Through the procedure of an air separation works the air is separated into his constituents, which are fundamentally nitrogen and O, but besides some others viz. Argon, Neon, CO2 etc. The undermentioned figure1 represents the specific content of each constituent of the atmospheric air. Nowadays, there are more than 2.800 air separation workss, while the bulk of them have been constructed the last 15 old ages [ A ]
Figure Composition of the atmospheric air
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Assorted methods have been established sing the air separation such as surface assimilation, polymeric membranes, ceramic membranes ( ITM ) , chemical procedure and cryogenic separation.
Adsorption is the procedure through which natural and man-made stuffs adsorb nitrogen more easy than Ar or O. As a consequence, N is kept by the stuff while a watercourse of O is generated. The stuff which is used widely is Zeolites due to its nature and features.
Polymeric membranes is another procedure of air separation which has as basic characteristic the separation of high and low force per unit area watercourses because of the different diffusion rate of the constituents through the polymeric stuffs.
The procedure of ceramic membranes is the most promising one for the production of big sums of O. During this procedure O is converted to oxygen ions on the material surface and so purified O is produced in the instance of the high rate of ion conveyance, through the ceramic construction of the stuff.
The chemical procedure is based on the ability of specific stuffs to absorb and desorb O when they are in different conditions of temperature and force per unit area. An illustration of a common chemical procedure is the Moltox in which a salt watercourse trade with the procedure mentioned as it is invariably go arounding.
Cryogenic separation is the most widely known method of air separation as it produces big sums of purified O and other constituents with an effectual manner at low cost. This is the method used in IGCC and NGCC power workss. The table1 below shows the basic features of each air separation method.
Table1: Detailss of air separation methods [ B ]
Economic scope ( sTPD )
Purity bound ( vol % )
& A ; lt ; 150
& A ; gt ; 20
& A ; lt ; 20
Apart from the advantages mentioned on the tabular array above, cryogenic separation involves some drawbacks. First, it demands big infinites and public-service corporation demands. Second, it has high capital cost about 12 % of the entire cost of the power works. It is besides hard to spread out this method in the production, while, eventually, it has long times for start-up and close down [ B ] .
The undermentioned figure2 represents the stairss for cryogenic separation
Figure 2 Stairss of the Cryogenic procedure [ C ]
At foremost, the air is compressed and so the pressurized air reaches the reversible money changers where it is purified, while H2O and CO2 are removed. Next the chilling of the air follows in the heat money changers in order to run into the conditions for the following measure which is the distillment where the air is separated into his constituents in different columns. These merchandises have low force per unit areas and, therefore, they are compressed for a farther usage [ C ] . The figure 3 holla shows an air works separation in Qatar that produces 30.000 tones oxygen/day.
Figure 3 Air separation works in Qatar [ A ]
The gas turbine is a type of internal burning engine, while the turbine which is used in IGCC and NGCC power workss is combined rhythm ( figure 1 ) .
Figure Gas turbine combined rhythm
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In the instance of syngas turbines, they use Hydrogen as a fuel and non natural gas. The most important feature of natural gas is that it is highly reactive. The figure 2 shows the underdeveloped temperature in the combustor when we use H or natural gas as a fuel. Hydrogen is much more reactive and, therefore, higher temperatures are developed.
Figure. Temperatures during the burning
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The comparing between H and natural gas leads to many of import differences. To get down with, the heating value of the former is three times smaller and, as consequence, the H should hold a high flow rate in order to accomplish the end product power. Second, the ignition of H composes different gases with high wet content and low mass flow rate. Additionally, the speed of the H flow rate is higher than natural gas due to the little molecular weight of the former. Hydrogen is so reactive which consequences in lower fire temperature and high temperatures after the burning compared to the several 1s of natural gas. Therefore, a demand of an tantamount ratio of 0.35 has been established. Finally, the NOx emanations after the burning are really high [ D ] , [ E ] . The NOx emanations can be reduced if we make a farther fuel dilution. The graph below nowadayss the NOx emanations sing the development fire temperature and the peculiar fuel by increasing the dilution ( figure 3 ) .
