, and deficiency of alternate fuels.
20. Combustion Engine Exhaust: Cars, coachs, trucks, jet aeroplanes and other burning engine vehicles cause air pollution. The fumes from these contains C monoxide, azotic oxide and gaseous oxide. This type of air pollution creates smog which causes respiratory wellness jobs and holes in the ozone bed, which increases the exposure to the harmful beams of the Sun.
21. Mills and workss: Mills and workss, such as paper Millss, power workss, chemical workss, Fe Millss, steel Millss, cement workss and asphalt workss, release emanations into the ambiance doing air pollution.
22. Factories: Factories, places and power Stationss burn fossil fuels, which cause air pollution. The combustion of oil and coal besides contributes to smog. This air pollution destroys workss, amendss edifices and creates oxidization on Fe.
23. Petroleum: Petroleum refineries such as “ Sapugaskanda ” release hydrocarbons and assorted particulates that pollute the ambiance.
24. Pesticides: Pesticides used to destruct indoor and out-of-door plagues, insect powders used to destruct insects and weedkillers use to kill weeds all cause air pollution.
25. Indoor Air Pollution: This happens when there is deficient airing to pay out the toxic exhausts from new rug, pigment and/or cleansing chemicals that are used indoors.
Common atmospheric pollution beginnings and their pollutants
Suspended particulate affair, C monoxide, volatile organic compounds
Mining and quarrying
Coal excavation ; rough oil and gas production ; stone quarrying
Suspended particulate affair, sulfur dioxide, oxides of N, volatile organic compounds
Electricity ; gas ; steam
Suspended particulate affair, sulfur dioxide, oxides of N, C monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur trioxide, lead
Suspended particulate affair, sulfur dioxide, oxides of N, C monoxide, volatile organic compounds, lead
Suspended particulate affair, sulfur dioxide, oxides of N, C monoxide, volatile organic compounds, lead
Table 3.1 – Common atmospheric pollution beginnings and their pollutants
IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION
1. Several surveies conducted in Sri Lankan metropoliss show that air pollution leads to cut down wellness and quality of life, harm to belongings, and economic losingss. PM10-related wellness harm in the City of Colombo is about Rs. 26.0 billion per annum ; and in the instance of PM2.5 it is about Rs. 774 million per annum.
2. Another survey shows that urban inhabitants report higher prevalence of respiratory unwellnesss since they spend more on the waysides, have higher exposure and besides have all the common respiratory symptoms. Comparison of most common causes of mortality and morbidity informations shows that although non-air pollution-related causes remain the primary cause for mortality, air pollution is a important subscriber to morbidity.
3. The mean belongings harm due to urban air pollution in Colombo is estimated at US $ 126 per family per twelvemonth. The mean willingness to pay to avoid belongings harm from urban air pollution is at US $ 5.20 per family per twelvemonth. If an Air Quality Improvement Fund were to be established, the populace would be willing to pay US $ 154 per family per twelvemonth.
THE HEALTH IMPACT OF THE AIR POLLUTION
4. Air pollution is progressively recognized as a menace to the wellness of people in chiefly developing states. The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die every twelvemonth from causes straight attributable to air pollution. A survey by the University of Birmingham has found a strong co-relation between pneumonia related deceases and air pollution from motor vehicles. More Worldwide deceases per twelvemonth are linked to air pollution than to route traffic accidents. The causes of air pollution related deceases include aggravated asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, lung diseases and respiratory jobs.
5. The wellness effects caused by air pollutants may run from elusive biochemical and physiological alterations to trouble in external respiration, coughing, wheezing, and exasperation of bing respiratory and cardiac conditions.
6. These effects can ensue in increased medicine usage, increased physician or exigency room visits, more hospitalizing and premature deceases. The human wellness effects of hapless air quality are far making, but chiefly affect the organic structure ‘s respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a individual is exposed to, the grade of exposure, the person ‘s wellness position and genetic sciences.
7. The effects of air pollution on wellness of occupants in an industrial countries in Colombo metropolis utilizing a cross-sectional design and reported that the grownup population life in the industrial country was more likely to hold unexplained episodic cough and a important decrease in expiratory flow as compared to the grownup population life in a non-industrial country. The younger population ( a‰¤ 12 old ages ) life in the industrial country were times more likely to hold coryza as compared to the younger population life in the non-industrial country.
