During the last two decennaries the land usage alteration ( LUC ) in Iraq went through a series of inordinate. Changes in authorities policy on land usage led to extended alterations in land screen, climaxing in the 1990s. This survey examines the temporal and spacial kineticss of land usage alteration and environmental debasement as evident from land usage study datasets ( 1990-2003 ) for the Basrah Province, Iraq was taken as a instance. Using a combination of techniques of RS, GIS and GPS, the survey identifies five outstanding environment debasement processes, viz. : desertification, secondary salinization, urbanisation, flora debasement, and loss of wetlands. Ratess of transition were calculated and distribution forms were mapped with the assistance of GIS. The consequences showed that these land usage alterations have affected the wider environment and accelerated land debasement and the terrible environmental debasement is located in the western south parts of the Basrah Province, it represents 28.1 % of the entire country. The high to chair debasement exhibit the remainder of the southern parts of the survey location as it represents 52.7 % of the entire country. The northern parts of the survey location are characterized by really low and low debasement as they represent 8.5 and 10.7 % severally. Iraq faces serious jobs of environmental debasement that must be addressed instantly because failure to move now will greatly intensify the cost and complexness of ulterior remedial attempts, and because environmental debasement is get downing to present a major menace to human wellbeing, particularly among the hapless.
Keywords: Environmental debasement ; RS ; GIS ; LUCC ; Basrah ; Iraq
Nowadays the Land use/cover alterations are going the hot issues to human existences in the universe. Environmental debasement and huge deforestation due to the industrialisation and urbanisation, wars, natural catastrophes such as implosion therapy, drouth caused by planetary heating are in common. Land use/cover Change ( LUCC ) has been an of import research field even in planetary position, and it was supported as nucleus undertaking by International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme ( IGBP ) and by International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change ( IHDP ) . LUCC is a really complicated procedure, affected by natural and human dimensions. Natural environment is dominant factor in a manner, while human dimensions are revulsive factor. The research on LUCC is a basic stipulation of regional LUCC proctor, driving factor analysis, even to LUCC anticipation ( Fritz et al. , 2008 ; Tatsuaki et al. , 2005 ; Pradhan, 2001 ; Robert et al. , 2000 ) . Distant Sensing ( RS ) and GIS is believed as the most advanced agencies to obtain land usage information because it is existent clip, impersonal and it has broad coverage ( Bisson et al. , 2008 ; Verbeiren et al. , 2008 ; Keiko et al. , 2005 ; Liu et al. , 2001 ; Dymond et al. , 2001 ) .
The construct of environment debasement was defined and its planetary extent quantified by the planetary appraisal of dirt debasement ( GLASOD ) undertaking ( Oldeman, 1994 ) . Unfortunately this appraisal lacked sufficient dependable or unified informations ( Van Lynden et al. , 2001 ; Nicholson et al. , 1998 ) . Iraq has insufficient long time-series and cross-section informations, the grounds is bit-by-bit and tendencies and magnitudes of environmental alterations frequently remain ill-defined through the deficiency of dependable indexs ( Al-saadi and Ibrahim, 1998 ; Al-Saadi, 1996 ; Al Janabi et al. , 1988 ) . It is apparent that the procedure of land use/cover alteration in Iraq is rather complicated and that it will hold an impact at local to planetary graduated tables. Therefore it is necessary to analyze the kineticss of land usage alteration and environment debasement in Iraq and to develop appropriate policies that promote sustainable land direction and that counteract the negative impact of unwanted land usage alterations.
