Science: Controlling Pollution

ALANDO EDWARDS FINAL ASSIGNMENT PAPER SCI207 DEPENDENT OF MAN ON THE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUCTOR: JENNIFER OTT. 3/6/2011 ? Controlling Pollution can save our environment from disaster and create healthier environment for humans, animals, plants, and other living things. The Kyoto Protocol is the agreement to lower greenhouse gases by 5 percent in 50 years and was compared to the level in 1990. Kyoto agreement for Carbon trading from country to country causes to lessen the chance of acid rain and sulfur dioxide levels.

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With this plan; 126 countries have accepted the Kyoto Protocol except for the US, because according to the government; it’s going to cost them a lot to clean up CO2. Four countries, including the US has not yet accepted Kyoto Protocol because they don’t embrace this act, which causes global business competition will impact several us companies. Researchers have estimated that; by the year 2010, greenhouse emissions market will reach $100 billion dollar.

Greenhouse gas emission provides economical reliefs, companies and countries benefit; A lot of environmentalists believe that, it is wrong to pollute and think this tactics of Koto will not work successfully. Carbon trading could lead to more open trade market probably than emission control, which lead me to think; can pollution rights trading effectively control environmental problems? According to Charles W.

Schmidt, “The Market for pollution, Environmental Health perspectives (August 2001), argues that emissions trading schemes represent, “the most significant developments” in the use of economic incentives to motivate corporations to reduce pollution. Many environmentalists, however, continue to oppose the idea of allowing anyone to pay to pollute, either on moral grounds or because they doubt that these tactics will actually achieve the goal of controlling pollution. Diminishment of the acid rain problems often cited as an example of how well emission rights trading can work.

The US was the world largest source of greenhouse gases. Reports have showed less than 5 percent of the world population, the US released one-quarter or more of the global CO2 emission. China remains on top with 22. 4%, USA with 22. 2% EU 11. 4%. In order for these three top countries to reduce their emissions; they need to limited there use of burning coal. Power plant, cement production, burning forests and grassland, and other as sources that help causes high CO2 like; Wetland, fish pond paddles, and etc. Carbon absorbs fast, but Methane absorbs 23 times faster and accumulating in the atmosphere twice as fast as CO2.

Methane is the main component of natural gas and is also, release by ruminant animals, wet-rice paddles, coal mines, landfills, wetland, and pipeline leaks. As we see; global warming is destroying of environment, which is caused by human population. According to John Tyndall, “he measured the infrared absorption of various gases and described the greenhouse effect in 1859. ” We can see that, every year its getting warmer than it used to be. I think, by the time it reaches the century or the end; it will likely get hotter.

As we can see in the Antarctic Peninola are breaking and melting rapidly, which causes over flowing or rises in sea levels. Climate changes are a sign of global warming. For example, starting 02/14/2011, New York has received a warm climate for at least 5days and this is the winter time. To avoid the worst impacts of climate change and reducing of greenhouse gas emissions, we have to start investing now even if; the government has to take out more taxes of our checks to save the environment. The people that would suffer the most because of global warming are Africa, Asia and Latin America, due to their poor status.

In order to eliminate climate change we have to; promote emission trading, share technology, reduce deforestation, help poorer countries by honoring pledges for development assistance to adapt to climate change. Which I think, Kyoto Protocol is trying to accomplish globally. Even thou, Emissions trading has been criticized by Lohman(2006) that global warming require radical change than the US SO2 market, and carbon trading tended to reward the heaviest polluter with “windfall profits” when they are granted enough carbon credits to match historic production. Global Climate changes can cause problem along with refugees and tragic.

Suffering in Sahel and Somalia Africa, due to war and accompanying humanitarian crisis, which result in food shortages and drought? This can cause changing of weather patterns. Our CO2 emission come from fossil fuel combustion, energy conservation and a switch to renewable fuels and probably the first place to look to reduce climate problem. By, improving power plants efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of industrial processes could and storing CO2 released by power plants. Methane wells and other large source could save another billion tons of carbon, which can be injected into oil wells to improve crude oil production.

I think Kyoto Protocol can work because; many countries are working to reduce greenhouse emissions. For example; The UK have rolled CO2 emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000 and vowed to reduce them 60 percent by 2050. According to, “ A low –cost way to control climate change:” Issues in science and technology (spring 1998), Byron swift argues that the “cap-and-trade” feature of the US acid rain program has been so successful that a similar system for implementing the Kyoto protocol’s emission trading mandate as a cost-effective means of controlling greenhouse gases should work.

There many debate whether allocation or auction of allowances is most efficient in a new market. Some see allocation as a market-creation strategy that has a proven track record in other cap-and-trade regimens. The Kyoto protocol establishes “assigned amount units” for national governments. One allowance for each ton of CO2 equivalent corresponding to the total amount of emissions permitted between 2008 and 2012. The Russian have accept and meet the allowance of Kyoto obligations due to the collapse of the Soviet Union States could probably supply the restrict its supply the entire demand for allowances in EUETS phase 2.