Figure NOx emanations related to dilution [ D ]
For all the grounds related to hydrogen mentioned above the H gas turbine has been influenced in diverse ways. To be more specific, the assorted composed gases cause an addition of the enthalpy bead at degrees about 5 % . Besides, the matching of the compressor and the expander is hard due to the different volumetric flow rate of H and its farther dilution. At last, the fuel ignition and the dilution influence negatively the chilling system of the blades. In other words, the thermic flux and, therefore, the transferred heat to the external side of the turbine blades is higher, while the high force per unit area ratio contributes to the heat addition of the both sides [ D ] .
Because of the high volume flow rate and the H2O content of the merchandise gases the metal temperatures rise and the equipment life rhythm decreases. In order to get by with this job the usage of an IGCC control system is regarded necessary since the fire temperature is diminished. To be more specific, with the IGCC control system the measure of the exhaust H2O lessenings, so the metal temperatures addition which leads to a longer equipment life as it seem from figure 4 [ F ] .
Figure Impact of IGCC control system on equipment life [ F ]
Sing the design of the H gas turbine it is similar to a typical 1 that uses natural gas as fuel. However, some different demands are involved due to the nature of H. As we have mentioned above the high flow rate of the H needs a greater get downing capacity than the typical criterions. Furthermore, the burner design is important since the turbine should run in the instance of utilizing natural gas with the ability of NOx dilution by shooting steam. The temperature inside the turbine must be kept low since curtailing the heat transportation to the blades is critical. In the terminal, a design of a control system is regarded important [ G ] .
One of the most of import marks of IGCC engineering in general is the development of gas turbines which can stand high fire temperatures and have besides higher efficiency. There are a figure of gas turbines under development in order to run into these demands such as the H-class turbine [ H ] .
The steam rhythm in an IGCC power works consists of a typical steam turbine, a heat recovery steam generator ( HRSG ) and some aides viz. a chilling system and a capacitor. The steam rhythm is designed for different force per unit area degrees such as the different force per unit area phases of the steam turbine ( high, intermediate, low ) the assorted force per unit area degrees of the heat recovery steam generator.
The HRSG includes a figure of heat money changers where the watercourse of the gas turbine fumes gases by go throughing through the HRSG loses its heat and steam is generated [ H ] . It is besides internally insulated in order to curtail the heat losingss. This procedure described is shown in figure 1.
Figure 1 Set of HRSG in a gas turbine combined rhythm
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The basic constituents of a HRSG are: the H2O pre-heater where the H2O which comes from the steam turbine capacitor is heated. After, the H2O is compressed and reaches the high force per unit area economiser for a farther warming. Following, the merchandise H2O passes through the high force per unit area evaporator and, therefore, the concentrated steam is produced which is heated more in the ace warmer. Subsequently, this steam is assorted with another one produced from lower force per unit area degrees of the economiser and the entire assorted air is heated once more in the re-heater. Then, the concluding steam is provides in the steam turbine. Besides, a basic constituent of the HRSG is the high force per unit area steam membranophone which divide the H2O and the steam inside the device [ H ] .
Sing the design of the HRSG, its stack temperature has to be maintained at low degrees if we want to take the most energy of the gas watercourse and make the maximal possible efficiency. Many pre-heating demands are involved due to high figure of heat money changers in assorted parts of the system, which leads to a more complex design. Finally, the size of the economiser and the ace warmer is larger than the typical 1
The steam turbine used is a common steam turbine consists of three force per unit area phases, a generator and a capacitor. The basic difference from the common one is that for procedures like reforming and the CO2 gaining control re-boiler steam has of import extractions. Its design is besides affected by the several one of the HRSG and its force per unit area degrees [ G ] .