John Steinbeck, a Nobel laureate for literature, is widely considered as one of the most influential and of import American author of the twentieth century. As a fecund author, Steinbeck had written many plants in his life. Of Mice and Men is one of these great chef-d’oeuvres. It is regarded as a “ novella-play ” . Steinbeck had won the 1937 New York Drama Critics Award for his drama Of Mice and Men, which was honored for “ managing a subject truly rooted in American life ” . Of Mice and Men is a delineated Steinbeck-style chef-d’oeuvre won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962 for it “ can be classified as societal novels covering with the economic jobs of rural labour, but there is besides a run of worship of the dirt in his books, which does non ever hold with his prosaic sociological attack ” ( Horst Frenz, 1969, p.1 ) .This research is traveling to deeply analyze the racism in this drama and investigation into the truth behind racism. The organic structure of literature reappraisal chiefly includes three parts: the first portion will be a general debut of John Steinbeck ; so there follows the readings of the drama ; the last portion is an analyses of racism in the drama and a reappraisal.
The general background of John Steinbeck
During the early life of Steinbeck, he had been a manual work in picking fruit and fishing. The early 40 old ages of his life in the vale by the sea seashore had greatly contributed to the creative activity of his plants. The natural beauty, farms and grazing lands helped Steinbeck raising a love for nature and became the wellhead of his creativeness. Steinbeck was familiar with lives of labourers at the lowest degree of the societal ladders and wrote his novels based on the existent life to opine the society. Tian Junwu evaluated that one of the typical characteristics in Steinbeck ‘s authorship manner is poetic prose ( 2004 ) . Poetic prose is an effectual manner to rise the pragmatism of realistic authorship, to live over and lighten up the topics, and to soften the suffering state of affairss of the characters. Steinbeck besides pursued structural invention in his plant. Harmonizing to Guerin ( 2010 ) , the usage of interchapter and “ loose ” construction can be seen in the other plants of Steinbeck. The most typical characteristic of Steinbeck ‘s authorship manner is the usage of symbolic subjects based on the research of Liu Guozhi and Hu Xuefei ( 2004 ) , which is widely applied in the drama Of Mice and Men.
Interpretations of Of Mice and Men
The rubric of the drama originated from a verse form by Robert Burns named To a Mouse. It implies that homo are every bit weak as a mouse by metaphor. Peoples have no power to contend for their lives and can non get away their fate of solitariness and wretchedness. Harmonizing to Yangli ( 2011 ) , Steinbeck ‘s land composite made his characters in his novels tightly connected to the land. Owens ( 1985 ) agreed that this drama described characters ‘ strong desire for land to show their substance anxiousness and the impossibleness of recognizing their dreams. The characters ever pursue their dreams on the land, endure troubles during the procedure and eventually make for hopelessness. Steinbeck revealed that the beginning of the troubles came from the land by depicting the adversities of characters in their work and lives. Ultimately, Lennie, who was really steadfast and relentless for the yearning for land, was killed by George and Goodman ( 1984 ) thought it implied the failure of their dreams and made them give up their attempts and continue the atrocious state of affairs ( p.1 ) . In Wang Huiying ‘s research ( 2006 ) , the subjects of the novel had a profound significance by metaphor: human and mice portion common experience and terminations. First, homo are excessively weak to face the helpless fate. Second, the changeless solitariness and disaffection of the human. Third, the disenchantment of dreams. The scene that mice and puppy were squeezed to decease by Lennie ‘s fibrous manus implies that the fate of people at the underside of society is merely similar mice in Lennie ‘s manus: vulnerable, easy to be destroyed and disable to contend. Bloom ( 2008 ) presented that the characters in this drama had typical features and represented different fates. Lennie was born with great physical power but low-grade intelligence. He had to populate under George ‘s attention and protection. Lennie persisted in prosecuting his dream of taking attention of coneies but he kept doing problems unconsciously because of his great power. Finally, Lennie crushed in a hopeless state of affairs and became a mouse in fate because he strangled the husbandman ‘s daughter-in-law. George was smart and protected Lennie from people ‘s abuses. George was regarded by Wyatt ( 2002 ) as a mark of salvation for the people in desperation ( p.400 ) . However, he had to take Lennie ‘s life by himself at last and broke his belief in dream.
An analysis of racism in Of Mice and Men
Wang Minling ( 2010 ) tried to research the truth behind the racism in the drama. Similarly with Morris ‘s sentiment ( 2004 ) , the 1930s Depression caused a atrocious state of affairs in American society: struggles all-widely broke out, 1000s of workers lost occupations, people non merely suffered physical poorness but besides stomached the religious barrenness. Lawrence et Al. ( 2003 ) deemed that the context of depression became the general background of the novel. Tian Zhiwen ( 2010 ) indicated that there were many marginalized characters in the drama, such as Gander with a broken manus, black groom Crooks, the husbandman ‘s daughter-in-law. They were alienated because of physical disablement, race and gender. Other people in the society of the farm considered them as “ the other ” and exploited their basic rights to speak and even to last. The old jack of all trades Gander broke his arm in a on the job clip accident so that he became a useless adult male and the lone comrade was an old Canis familiaris. His Canis familiaris was excessively old and the fieldhand shooting it to decease. Maurene ( 2008 ) pointed out the decease of the Canis familiaris implied the tragic destiny of Gander: though his hurt was work-related, he would be driven out like the Canis familiaris.
The stuffs listed above provide writer sufficient information to better understand the drama Of Mice and Men By cognizing the general background of John Steinbeck, the writer can by and large understand the context of the drama. By understanding the features of the characters, the construction of the drama and the usage of symbolic and metaphorical manner, the writer is able to do farther treatment on the racism and the truth behind the racism in the drama. All these above can back up my survey of racism in Of Mice and Men good.