The landscape of Iraq has witnessed many alterations over the past two to three decennaries ( e.g. , UNEP, 2001 ) . . Land use/cover in Iraq is: cultivable land: 13.12 % , lasting harvests: 0.61 % , lasting grazing lands: 9 % , other: 79 % .The land under cultivation in Iraq, which is preponderantly an agricultural state, is about 12 % . Most of this land is in the part of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers ( Al-saadi, 2002 ; Jabbar, 2001 ) . The countries occupied by the fens have been affected the most, with the largest alterations happening in the 1990 ‘s with the execution of the Southern Anatolian Project in Turkey and the rerouting of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq around the fens utilizing a complex system of recreation canals ( UNEP, 2001 ) . The fens have been on the diminution ; in some instances they have been replaced by cultivable lands, in others they have unluckily been turned into dried-out salinized land.A These ascertained land screen and land usage alterations ( LCLUC ) over the Mesopotamian fens mostly reflect the impacts of big technology undertakings, some of which were implemented in Iraq and others in the adjacent upstream countries.A Environment debasement is serious in Iraq. The chief manifestations are an addition in sand and dust storms, increased dirt salt and H2O logging, and widespread rangeland debasement. The jobs have become worse since the infliction of economic countenances in 1990. The aims of this survey are to analyze the kineticss of environmental debasement between 1990 and 2003 at a regional degree and map environment debasement hazards by utilizing Geo-information engineering and alteration sensing techniques in the southern portion of Iraq.
2. Materials and methods
In order to analyze the development of environmental debasement, the Basrah Province has been selected as a survey country. Geographically, the Province is situated in the southern portion of Iraq at the northwesterly corner of the Arabian Gulf, within longitude 46o 60aˆ? to 48o 60aˆ? Tocopherol and from latitude 29o 13aˆ? to 31o 29aˆ? N with a entire country of 19,070 km2 ( Fig. 1 ) . Average population growing was estimated at 3.6 % in the period1990-2003. Geomorphologically, the dirt of survey location is considered as level sedimentary dirt and it is located on the lee side of the high deflational country of the Mesopotamian inundation field in southern Iraq. During summer, the predominating northwesterly air current, which reaches a upper limit of 30 ms_1 in June, conveyance littorals and finer atoms from this inundation field towards Basrah. Climatically, like most parts of the Arabian Peninsula, a desert-type environment with pantie rainfall and hot dry conditions characterizes the clime of Basrah. Summer is really hot, particularly in July and August, with average temperatures of 37.4A°C and maximal average temperatures of 45A°C. The mean vaporization exceeds 2450 mm/year with mean one-year rainfall less than 100 mm/year. In the western parts of Basrah Province, the scarceness and abnormality of rainfall, the handiness of sand supply countries and the prevalence of strong northwesterly air currents significantly influence the stableness and productiveness of the desert ecosystem. In more than two decennary the vulnerable tellurian environment of Basrah Province has been subjected to intensive force per unit area from urbanisation, over use of resources and war activities. Several indexs of environment debasement have been recognized in Basrah Province ( Jabbar, 2001 ) .
In this survey, a Landsat 5 TM image of March 1990 and a Landsat 7 ETM+ image of March 2003 were required. The orbit informations of the two images is 165/39, 166/38, 166/39, and 166/40, and their spacial declaration of 28.5 m. All the thematic beds were generated in GIS environment at a graduated table of 1:250,000. The package ‘s bundles used for this survey were ( ERDAS ver. 9.1 ) and GIS ( ArcGIS ver. 9.2 ) .
Fig.1: General location of survey country in the southern portion of Iraq.
Two interaction ends followed in this survey. In first phase, remote feeling techniques used in rating of surface alterations, finding the type of land usage categories. In following phase, country evaluated for environmental alteration by utilizing outstanding land debasement processes method and GIS tools and so to analyze the impacts of land use/cover category enlargement on environmental debasement ( Fig.2 ) .
Fig. 2: Scheme for the finding of the environmental debasement appraisal.
2.2.1. Processing of images and Field study.
To recover category boundary expeditiously, the pre-processing included geometric rectification which land control points were chosen citing to a topographic map of 1:250 000. In this research, two methods were used to recover category boundary, viz. supervised categorization and NDVI. Seven polygon secret plans were chosen for samples country study in the Basrah state. Based on the preliminary alteration sensing of NDVI analysis before the field work, 12 randomized trying sites were selected from each polygon. Meanwhile, the flora denseness spacial information was digitized from the topographic maps of the survey countries utilizing Arc/view GIS version 3.3a, and so flora denseness property informations were edited and added to the survey databases. The polygons and their properties were connected with a unvarying codification. An extended field study was besides performed throughout the Basrah state utilizing Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiving system set into WGS84 at zone NUTM38 and subsequently transferred to GIS and projected to the data point used for the orbiter images ( Jabbar et al. , 2006 ) .
