School of Engineering
Health and Safety Management BN4410
Assignment 1 (Mid semester)
Prepare an academic paper on the given health and safety topic.
“Evaluation of health and safety culture in your place of work: current benefits and future challenges”
Dr. Godfaurd John
DATE: 23rd Nov 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
HEALTH & SAFETY CULTURE OF EXPAC 3
ASPECTS OF HEALTH & SAFETY 5
Determining policy 5
Organizing & Implementing the Plan 6
Measuring performance 6
Investigating accidents and incidents 6
CURRENT BENEFITS 6
FUTURE CHALLENGES 7
Tables of Figures
Figure 1: Figure 1: The Plan, Do, Check, Act Closed Loop Cycle Framework 4
The evolution of global market leads to economic growth through industrialization which directly relates to profitability of enterprises and their worker’s quality of life, but also causes in number of incidence/injuries at the workplace (Soehod and Laxman, 2007). Statistics mentioned by H;S statistics for Great Britain by HSE 2013/14 in UK, 2535 people were died from mesothelioma in 2012 and thousands more from other occupational cancers and diseases. 2 million were suffering from illness (long-standing as well as new cases) and 6,29,000 injuries occurred at work according to the Labour Force Survey LFS (HSE Statistics 2013/14). So, providing a safe place-work always have crucial importance among employees and is necessary to every employer in order to provide a comfortable, safe and meet the health and safety requirements in their industries in every country as it is directly relating to the productivity of the company itself (Tammy, Gina, Judene, Jack ; Carol, 2000).
Health is described as the state of best physical and mental wellness for the person, including the absence of disease (World Health Organisation, 2003). Safety is defined as the state of staying free from both internal or external risks to an individual (Confer and Confer, 1999). Health and safety therefore includes components, which identify and assess health ; safety issues of a worker with in the workplace. It also measures to control hazards, which then seeks to reduce or try to eliminate the risks impact on the worker from environmental hazards at workplace (Occupational Health and Safety-Alberta, 2015).
As Industrial Health;safety culture is now generally accepted as having a strong influence over accidents/incidence occurring in workplaces which leads to injuries. After implementation of H;S culture in an organization, a great improvement has been noticed related to Health ; safety at the workplace. As, Henriqson stated that the factors which can influence Health ; safety performance of an organisation in any industry depends upon policies to establishment of the working rules in an organisation through industry practice. Other factors apart from them are the different ways an industry and its organisation can adopt international best practice and how an enterprise can effectively operate under the regulatory framework for health ; safety (Henriqson et al., 2014). Hence, this academic paper is carried out in order to evaluate the health and safety culture in a work place along with the aspects of health ; safety. Which also highlight its current benefits and future challenges toward Health ; safety culture behaviour in organization. The study is conducted on EXPAC packaging company ltd in Leyland in northwest of England.
Health ; Safety Culture of EXPAC
The overall aim of EXPAC’s Health & Safety Policy is to ensuring the health & safety of the workers, and all other people who may be affected by company’s activities. The H;S policy of EXPAC is under accordance of the six set of regulations, also referred as ” SIX PACK REGULATION ” based on Health and Safety at work Act 1974, also known as (HASAWA) which is primary body of health ; safety legislation in UK. The SIX-PACK regulation are as follows:
? The Management of Health ; Safety at Work Regulations 1999
? The workplace (health, safety and welfare) Regulations 1992
? The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER)
? The Health ; Safety (Display screen equipment) Regulations 1992 (DSE)
? The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (PPE)
? The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
And some other regulation like Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR). Company operate on the Health ; safety Executive (HSE) guidance that is HSG-65 for managing Health ; Safety at each packaging site. On the basis of HSG-65 guidance EXPAC designed its health and safety framework for the organisation to identify, control and minimize/eliminate risks and hazards associated with H;S with in workplace.
Health Safety Executive (HSE) identifies the key elements of successful health ; Safety management. (Health and Safety Executive, 2017) which are as following: –
• Planning ; Implementing
• Measuring performance
• Auditing ; Reviewing Performance
These key elements are wrapped into HSG-65 guidance framework in four core steps which is also known as PDCA closed loop cycle. Taufek emphasis on that by saying making elements of feedback loop cycle a corner stone of the company’s policy causes in continuous reduction of accidental rates and improvement in productivity and performance. (Taufek, 2016)
Figure 1: Figure 1: The Plan, Do, Check, Act Closed Loop Cycle Framework
Aspects of Health & Safety
The very first step planning consist of determining policy and plan for implementation.
