As stated by some theories, myths are deformed histories of historical events*1. Through narrations myths provide an account to natural and societal facts and reply perplexing inquiries raised by people therefore mythology is considered to be “ the uterus of world ‘s induction to life and decease ” *2
As a affair of fact one can asseverate that the ground behind the immortality of the myth lies in its universal and timeless subjects.
Hence mythology is nil but an effort to clarify societal constructions and political orientations.
The fabulous representation is kindred to the historical discourse as the world to which they refer is a water under the bridge one. Myths are of import to the extent that “ worlds live through their myths and merely digest their worlds ” *3
Prometheus ; An immortal myth
Prometheus has long been and lasts a stirring and a implicative figure to many poets every bit good as playwrights.
*2= Joseph Campell “ Bios and myths ”
*3= Robert Anton Wilson
And possibly it is its cosmopolitan subjects that stand behind its immortality. As the hunt for freedom and the rebelliousness of dictatorship and subjugation are the concerns of world throughout ages and centuries. The myth is hence “ a statement about society and a adult male ‘s topographic point in it and the environing existence ” * 4
Prometheus is by far a beginning of inspiration and an object of involvement for many authors and poets chiefly romantic poets as their concerns strongly dovetail with Prometheus ‘ 1s.
The different re-writings of the fabulous figure of Prometheus non merely interpret and reflect profoundly the mind of the poets but besides contribute in commemorating the myth.
*4= Middleton “ myths and universe ”
Prometheus in the Romantic Era and the importance of the context in the re-writing of the myth:
One of the major grounds behind the rise of Romantic poesy is the disruptive political events of that period. Hence romantic poesy is a reflection upon the atrociousnesss of world and a verse form “ must state something important about a world common to us all ” *5
Therefore the fact that makes the narrative of Prometheus a beginning of involvement to romantic poets such as Byron, Goethe and Achabbi is that its subjects are automatic of the rebellious and expressive attitudes of the romantic tendency.
The narrative of the fabulous figure was tempting to creative persons of the romantic epoch as the individuality of Prometheus as both “ Rebel and liberator ” *6 apostrophise smartly to poets working in the shadow of the revolutions and national motions.
The fact that makes Prometheus ‘ defiance against Zeus strongly correspond with the romantic poet ‘s defiance against dictatorships and unfairnesss of his period.
The myth therefore serves the context in which it is written.
*5= W.H Auden
*6= Paul Bertagnolli “ Prometheus in music ; the representation of the myth in the romantic epoch ”
Therefore the fabulous every bit good as the poetic text can non be detached from its context. As they both represent hope, frights and demands of world as a whole.
Prometheus is a epic illustration of get the better ofing bounds the fact that is used by romantic poets as a metaphor of the eternal human thirst for freedom which in forepart of it adult male at the colonial epoch feels chained and paralysed. The fabulous figure therefore represents the anxiousness and torment of the romantic psyche.
Through the representation of Prometheus ‘ agony and trouble the romantic poets shed the visible radiation on the failing and powerlessness of adult male in forepart of dictatorship and unfairness.
Confronting his bad luck with disdainful idealism the tragic figure of Prometheus turns into an inspiring symbol of the Rebel who stands unafraid steadfast in forepart of Zeus ‘s strength and force and who mirrors the image of the romantic poet ‘s battle with his surrounding.
Prometheus ‘ figure represents for romantic poets a projection of their concerns as they both represent the “ impenitent 1 who while edge and tortured manages to oppugn the autonomous power and ailment will of an all-ruling God ” *7 or swayer.
Hence Pometheus ‘ rebellion becomes a symbol of work forces ‘s
*7= “ The Gruffish Kratos and the Rebel Prometheus. State, Violence and political imaginativeness ”
going a political existences and mimesis the romantic poets ‘ pursuit for the avowal of work forces ‘s right or capacity to be as a adult male.
Prometheus therefore “ made possible the inventive sweetening of experience, the metaphysical differentiation between what happens to us and what we made of this go oning ” *8.
The blend between the mythic and the poetic becomes hence obvious as Zeus stands for the bing order which Prometheus along with the romantic poets attempt to oppugn it in an ageless wrangle between the State and Subversive imaginativeness.
Prometheus upholds the thought of personal freedom, assuring persons a release from powerless namelessness by specifying themselves beyond external forces.
The dialectics between the freedom of the person and the force per unit area of the surrounding are the nucleus of romantics ‘ concerns.
Therefore the myth of Prometheus is extremely appealing to the romantic poets since it embodies subjects of the defiant who strives for the romantic ideals of cognition and aspiration as opposed to tyranny and subjugation.
*8= Donoghue ( 1973 p 26 )
The designation with the fabulous figure in Goethe, Byron, and Achabbi ‘s verse forms:
The re-writing of the myth paved the manner to many romantic poets to further research the position of adult male in the existence. As “ an creative person does non putter with the existence he recreates it out of his ain experience and apprehension of life ” *9
The following texts which are: Goethe ‘s “ Prometheus ” , Lord Byron ‘s “ Prometheus ” and Abul Qasim Achabbi ‘s “ Nachidou Al jabbar ” along with Aeschylus ‘ original text are nil but an analysis of the ideological and political scene of dictatorship and dictatorship. The verse form becomes hence a infinite of betokening the ego.