2.2.2. Designation of Environment Degradation Processes
Environment alterations were identified from land usage maps produced from Landsat TM ( 1990 ) and Enhanced TM Plus ( ETM+ ( 2003 ) ) orbiter images. Environment debasement is brought approximately by a figure of ecological procedures including depletion of salinization, agrochemical pollution, dirt eroding, vegetive debasement as a consequence of flora screen alteration ( Thomas and Middleton, 1993 ; Gong, 1996 ; Warren, 2002 ) . In this survey, five major environment debasement procedures were recognized as prominent: flora debasement, loss of wetlands, flaxen desertification, urbanisation, and secondary salinization. These procedures can be described in Table 1.
Table 1: Describe of the outstanding environment debasement processes.
2.2.3. Environment debasement Indexs
The land debasement indexs were taken as a usher to measure the job of environment debasement in the Basrah state, Iraq. Four indexs have been identified as critical to the appraisal of environment debasement badness in the survey country: flora screen, extent of floating sand, urbanisation rate, and population force per unit area ( Table 2 ) ( Liu, et. al. , 2003 ) . The first three factors are premier indexs of land debasement and are straight derivable from satellite imagination. Population force per unit area is indirect, dynamic indices. They are critical indexs of the environment debasement jeopardy and its form of spatial-temporal alteration.
Since realistic appraisal is possible merely with the assignment of appropriate weight to the identified indexs, it was decided to categorise environment debasement in the survey country into four degrees: severe, high, medium, and low ( Table 2 ) . The threshold for each rank of a given index was set in conformity with the United Nations ‘ indices for environment debasement appraisal and with existent field observation. The largest weight of 0.4 was assigned to vegetation screen because of its dominant function in environment. A similar weight was allocated to coverage of floating sand and population force per unit area. A lower weight of 0.19 was given to the enlargement rate of urbanisation land ; adding up to a weight of 1.
2.2.4. Ratess of Environmental Degradation Change
Many theoretical accounts and indexs exist that are used to analyze the magnitude, rate and tendency of land usage and land screen alteration ( LUCC ) ( Al-Awadhi et al. , 2005 ; Awasthi, et al. , 2002 ) . This survey relies on statistics to find existent transition rates of land debasement. The undermentioned equation was used to cipher transition rates ( Velazquez et al. , 2003 ) :
Where ten is the transition rate of the environment debasement procedure, S1 is the debauched land country at clip t1 ( 1990 ) ; S2 is the debauched country at clip t2 ( 2003 ) ; n the difference in old ages between the two day of the months ( i.e. 13 old ages ) . The survey made usage of a passage matrix to depict land transition over the full survey period. A passage chance was adopted to carry on a tendency analysis of landscape spot kineticss ( Jia et al. , 2004 ) .
4. Consequences and Discussion
4.1. Detected land use/cover alterations
Table 3 quantifies the sum of land contained in each LULC category, the per centum of the survey country encompassed by the LULC category, and the sum of growing of each of the LULC categories from 1990 to 2003. It can be seen from the survey provided by the ERDAS package, which the overall truth of categorization of 1990 and 2003 reached 97.89 % and 95.93 % severally. The Results showed that the urban country, sand lands, and fresh lands had increased by the rate of 1.2 % , 0.8 % , and 0.4 % per twelvemonth, with country enlargement from 3299.1 km2, 4119.1 km2, and 3201.9 km2 in 1990 to 3794.9 km2, 4557.7km2, and 3351.7km2, in 2003 severally. While the flora screen and H2O organic structures ‘ categories were approximately 43.5 % in 1990, the per centum decreased to about 39.6 % in 2003.
Table 3: Calculated ( LULC ) classes sums monitored from satellite image for the survey country during the period from 1990 to 2003.