EXPAC’s try to provide safe and healthy environment for their workers by determining an occupational H;S policy programme which determines a proper path for organisation to follow as required by Section 20 of the Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Act 2005 (Health, Safety and Welfare at Work Act 2005). As HSE also emphasis on that by saying ”A company’s policy should set a clear direction for organisation to follow in such a way that fulfils the spirit and letter of the law. (Health and Safety Executive, 2017) The company’s H;S policy influence all their activities ; decisions which includes: –
• The selection of resources and information.
• The design and operation of working systems.
• The design and delivery of products and services.
As said by HSE ”It is necessary to have a clear management flow chart which shows the structure of an organization, the relationships and relative ranks of its parts, as to who is delivering the strategy and where to go for advice when required”. (Health and Safety Executive, 2017) So, EXPAC adopt a planned and schematic approach in planning phase having aim to reduce the risks and identifying hazards in workplace. Using risk assessment methods for the decision of prioritising and setting objectives for hazards elimination and risk reduction by the use of physical control measures. Personal protective equipment also used to control the risks as defined under regulation of PPE at work 1992.
After plan the next step is do which includes risk-profiling, organising and implementing of plan.
EXPAC’s profiling-risks includes assessing the risks, what are the priorities, identifying hazards in the workplace, to whom and how it could harm, and the methodologies to manage the risk. I think, Effective leaders and line managers better know about the risks their organisations face and then prioritising them to take action to control or mitigate them. So, I think while writing risk assessment they have to keep Kontogiannis’s point in mind, Risk assessments are wrote on how a ‘job should be performed rather than how they are actually performed’. (Kontogiannis, 2017), Otherwise it will lead to hazards and risks associated with the task being missed and have a chance of occurring again. I also feel employers from all stages should be involved while creating of a risk assessment. Kontogiannis et al (2017) supports this argument by stating ‘to avoid this oversight, a participative risk assessment is required that would involve people at all organizational levels in certain stages of the analysis’ (Kontogiannis, 2017). This will encourage employer involvement and more risks can be identified.
Organizing ; Implementing the Plan
EXPAC organize their H;S management structure through the actions of supervisors, leaders, and line managers which involves communication, on what is needed, discussing issues, providing adequate resources and developing positive attitudes and behaviours among all employers. I think they have to put more focus in giving trainings, workshops and induction sessions, to ensure everyone is competent to carry out their work responsibilities safely under continuous Supervision and make sure that proper arrangements are followed. Taylor agrees with my that statement by stating ‘Groups that got trained with both safe and at-risk examples showed greater classification accuracy and less error’ (Taylor, 2016). Using that sort of examples employers returns improving concentration and understanding towards work situations. Implementing the Plan includes workplace precautions implementation and designing the risk control systems in EXPAC.
EXPAC Continuous monitor, evaluates ; reports on the performance of H;S policy under Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
As reporting and investigation gives a clear image of the happening of an accident which reduces the likelihood of occurring again. Kontogiannis et al (2017) stated that ‘Incident reporting and daily monitoring of activities can provide a good basis for early warnings and feedback about operational and safety performance. So, ‘learning from that experiences’ enables organisations to achieve wide knowledge management of risks, best practices and lessons learned for continuous improvement.’ (Kontogiannis, 2017).
EXPAC includes both active and reactive monitoring along with the objectives identifying and underlying the factors causing and the implications for the designing ; working of H;S management system.
Investigating accidents and incidents
EXPAC investigates ; analyse the causes of accidents/incidents which then help in evaluating ; reporting on the performance.
Involves reviewing performance, lesson learning and auditing. EXPAC learns from all previous experiences through regular reviews ; feedbacks of performance based on data from audits of H;S management which help in enhancing their future performance.
EXPAC also consider Learning from experience (LFE) sessions which helps alot in improving Health ; Safety in workplace as, it is a closed feedback loop which continuously keeps on improving the safety performance. As, Kontogiannis also stated its importance as ”Nearly misses accidents and Health;Safety successes/failures to the employees allows this learning cycle to develop” (Kontogiannis, 2017).
The current benefits EXPAC having by adapting the above management system and the HSG-65 guidance framework from HSE are as following: –
? Improves the image and credibility of the company among the competitors and among stakeholders, regulators, customers, prospective clients and in the public also.