8. School kids are another group exposed to high degrees of pollutants exaggerated by overcrowding of major schools in metropoliss, particularly in Colombo. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among school kids go toing a school in Colombo situated near to a busy chief route was significantly higher than that of kids go toing a school situated in a rural country.
9. Based on informations of the Colombo Fort monitoring station, episodes of bronchitis, emphysema and other chronic clogging pulmonary diseases had a strong association with PM10 degrees. About 20 % of asthma patients who visited the Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children in Colombo in 2005 could be attributed to exposure to PM10 in Colombo based on the wellness impact appraisal package developed by WHO. Although the location of the Colombo Fort supervising station may non stand for the full country of survey population, this survey provides grounds for execution of early extenuation schemes.
10. Air pollutants were measured utilizing inactive sampling stations in Mount Lavinia, a metropolitan country surrounding Colombo, to mensurate the 24-hour mean degrees among metropolis inhabitants engaged in different business. Bus drivers were exposed to more NO2 and SO2 as compared to three-wheeler drivers, store keepers and out-of-door sellers. The highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms was reported among coach drivers.
11. Low air quality, from traffic pollution or high ozone degrees, has been repeatedly associated with increased asthma morbidity. Recent surveies show a relationship between exposure to air pollutants ( e.g. from traffic ) and childhood asthma. This research finds that both the happening of the disease and aggravation of childhood asthma are affected by out-of-door air pollutants.
Surveies of the American Cancer Society cohort straight link the exposure to particulate affair with lung malignant neoplastic disease. For illustration, if the concentration of atoms in the air additions by merely 1 % , the hazard of developing a lung malignant neoplastic disease additions by 14 % . Further, it has been established that atom size affairs, as ultrafine atoms perforate further into the lungs.
THE ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS AUTHORITIES TO PREVENT AIR POLLUTION IN COLOMBO CITY
1. Banning of importing of two-stroke engine vehicles: One of the chief achievements in bettering air quality in Sri Lanka is Banning of importing of two-stroke engine vehicles since 2006. The Government banned the importing of two-stroke gasoline three-wheelers from 1 January 2008 and prohibited the import of full engine, engine blocks and cylinder caputs after 2011 in order to avoid the local assembly of two-stroke engines.
2. Execution of vehicle emanation proving plan: Sri Lanka is in the procedure of implementing the Vehicle Emission Testing plan. The Program was launched on 15 July 2008. Several bureaus play an of import portion in its execution. The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources developed the emanation criterions ; the Department of Motor Traffic is the nominative implementing establishment of the plan. This plan is designed as a public-private partnership and is a centralised System with two big private sector companies contracted to carry on the vehicle emanation trials. Two private sector companies have been selected to put up proving centres in all the chief metropoliss of Sri Lanka. The proving centres in the chief metropoliss are already in topographic point.
3. Under the Program, vehicle proprietors must procure an emanation certification because it is a necessity to obtain the one-year gross licence in Sri Lanka. After the vehicle is tested, the proprietor of the vehicle gets an emanation certification which states the emanation degrees of the vehicle. If the vehicle meets the criterions, the proprietor of the vehicle gets a base on balls certification ; if he fails, he has to mend the vehicle and travel back to the testing centre for a re-test.
4. Amendment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Sing the latest revised WHO guideline values, Sri Lankan governments reviewed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and incorporated PM10 and PM2.5. Sri Lanka set the interim marks 2 as given in the Global update of WHO Air Quality Guideline in 2005.
5. Preparation of National Action Plan for Air Quality Management ( Clean Air 2015 ) : Clean Air Sri Lanka and the Air Resource Management Center of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Development have prepared the Clean Air 2015 action program to pull off the air pollution in Sri Lanka. The chief countries under the action program have been identified as precedences, action programs prepared and work started for each: Monitoring Emissions of Power Plants and High Polluting Industries, Monitoring and Reducing Vehicle Emissions, Provisions of Cleaner Fuels for Motor Vehicles, Prepare and Maintain Emissions Inventory, Monitoring Ambient Air Quality, Enhance Public Awareness and carry out wellness impact appraisals and Supplying an Indoor Air Pollution Management Programme.