The passage matrix shown in Table 4 nowadayss transitions between land usage types between the early- 1990s and 2003. In entire some 19,070 km2 of land were evaluated for land use/cover transition. Table 4 suggests that ecological causes are behind about 32.3 % of the entire lessening of cultivated country. At the same clip, land of ecological value ( over 1144.2 km2 ) was converted to fresh land. Table 4 shows and quantifies the passage of one LULC category into another LULC category from 1990 to 2003. For illustration, the tabular array shows that 514.9 Km2 of land that had been classified as flora land in 1990 was classified as sand land in 2003, and 228.9 Km2 of land that had been classified as H2O organic structures in 1990 was classified as urban or built up and barren lands in 2003. This can be used to find the extent of the alterations taking topographic point in the LULC over clip. These consequences suggest that chances for land saving in the southern portion of Iraq are presently non really good.
Table 4: LULC cover passage Matrix ( Km2 )
From analysis for land use/cover alteration in Basrah Province counties during the past 13 old ages it can be found that country of urban substructure building and sand land increased a batch, while farming area reduced quickly. One direct ground for this alteration was the authorities policy “ returning farming area to transit and immense enlargement in military cantonments ” , which converted mass farming area to build-up country. Besides this ground, there are still four of import 1s for this great alteration. First, Basrah Province has been developing fast under the environment of rapid development of south portion of Iraq. For the interest of developing economic system such as rural development of the Ahwar part ( fen of southern Iraq ) and the Safwan-Zubair agribusiness near-urban interfaces ( south western desert ) . Therefore, the urban country increased quickly. At the same clip, a batch of farming area was converted to urban building land. Second, uninterrupted addition population and lodging demands accelerated the existent estate development on the outskirts of Basrah Province Counties, which converted farming area to residential land. What is more, traffic, H2O, power, natural gas and other assorted substructures are some other impulsive forces of urban development and enlargement. Large-scale substructure building has been developed in demand of rapid urban development, which provided convenience for the development of existent estate, industrial and economical development zone at the urban periphery. These buildings resulted in land usage alteration. In add-on, great demands for increasing agrarian productiveness due to urban enlargement were besides an of import ground. Centralized urban markets need abundant farm production, which can convey considerable economic benefits, hence to drive the accommodation of development of some particular farm production and agricultural constructions. This is the cardinal cause for internal transition of different sort of agribusiness land usage.
4.2. Environment Degradation Procedures
The transition rate o f the environment debasement procedure between 1990 and 2003 are given in Fig. 3. The negative bars represent land types that decreased in extent, whereas positive bars indicate land types that expanded. Wetlands and agricultural usage land decreased in extent land by 743.8 km2 which represents 0.7 % per twelvemonth. Desertified land, secondary salinization, and flora debasement increased by more than 0.8 % per twelvemonth. Sand land expanded by 438.6 km2 stand foring an addition of 0.8 % per twelvemonth. Areas of saline land and urbanization country besides increased badly between 1990 and 2003.
Figure 3 shows environment transition processes between 1990 and 2003 with all lands grouped in four bunchs. ( 1 ) Degradation of flora more than 2.7 % of the entire land country ( over 514.8 km2 ) and wetlands loss more than 0.9 per cent of the entire land country ( over 171.6 km2 ) , ( 2 ) Sandy desertification land affects more than 2.6 % of the entire land country ( over 495.8 km2 ) , ( 3 ) More than 0.5 % urbanisation ( loss of agricultural land usage ) ( over 95.4 km2 ) and ( 4 ) Some 1.3 % of the salinization land ( more than 247.9 km2 ) was degraded between 1990 and 2003. The addition of the country of debauched land was more than that of cured land. The alterations and spacial forms of environment debasement processes during 1990-2003 will be analysed afterlife.