? Adapting HSG-65 guidance framework Ensuring health and well-being of the workers, sub-contractors and public, causing reduction in accident rates at workplace which leads to cutting down of extra cost, saves downtime by providing safer ; healthy workplace environment and increases motivation and confidence of employee through participation in risk assessment process.
? Ensuring the legislative awareness and compliance to customers and suppliers which enhances the chances of getting new tenders and projects.
? The continues closed feedback loop cycle framework PDCA causes continues improvement in the performance of the company.
(As Expac is a packaging company deals with the health, beauty and household cleaning products so some of the future challenges it could face are related to indoor environment quality. For an instance on talcum powder, perfumes or other chemical liquids packaging and filling sites, alot of chemical particles diffuses in air causing contamination in the indoor air which could cause health problems like eye, skin and neurological complaints to the worker. Menzies (1997) also agreed with my that statement by saying ” workers that have control of the ventilation and air rate control showed less illness symptoms than the controlled group” (Menzies, 1997). As, the performance of a worker is also directly related to the indoor environment which leads to a productivity. Bordass ; Leaman (2001) reported that ”comfort and perceived productivity is greater in buildings where occupants have more control over the environment” (Bordass and Leaman, 2001). This issue will put more pressure on the EXPAC to further improve their H;S management system which will require extra cost and commitment, amending policies and strategies)
As UK is diverse and multicultural country and a people from whole world coming here in seeking of good jobs so, another challenge company could face in future that affects company’s H&S management system consists of higher rates of migrants. This issue will put more pressure on the EXPAC to further improve their H&S management system which will require extra cost and commitment, amending policies and strategies.
The following methodologies can improve the situation: –
• Hiring a translator to provide them extra safety training in foreign languages
• Delivering English lessons to the migrants
• Regular monitoring, evaluation and getting feedback for improvements
• Unannounced visits of the representatives of the of HSE bodies or of leaders.
The academic paper highlighted the Health and Safety culture in the EXPAC packaging company Ltd under legislations and operational guidance framework HSG65 along with the current benefits and future challenging.
Many aspects of Health and safety are discussed in the academic paper related to company policy, complying with defined regulations and how company is providing a healthier and safer environment at the workplace and the benefits like how company is achieving high reduction rates of accidents by using PDCA feedback loop framework and by continues monitoring and reporting of the performance of H&S under Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
World Health Organisation, 2003. Definition of Health Online. Available at: http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html Accessed 26 October 2015.
Kontogiannis, T. L. M. B. N., 2017. Total Safety Management: Principles, processes and methods. Safety Science, Volume 100, p. 128–142.
Confer, R. and Confer, T., 1999. Occupational Health and Safety: Terms, Definitions and Abbreviations. New York: CRC Press.
Taufek, F. Z. Z. K. S., 2016. Safety And Health Practices And Injury Management In Manufacturing Industry. Procedia Economics and Finance, Volume 35, pp. 705-712.
International Labor Organisation, 2014. ILO Estimates Over 1 Million Work-Related Fatalities Each Year Online. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/mediacentre/press-releases/WCMS_007969/lang–en/index.htm Accessed 12 July 2015.
International Labour Organisation, 2017. About the ILO. Online Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang–en/index.htm
Occupational Health and Safety-Alberta, 2015. Health and safety management systems Online. Available at: http://work.alberta.ca/occupational-health-safety/health-and-safetymanagement-systems.html Accessed 26 October 2015.
Abdullah, M.S., Othman, Y.H., Osman, A. and Salahudin, S.N., 2016. Safety culture behaviour in electronics manufacturing sector (EMS) in Malaysia: The case of flextronics. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, pp.454-461.
Taylor, M. W. O. O. M. A. A., 2016. Experimental analysis of using examples and non-examples in safety training. Journal of Safety Research, Volume 59, pp. 97-104
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1999/3242/contents/made
Health and Safety Executive, 2017. Fatal injuries arising from accidents at work. Online Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/pdf/fatalinjuries.pdf
Health and Safety Executive, 2017.Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Online Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/hswa.htm
Health and Safety Executive, 2017. Planning for implementation. Online Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/managing/delivering/plan/planning-for-implementation.htm
Goetsch D (2014) Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers
Managing for health and safety HSG65 (Third edition) HSE Books 2013 ISBN 978 0 7176 6456 6 www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/hsg65.htm
Stranks, J. (2016) The Manager’s Guide to Health and Safety at Work. 10th Ed Kogan Page.