6. Strategic Plan for Traffic Management in Greater Colombo Area ( 2008-2010 ) :
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka has ordered the readying and execution of the Strategic Plan for Traffic Management in Greater Colombo Area. Therefore, the National Transport Commission of the Ministry of Transport has conducted wider treatment with stakeholders and prepared an action program. This action program includes several intercessions such as the preparation of an urban conveyance policy, set up of an urban traffic organizing mechanism, operation of a Bus Rapid Transit ( BRT ) , operation of at least two new multimodal terminuss and debut of the progress traffic control system etc. , for completion by 2010.
ACTS, RULES AND REGULATIONS
1. In the yesteryear in Sri Lanka there were a figure of statues with scattered commissariats refering to Environmental protection and Pollution control. Following are the Acts and ordinances published in Sri Lanka in order to forestall air pollution.
Acts of the apostles
I. National Environmental Act No. 47 of 1980
two. National Environmental ( Amendment ) Act, No. 56 of 1988
three. National Environmental ( Amendment ) Act, No. 53 of 2000
REGULATIONS PUBLISHED UNDER THE NEA
I. Motor Traffic ( emanation control ) Regulation Number 817/6 dated 3rd May 1994.
two. Ozone Consuming substances and Natural Environmental ( Ambient Air Quality ) Regulations 1994. Gazette Notification Number 850/4 dated 20th December 1994.
three. Amendment to National Environment ( ambient air quality ) Regulation 1994. Gazette Notification Number 1562/22 dated 15th August 2008.
four. Amendment to Gazette Notification Number 1295/11 dated 30th June 2003.Gazette Notification Number 1557/14 dated 19th July 2008.
v. Amended Regulations ( Air Emission, Fuel and Vehicle Importation criterions ) Gazette Notification Number 1137/35 dated 23rd June 2000.
six. National Environmental ( Air Emissions, Fuel & A ; Vehicle Importation criterions ) Amended Regulations. Gazette Notification Number 1295/11 dated 30th June 2003.
Table 5.1 – Acts, Amendments and Regulations published under the NEA
WEAKNESSES OF THE GOVERNMENT ON THE AIR PROTECTION IN COLOMBO
2. When comparison with many other South Asiatic states, Sri Lanka has the best environmental protection ordinances. However the enforcement of this ordinance is really deficient. Sri Lanka has a good National Environmental Act, Environmental Impact Assessment procedure and Environmental Impact Assessment Institutions. However its execution is instead weak.
3. As an illustration we can take the vehicle emanation trial of Sri Lanka. As per the questionnaire distributed among the vehicle drivers in Colombo metropolis it is found that the emanation trial certification can be obtain from proving establishments without needed criterion of the vehicle. The drivers confirmed that they have experience for such incidents.
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4. Further, during the research it was found that the monitoring site in Colombo is non in a place to look into the every pollutant due to the system failure since April 2010. CEA has n’t taken any action to reactivate the system up to now. This shows the least precedence given by the authorities towards the air pollution.
5. . The National environmental act of Sri Lanka approved in 1980 and it was once more amended in 1988 and 2000. For the last 30 old ages amendments were non in a considerable frame and there are many oversights in the amendments. This shows the least precedence given by the ruled authoritiess at that clip towards the air pollution.
6. When sing the states, which achieved less air pollution per centum, there were the separate air pollution act and triping it in a proper mode. A separate authorization was established to ease in administrational maps. Sri Lanka is still trusting on the common environmental act. Due to the predominating state of affairs in Sri Lanka, it is really indispensable to hold a separate act with particular Torahs to cut down the air pollution in the state every bit good as the Colombo metropolis.
7. The hierarchy of the Central Environment Authority of Sri Lanka are appointed by HE the president in audience with the environmental curate of the regnant authorities. Therefore, a inquiry emerged sing the nonpartisanship and competence of the members of Central Environmental Authority. All the determinations made by the authorities may be approved by the CEA in this nature.
8. Authority of publishing license and O.K.ing undertakings had been granted to the curate of environment by the amendment to the NEA in twelvemonth 2000. As a consequence of this amendment the curate has sole authorization to trip any harmful undertaking to the environment if the authorities required it. Further this amendment has increased the cogency clip of the license for the undertakings from one twelvemonth to three old ages. The suspension and cancellation the license, given to the curate from this amendment. If the curate insist it, the proprietor can go on his undertaking without any intervention.
9. The anterior manner of urban air pollution is the usage of motor vehicles. Out of 1000 citizens in Sri Lanka, every 58 has a motor vehicle. Since the state of affairs like this to cut down the vehicular air pollution there must be a separate chapter in the act. It is sad to state that environmental act non supply suited enclosures in regard of the air pollution.