Fig. 3. Conversion rates ( x ) among land usage types expressed in per centums
4.2.1. Degradation of flora and wetlands loss
By and big, the term ‘environmental debasement ‘ comprises flora debasement and wetlands loss which are considered to be cardinal constituents of tellurian ecosystems. They are environmental assets that are critical to set down protection, biodiversity, hydrological and geochemical rhythms, clime, and so on ( Turner et al. , 2000 ) . Inappropriate land usage alterations affect their ecological maps and lead to lessening of productiveness and biodiversity ( Shahid et al. , 1999 ) .
The consequences showed that flora screen in the full survey country was 5,107.8 km2 in the twelvemonth 1990, while it decreased to 4,765.6 km2 in the twelvemonth 2003 ; it forms 26.8 and 24.9 % severally. Wetlands saw a lessening 228.9 Km2 in size. Some of the fens converted to fresh land, while some of it was converted to urban. Finally flora countries saw a lessening in size. The largest part was converted to sand land, with another part converted to barren, and a important part was developed in to urban countries ( Table 3 and Table 4 ) . The consequences ( Fig.4 ) revealed that there was a important lessening in the surface H2O organic structures country has happened during the survey period. Initially Al-Qurna County has the biggest surface H2O organic structures ‘ country among the studied counties ; accordingly it gained a important decline in its H2O organic structure ‘s country from 710.4 to 673.9 km2 in the old ages 1990 and 2003, severally. The highest and the lowest alteration rate were 2.8 and 0.03 km2.Year-1 in Al-Qurna and Fao counties, severally. In the studied Basrah ‘s counties have got and diminish in their surface H2O organic structures ‘ country from 2627.6 km2 in the twelvemonth 1990 to 2530.2 km2 in the twelvemonth 2003. That lessening coupled with the lessening in the flora cover country of the seven counties of Basrah Province. The lessening in most of the surface H2O organic structures of the survey country refer to many grounds ; such as to the lessening in the flow of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers from the upstream states. Equally good as to the utilizing of rivers and lake ‘s H2O for the irrigation in the survey country due to the agribusiness is non possible without irrigation in the center and southern parts of Iraq. The statistical analysis showed this index ( NDVI ) has a important correlativity with H2O organic structures ‘ positive alteration ( 0.94 ) ( Fig.5 ) .
A comparing between values obtained in 1990 and 2003 ( Table 5 ) suggested that large-scale flora screen alteration had occurred in this country, during the 13 old ages of this survey. However, the flora country had decreased as a consequence of depletion of salinization, agrochemical pollution, and dirt eroding. In fact, many canals and H2O reservoirs were found in the images in 1990, but non in 2003. Consequently, this could be a possible ground for the lessening in country of flora, although there was no available informations to back up this. Even though there was worsening flora found in Basrah Province counties, the consequences in Table 5 exhibited indicants of flora alteration in screen. On the other manus, decreases in flora for location survey countries were found, bespeaking grounds of hapless land direction. This consequence revealed potentially bad land debasement countries for farther probe. Results besides suggested that sweetenings to this method could assist supervise the status and extent of salinization screen countries on the borders of flora countries. In the Table 5, the general appraisal for flora screen alteration in the Basrah Province was detailed. The full country was presumed to be capable to flora debasement, chiefly by anthropogenetic activities and climatic fluctuation. Thus, 60.9 % of the land country had severe to high flora alteration, while 39.1 % had moderate to low flora alteration uncovering the gravitation of flora screen alteration job in this survey location. For the south portion of Iraq, this was the first research to analyze flora alteration processes and to supervise environmental alterations utilizing distant detection, GIS and GPS techniques. These effectual and necessary methods were combined with experts ‘ sentiments to obtain scientific consequences for flora screen alterations.
Fig.4: The wetlands country values in the survey period from 1990 to 2003.
Fig.5: Correlation equation for the NDVI value and wetland country.
Table 5: Percentage of flora screens countries for each county in 2003 compared with 1990 in the survey location
4.2.2. Sandy Desertification
Iraq is enduring from desertification in the Middle and Southern parts of the state, estimated to be about one million hectares. This job started because of the negligibility of the job until it is expected now to make up to more than 90 % of the arable lands. The movable sand dunes have besides direct consequence on the substructure such as main roads, railroads, irrigation canals, agricultural dirts, dirt eroding, sand storms, every bit good as the direct negative consequence on the environment and human wellness. Sandy desertification besides affects works growing, particularly eatages and rangelands, which is considered as one of the most important jobs confronting Iraq carnal production.