Aeschylus ‘ calamity illustrates precisely the agonistic struggle and utmost polarization between a “ wicked God ” and an elevated hero whose freedom is a freedom of “ rebelliousness and non of engagement ” *10
1 ) Defiance vs Tyranny:
The agony of unfairness is an sole trait of adult male and Prometheus every bit good as the romantic poet keep a vigorous finding to stand against the mainstream and the opinion force presented in the original text as Zeus the disdainful God.
*9= Henry Miller
*10= Paul Ricoeur
This re-writing of the fabulous figure varies from one poet to another depending on the different contexts, historical minutes they belonged to.
Let ‘s take for case the issue of rebelliousness which is extremely bellied in Achabbi ‘s vocal in which Prometheus symbolizes “ the originative mind ‘s obstinate refusal to give to destine ” .
Achabbi here goes beyond specifying the oppressor and confronts divine forces “ destiny ” .
In the earlier text the Rebel colossus by overthrowing the established power really puts in inquiry the rightness of Zeus ‘ judicial order and hence the rightness of the cosmic order as a whole. And by projecting Prometheus as a hero Achabbi utilizes him as a reminder that worlds can get the better of restraints imposed upon them hence the political Prometheus communicates strongly to Romantic poets.
Prometheus every bit good as the poets ‘ evildoing is less a mere instance of noncompliance or crime than an effort to situate a new man-living jurisprudence.
Byron besides used the same scheme when he accused destiny ;
“ and the deaf dictatorship of destiny ”
Prometheus challenges and defies Zeus the fact that mirrors the poet ‘s battle against the opinion autocrats and they find in poesy a manner to get away from the ferociousness of their world.
The same impression of rebelliousness is apparent in Goethe ‘ verse form ;
“ Yet though must go forth
My Earth still standing
My bungalow excessively, which has non raised by thee ”
Many of Goethe ‘s traits are clearly portrayed through “ Prometheus ” including his belief in rational independency, lucidity of idea, assurance in human nature and avowal of life.
Similarly to the fabulous figure the poets confront their enemies through their poesy by which they subvert and reflect upon the political orientation of that clip the fact that is translated in Goethe ‘s verse form ;
“ Here sit I, organizing persons
After my image ;
A race resembling me,
To endure, to cry,
To bask, to be glad,
And thee to contemn,
As I! “
These poetries reflect the opposition and rebelliousness of the poet, as the impression of rebellion is relentless in Goethe ‘s
*11= Georg Brandes
verse form to the extent that “ a greater verse form of rebellion has ne’er been written ” *11 The same thought is lasting in Byron ‘s verse form ;
“ Colossus! to thee the discord was given
Between the agony and the will,
Which anguish where they can non kill ”
The poets so place themselves with the fabulous figure and they reinterpret the myth in their ain manner
which is of class inundated with Romanticism.
The impression of opposition is stronger in achabbi ‘s verse form which is apparent in the tone of the verse form ;
triumph and decease ;
Romantic poets ‘ ultimate end was to alter to position quo in order to fix for a universe in which cognition and hope prevail. One of their primary mark was to stand against dictatorship and subjugation which was made possible through poesy.
These poets found something that spoke to them in the promethean myth. As they have seen Prometheus ‘ forfeit to better humanity mirroring the manner they devoted themselves for the interest of supporting people ‘s rights.
Redemption in romantic poesy is non merely reached through triumph but besides through decease the fact that is strongly apparent in Achabbi ‘s sentimentalization of decease ;
Even decease and penalty turned into a signifier of triumph in the custodies of Romantic poets.
They hence used this synergism between mythology and romanticism as a get downing point from which they explored political and moral issues of the twenty-four hours. They attempted to paint a image of how much worse the universe would be if Prometheus in peculiar and the intellectuals in general had non struggled for the redemption of the state.
Byron ‘s verse form holds the same impression of doing decease a signifier of victory ;
“ and a house will, and a deep sense,
Which even in anguish can condemn
Its ain concenter ‘d compensate,
Triumphant where it dares defy,
And doing Death a Victory. ”
Therefore the three verse forms served as a forum to voice the poets ‘ dissatisfaction and displeasure with the rigorous regulations that made it impossible to populate as one wished.
Throughout their Promethean narrations, each poet vividly allegorizes the societal jobs of this epoch.
Poetry hence becomes an portent for the extremely centralized and illicit signifiers of power and Prometheus by far is a agency to convey political and moral messages.
It is notable besides that Goethe besides has the same inclination to transform licking into triumph as he considers the credence of dictatorship and bondage a signifier of ruin ;
“ who rescued me from certain decease,
From bondage? ”
Romantic poets returned to the Promethean myth and infused it with their personal feelings toward the current political and moral constructions.
Prometheus has been the emblem for revolutionists the symbol of victory over autocrats as he portrays “ the type of the highest flawlessness of moral and rational nature, impelled by the purest and the truest motivations to the best and noblest terminals ” . *12
*12= FromA Preface to Prometheus Unbound, 1820
Bringing the mythic and the poetic together bestows in the birth of a “ mythopoeic ” *13 poesy. The fact that makes the fabulous narrative of Prometheus conformable to romantic poesy as it amplifies fabulous dimensions to the romantic form.
As the interconnectedness between the nature of the Romantic poet and that of Prometheus the defiant, rebellious hero immortalizes and glorifies the fabulous figure.
*13= “ myth as genre in Romantic Poetry ”