Fig 6.1 Motor Vehicles per 1000 people in Sri Lanka
10. To command and cut down the air pollution, the authorities and its governments should co-operate with the populace. It is indispensable to declare duty to the populace to protect the urban air pollution. This had been peculiarly applied by other states and achieved the end of commanding the air pollution.
11. Establishing and implementing emanation criterions for freshly manufactured vehicles and for vehicles freshly imported to the state is the most effectual manner to cut down vehicle emanations over the long tally. Sri Lanka has adopted emanation criterions for freshly imported vehicles, but these criterions are non yet efficaciously enforced.
12. In the undermentioned line graph ( Fig 6.2 ) which depicted the one-year norm of PM-10 at Colombo Fort has non reduced significantly. It gives the clear indicant of how consequence of the actions taken by the authorities to forestall air in Colombo City.
Fig 6.2 Annual norms of PM-10 at Colombo Fort ambient
air quality monitoring Station ( 1998-2007 )
THE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATIONS BASED ON THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
1. The extreme precedence to be taken instantly by the Government to put in the minimal necessary Numberss of Air supervising Stationss and besides constitution of an analytical research lab which straight belong to CEA after puting up the efficient and effectual air quality criterions.
Proposal ON INCREASE THE NO OF AIR MONITORING STATIONS
2. In the background of those societal and economical advancements, air pollution conditions must be bit by bit increasing twelvemonth by twelvemonth. There forward, the necessity of probe for hold oning on the existent air taint informations is certainly required by the Central Environmental authorization. That means it is necessary to be installed several equal figure of air Monitoring Stationss in Colombo metropolis country. At present merely one monitoring station is available in the Colombo metropolis.
3. Refering the figure of supervising station, it is recommended that at least three other Stationss are required to effectual monitoring in the Colombo metropolis. Those Stationss are to be set up in the suited locations of Southern, Northern and Eastern countries of Colombo metropolis. Because, the present available station which is located in the Colombo Fort Railway station is being covered merely the country of Central Colombo.
INSTALLATION A SEPARATE AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT LABORATORY BELONG TO THE COLOMBO MUNICIPAL COUNCIL
4. It is really important enforcement tools to inspect the emanation gas quality in order to look into the degree with the emanation criterion by Colombo Municipal Council.
5. At the same clip, an analytical ability is required for accomplishment of two ends ; the one is to take sample at the topographic point where the residential people have a ailment of the air pollution influence to them. The 2nd one, it is besides of import to take a sample at the emanation beginning to analyse what is an air quality where occurs the country of the ailment. Then those analytical informations show where the beginning of a contaminated stuff comes, and the following information is besides really critical to inform to take a progressive move for taking the counter step in the emanation procedure.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS REDUCTION
6. The most effectual vehicle emanation decrease steps that could be adopted in Sri Lanka are:
a. Establish and enforce suitably rigorous emanation criterions for vehicles freshly imported to Sri Lanka.
B. Put in topographic point a vehicle review and care ( I/M ) plan to place high- emitting vehicles among those already in the Sri Lanka and require that they be repaired.
Emissions of fume and carbon black from Diesel vehicles and from gasoline vehicles
equipped with two-stroke engines are among the chief beginnings of PM2.5 emanations in Colombo and other urban countries. Therefore, diesel vehicles and vehicles equipped with two-stoke engines should be the first and primary marks of the vehicle emanation criterions and the review and care plan. An review and care plan is besides needed to guarantee that the benefits of new-vehicle control engineerings are non lost through hapless care and fiddling with emanation controls. Without an effectual review and care plans, conformity with new vehicle emanation criterions is significantly weakened
Fig 7.1- Smoke Measurements in Colombo
RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR VEHICLES NEWLY MANUFACTURED OR IMPORTED TO SRI LANKA
7. For bikes and three-wheelers – enfranchisement to Indian regulation 115, EU Directive 2002/51/EC, or tantamount emanation criterions ;
8. For rider autos and light commercial vehicles – enfranchisement to E.U. Directing 96/69/EC ( Euro II ) or tantamount emanation criterions ;
9. For heavy-duty trucks and coachs – engines certified to EU Directive 1999/ 96/ EC ( Euro III ) or tantamount emanation criterions. Engines certified to E.U. Directing 1/542/EEC ( B ) ( Euro II ) criterions to be acceptable merely if equipped with automatically controlled fuel injection systems or electronic fuel injection systems demonstrated to be free of control schemes designed to get the better of the emanation trial process. “ Equivalent ” emanation criterions include criterions established in Japan, the U.S. , India, Thailand, etc. that require similar emanation control engineerings and consequence in similar or lower emanations per kg metre than the specified E.U. criterions.