Which, Russia may restrict its supply of allowances to keep prices high and to maintain a competitive position for a post-2012 system. The Kyoto notes that, “though heavily promoted by the world bank, US style environmental trading has yet to be to be tested on a global scale and has never been successfully deployed on a national level in the develop world. ” Barry D. Solomon and Russell Lee, in “Emissions Trading Systems and Environmental Justice, “ Environment (october200), “a significant part of the opposition to emissions trading programs is a perception that they do little to reduce environment injustice and can even make it worse. Global warming continuing emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the extension of emissions trading to carbon dioxide. Due to many allowances were, emission allowances has fallen low. It becomes cheaper to burn more fossil fuel and emit more carbon than to burn and emit less. I don’t really know if Kyoto Protocol would work or will not work, due to the great interest of, “carbon offsets, in which corporating governments, and even individuals compensate for carbon dioxide emissions by investing in activities that remove carbon dioxide from the air or reduce emissions from a different source.

Carbon entrees are temporary in which, trees can easily release carbon into the atmosphere through fire, disease, climate changes natural decay and timber harvesting. Carbon offsets represent six primary categories of greenhouse gases and measured in metric tons of CO2 Offset are accomplish by financial support, which reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Offset include renewable energy, such as wind farm, biomass energy, or hydroelectric dams. Meanwhile, some energy efficiency include the destruction of industrial pollutants or agricultural by products, destruction of landfill methane and forestry.

Kyoto sanctioned offsets as a way that government and private companies to earn carbon credits and can traded on a market place. Today, our environments are at risk due to environment capacity more forest burning, factories and other pollutions. If any of these projects could work to save our environment, countries or states should come together and reach agreement to save our planet from being extinct. According to the United Nations State of World Population 2007, the world will reach a milestone in 2008; half of the world’s population will live in urban areas.

If this number continues to grow, we could be looking at overpopulated urban areas. Overpopulation is explained in terms of the number of people in a specific area living off certain resources and the capacity of their particular environment to sustain them. While China used to be the biggest threat to our populating globe, India’s population growth is set to surpass China’s (according to 2007 estimates of the Population Reference Bureau). Overpopulation in India could be the next concern.

India is a population that is normally sustained within its environment by the availability of clean drinking water, food, shelter, medical care, education and other basic human needs. Once overpopulated India will put stress on the available resources. This stress will affect the quality of life by decreasing the availability of clean water and food which in turn deteriorates living conditions, leading to epidemics and pandemics. If India’s numbers continue to increase, they will face the effects of overpopulation.

Sustainability interfaces with economics through the social and ecological consequences of economic activity. Sustainability economics involves ecological economics where social, cultural, health-related and monetary/financial aspects are integrated. Moving towards sustainability is also a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions (e. g. villages, eco-municipalities and sustainable cities), reappraising economic sectors (perm culture, green building, sustainable agriculture), or work practices (sustainable architecture), using science to develop new technologies (green technologies, renewable energy), to adjustments in individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources. The Kyoto Protocol is the agreement to lower greenhouse gases by 5 percent in 50 years and was compared to the level in 1990. Kyoto agreement for Carbon trading from country to country causes to lessen the chance of acid rain and sulfur dioxide levels.

With this plan; 126 countries have accepted the Kyoto Protocol except for the US, because according to the government; it’s going to cost them a lot to clean up CO2. Today, our environments are at risk due to environment capacity more forest burning, factories and other pollutions. If any of these projects could work to save our environment, countries or states should come together and reach agreement to save our planet from being extinct. Offset are accomplish by financial support, which reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

Offset include renewable energy, such as wind farm, biomass energy, or hydroelectric dams. Meanwhile, some energy efficiency include the destruction of industrial pollutants or agricultural by products, destruction of landfill methane and forestry. Kyoto sanctioned offsets as a way that government and private companies to earn carbon credits and can traded on a market place. Controlling pollution can save our environment from disaster and create healthier environment for humans, animals, plants, and other living things. ? REFERENCES:- Reinaud,D. and C. Philibert(22 November 2007). Emissions trading: trends and prospects” International Energy Agency Website, p. 43. Taking sides: clashing views on Environmental issues, 13th Ed by Thomas A. Easton. Cunningham & Cunningham, “Principles of Environmental Science Inquiry & Applications 5th ed. ” http://www. brighthub. com/environment/scienceenvironmental/articles/17302. aspx#ixzz1FsYKjlbW Atkinson, G. , Dietz, S. & Neumayer, E. (2007). Handbook of Sustainable Development. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Krebs, C. J. (2001). Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance. Sydney: Benjamin Cummings.