The comparing of the land use/cover and the drifting sand coverage images, produced by using supervisor categorization ( Fig.6 ( a ) & A ; Fig.6 ( B ) and Table 3 ) and the transition rate of the environment debasement procedure, reveals that the extent of debauched land within the survey country has expanded from the Northwest towards the sou’-east, while the overall sandy desertification has worsened. This has been confirmed by field probe. The drifting sand coverage enlargement rate of 33.7 km2.yr-1 was in survey locations. Obviously, the rate of flaxen desertification has accelerated during the survey period within the survey part. Covering 19.9 % of the country, extent of sand motion is designated as badly debauched environment. Their extent is under the influence of floating sand and air current eroding, with flora screen of & lt ; 20 % . The bulk of land encrusted with sand motion is unsuitable for productive usage. Merely a little proportion of inter-dune countries can be used for croping. The consequences indicate that the flora screen in survey location declined from 19.5 % in 1990 to 12.7 % in 2003, which is designated as badly degraded ( Table 2 ) .
Highly degraded environment histories for 28.1 % in areal proportion, and debasement has been caused chiefly by floating sand. Sand motions in this class are semi-stabilized and have a wave-like visual aspect. Vegetation screen is merely 10-15 % . Less than a one-fourth of the survey country ( 4767.5 km2 ) is capable to the impact of floating sand and/or air current eroding, while flora covers less than 11 % . A sum of 21.5 % of the survey country was covered by floating sand in 1990 and this rose to 23.9 % in 2003, accompanied by a lessening in flora screen of the country from 26.8 % in 1990 to 24.1 % in 2003. It must be concluded that Iraq still faces a serious flaxen desertification job. In the past decennary, most rehabilitating attempts concentrated on the ecologically vulnerable northwest, at the disbursal of the Centre southwesterly zones which have become slightly ignored. Over half of the freshly desertified cultivated land is in the sou’-west.
Fig.6a: Drifting sand coverage on the survey country for the twelvemonth 1990.
Fig.6b: Drifting sand coverage on the survey country for the twelvemonth 2003.
4.2.3. Urbanization enlargement appraisal
Urbanization procedure in Basrah Province, Iraq has been accelerated after the authorities put up with scheme of fast development of urban economic, transit, and immense enlargement in military cantonments in the south portion of Iraq about 20 old ages ago, which has caused the losing of farming area in urban periphery country. By analysing the urban boundaries of Basrah Province counties in 1990 and 2003 resulted from supervised categorization, we can happen that during the 13 old ages, survey location has witnessed a rapid urban enlargement. From 1990 to 2003, the urban country has added 476.7 km2, from 3280.1 km2 to 3756.8 km2. The mean addition rate was 1.2 % per twelvemonth and the rate of addition ranged from 0.6 % to 1.7 % ( Fig.7 ) . The causes of urban enlargement in the centre and the south Basrah Province was the high and new technological industry zone, Basrah state economical, and technological development zone which are freshly located in these parts, severally. Because of large-scale building of development zone, big scale buildings of substructures have made urban enlargement to develop quickly.
The statistical information of the nose count showed a general addition in the population of the whole survey country. Population in the part increased from 1,556,445 in 1990 to 1,880,178 in 2003 with an attach toing increase in population denseness from 18 to 28 individuals km -2. One of the direct effects of populaAtion growing is the lessening in the handiness of cultivable lands, asking the enlargement of agribusiness into ecologically delicate land. The consequences of the statistical analysis showed that urban country has a important correlativity with addition population positive alteration ( 0.91 ) . It was a clear indicant of the great danger to the southern portion of Iraq really fertile cultivated land. This form of addition was largely related to the socio-economic conditions. Peoples tend to populate where the disposals are concentrated. Besides, where rural life is associated with a typical location scheme, as in survey location, these tendencies are ever on history of the fertile cultivated land. Hence, redistribution of disposal and work chances must be considered in set uping new urban societies. These conditions might hold their influence on people ‘s instruction and outlook, which may assist in following a civilised population policy.