NEW AIR PROTECTION ACT
10. The recommendations for the new air pollution protection act are as follows ;
a. A separate air pollution protection act to be introduced to Sri Lanka alternatively of common environmental act. However, it is about the protecting natural air, acknowledgment the urban countries the act can be called as “ Clean Air Protection Act ” .
B. The act should see the development of air quality and guides the province by set uping ambient air quality criterions and emanation criterions as per the international criterions. From this, it is easy to mensurate the contaminated air degree and place the advancement of new Torahs.
c. Designation of “ air quality control parts ” based on jurisdictional boundaries, urban-industrial concentration and such other factors as clime, weather forecasting, and topography, for puting ambient air quality criterions.
d. By presenting the Urban Forestry Programme, trees should works in Colombo metropolis countries where the topographic points are available. This can be achieved by maintaining 10 pess stretch of land either side of the new and bing roads and that can be manus over to the Municipal Council to works trees. This was a proved context in other states, which improved the quality of air in big borders.
To set up a national duty system for the “ industries that contribute
to a great extent to air pollution ” . In this, province could go to more rehabilitation towards the urban air utilizing the money of those duties.
RECCOMENDATIONS FOR MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION
11. Further the undermentioned actions can be recommended to command the pollution from vehicles.
a. A proficient commission should be appointed on motor vehicle pollution with representatives from the Department of Health. The commission has to research and implement the best systems, to reexamine advancement toward the control of vehicular pollution and indicate specific countries in which extra research and development were needed.
B. Introduce the lead free fuels and censoring the high lead consist fuel for any intent. From this most states have decrease their air pollution degree drastically.
c. State can acquire rid of extremely air fouling vehicles and it will acquire the public involvement to maintain their vehicles up to a good engine status.
RECOMMENDATIONS WHICH SUITS FOR CITIZENS
12. The attending was dedicated to the inquiry of whether Torahs should supply for citizen suits or category actions on environmental issues. Concern originated from reticent authorities program in talking the manage and suspension of air pollution. It was the sentiment that citizen engagement in the enforcement of air pollution criterions and ordinances is consist with the implicit in rules of the Clean Air Protection Act. The identifiable criterions provide manageable, identifiable precise benchmarks for enforcement.
1. The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die each twelvemonth from causes straight attributable to air pollution. Urban air pollution from route conveyance is a turning concern in many developing state metropoliss. With lifting incomes, motorized conveyance is expected to go on to increase in the coming old ages, farther endangering air quality in Sri Lanka. And besides the Poor air quality in bend has been shown to hold serious effects on public wellness in the state.
2. The effects of air pollution to people ‘s wellness are legion. These include asthma, lung complaint, and bosom onslaughts. Children and aged group is most vulnerable. It affects the family by increasing the wellness disbursals. The effects of air pollution on the environment include dirty air to take a breath, climate alteration, polluted surrounding, and withered workss and trees. Lack of visibleness of air, increased the figure of accidents.
3. Epidemiologic surveies show that the air pollution in developing states histories for 10s of 1000s of extra deceases and one million millions of dollars in medical costs and lost productiveness every twelvemonth. This loses, and the associated debasement in quality of life, enforce a important load on people in all sectors of society, particularly the hapless people.
4. Gasoline vehicles are the chief beginning of hydrocarbon and C monoxide, while diesel vehicles are a major beginning of particulate affair. At least 80 % of the PM emanations from route conveyance appear to come from diesel vehicles and 20 % of PM emanations come from gasoline engines. Two-stroke bikes and 3-wheelers are besides major subscribers to emanations of particulate affair. Gasoline and diesel vehicles are among the chief beginning of toxic air contaminations in Colombo metropolis and are likely the most of import beginning of public exposure to such contaminations.
5. Therefore, decrease and control of vehicular emanations require comprehensive scheme, which requires emanations criterions for new vehicles, cleaner fuels, emanations criterions and review & A ; care plan for in-use vehicles, vehicle importing policies, traffic & A ; demand direction steps ; and besides institutional development, consciousness, instruction and preparation.