Fig.7: The urban country values in the survey period from 1990 to 2003.
4.2.4. Secondary salinization
The accretion of salts in the surface and near-surface zones of dirts is a major procedure of environment debasement and is besides considered to be one of the chief causes of low harvest outputs and loss of land and production ( Thom as and Middleton, 1993 ) . Salinization has long caused serious harm to cultivable land and grasslands in center and south parts of Iraq. Inadequate land renewal and abuse of H2O resources have been the chief grounds of secondary salinization. The environment debasement countries in 2003 are larger than those in 1990: Abu Al-Khaseeb ( 2.40 km2 / year ) and Fao ( 2.34 km2 / year ) country is more than Al Midaina ( 0.64 km2 / year ) and Basrah ( 0.86km2 / year ) . The worsening flora is conspicuous in 2003 and larger than that in 1990 in the Abu Al-Khaseeb and Fao countries. However, extended environment debasement was clearly found in the survey location ( Table 6 ) . The consequences of the statistical analysis showed that saline country has a important correlativity with flora screen negative alteration ( 0.92 ) . The waterless environment of the survey country is characterized by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration. Human activities, nevertheless, increase salinization by inordinate application of irrigation H2O without equal drainage installations. The dirt in the transitional zone ( dirt type clay loam and silty loam ) is subjected to high to really high values ; this is attributed to the being of clay undersoil bed. Harmonizing to information analysis, precipitation in the country has been reduced in the last two decennaries. Temperatures in other parts of the affected parts are increasing, and accordingly, the vaporization potency is speed uping and the formation of dirt salinization is deteriorating by the above mentioned tendencies. Agriculture enlargement would be really hazardous in these environing countries because the dirt salinization in this country reduces the flora screen. This consequences in shallow saline land H2O and accretion of salt at the highest degree, due to the capillary motion of the H2O from extended vaporization from the dirt surface. The usage of temporal dirt informations to find salt of agricultural lands has ever been thought of as a fast and cost-efficient method to supervise salt jobs impacting harvest outputs. The usage of RS & A ; GIS for supervising salt has been demonstrated to be executable in big countries where salt is already a serious job. Overall, it can be concluded that soils in the southern parts of Iraq, particularly after get downing irrigation, show a important salt addition due to lift of groundwater degree ( run about 5~10 m ) , peculiarly in Abu Al-Khaseeb and Fao county in southeast portion of the survey country. To convey the salt accretion to an acceptable degree, the extra H2O demands to be removed from the system by the choice of a proper drainage method and by using H2O more expeditiously utilizing a proper irrigation method, and salt degree besides needs to be monitored at certain intervals for sustainable agribusiness in the country.
Table 6: Dirt salinization coverage per centums and their increasing rates in the survey country during the period from 1990 to 2003
4.3. Environmental Degradation Assessment
The five old prominent environment debasement procedures and transition rate were driven together for the appraisal of the environment debasement countries, on footing of the deliberate inordinate land usage alterations. Fig.8 and Table 7 shows the distribution of environmentally sensitive countries in survey location, it is clear that the sever sensitive countries to environment debasement in Basrah Province are found in the western parts, where the dirt quality, climatic quality and direction quality are low ; these countries represent 28.1 % of the survey location country ( i.e. 5358.7 km2 ) . The countries of high to chair sensitive for environment debasement exhibit the remainder of the southern parts of the survey location as it represent 52.7 % of the entire country ( i.e. 10049.8 km2 ) . The northern parts of the survey location are characterized by a really low and low sensitiveness for environment debasement as they represent 8.5 and 10.7 % of the entire country ( i.e.3661.4 ) severally. The low sensitiveness for environment debasement is due to the good flora screen and dirt quality. The consequences of this survey indicated that environment debasement consequences from natural and anthropogenetic factors. Overlay of environment debasement processes beds interpreted from multi-temporal remotely perceived stuffs in a GIS, in concurrence with field probe, revealed that the spacial extent of sandy desertified land in the country has drastically expanded during the thirteen-year survey period ( 1990-2003 ) .
Environmental debasement processes in the survey country was assessed through consideration of both natural ( vegetive index, dirt index, climatic index, floating sand ) and anthropogenetic ( Land use alteration ) factors in the survey. It was found that most of the survey locations were extremely environment debasement. The overall sensitiveness of environmental alteration has worsened during the survey period with debauched countries accounting for 61.9 % of the entire country in 2003. There is a clear tendency in the spacial distribution of the environment debasement way within the survey country, which goes from the Northwest toward the Southeast. The hazard has risen well, on an norm, by 40 % for all western parts of survey location between 1990 and 2003. In peculiar, the hazard has increased well for those countries non antecedently considered extremely vulnerable to debasement. Consequently, the disparity of environment debasement jeopardy among the survey locations has shrunk as all of them are at a higher hazard in 2003 than of all time before. The accentuation of environment debasement is attributed to struggles among human inAterest, increasing population force per unit area, limited land resource, and delicate ecosystems. Inappropriate human activities such as inordinate development of natural resource and misdirection of land, to a certain extent, have contributed to the environAmental devastation.
Fig.8: Environmental Degradation Assessment in Basrah Province.
Table 7: The classs of environment debasement and the proportion of each class
5. Decision Remarks
This survey examines the temporal and spacial form of environmental debasement as a effect of five outstanding environment debasement processes, viz. : flaxen desertification, secondary salinisation, urbanisation, flora debasement, and loss of wetlands. Using a combination of the techniques of distant detection and GIS, the survey clearly identifies a temporal form of land usage alteration within the Basrah Province characterized by a significant loss of field dry land and a phenomenal enlargement of urban building land. This survey has looked into the possibility of using informations collected by the land usage fluctuation study to analyze the awaited relationship between land uses/ screen alterations and environmental debasement in the south portion of Iraq. The assorted databases were linked through GIS ; the spacial distribution of land usage alterations produced realistic description of environment debasement in the survey location. The research shows that south portion of Iraq is rapidly traveling through land usage alterations ; the environment is adversely affected. Land debasement appears to be declining ; late Basrah Province experienced the most drastic unwanted alterations in land usage. These unwanted land use/cover alterations might hold been furthered by unequal policy steps which encouraged land debasement. For illustration, big countries of cultivated land became occupied by nonagricultural users as a consequence of a aggressively increased demand for existent estate, economic development countries and hi-tech industrial Parkss. However, the Iraq Government has recognized that land debasement obstructs farther sustain able development in the hereafter. Although some cardinal schemes, every bit good as practical and economic patterns have been implemented to battle land debasement, and although accomplishments have been reached, under increasing population force per unit areas and natural resource demand for rapid economic development, the state of affairs is far from satisfactory. Attempts should be made to follow powerful attacks to command and rehabilitate negative alterations to flora screen. Therefore, monitoring of the environmental alteration and regional planning in this part should go a precedence.
This survey recommended that there is a demand to set up a professional arid environment centre, which can be coordinated with authorities sectors and different universities in southern portion of Iraq to work out the assorted environmental jobs. It is besides necessary to compare the instance of Basrah Province with other of import metropoliss in other developing states that are sing similar forces of debasement procedures. It is hoped that our application of the techniques of distant detection and GIS to environmental research as demonstrated in this survey can open up new sphere of comparative research so that a wide and full image can finally be unfolded to cast visible radiation over the form and procedures of land usage transmutation in Iraq under environment debasement processes.
This research was supported by the Basrah University, Iraq and the outstanding doctor’s degree thesis Foundation of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, the Youth Chenguang Project of Science and Technology of Wuhan City of China under two Grants No. 20 0150 05037 and No. 20 0550 03059-34 and the Natural Science Foundation o f Hubei Province under Grant No. 20 05ABA0 47.