Has the economic integrating and trade liberalization of Nigeria by IMF enhanced its economic development?
Research Issue: This inquiry has contested several evoking and vigorous answers- following the ambiguities and contradictions of the IMF constructs that have riddled its intent, and has hence, created an tremendous uncertainness and complexness which obviously is raising new anxiousnesss and menaces to human security and development particularly in developing economic systems.
Method: My chief beginning of information will be from secondary informations such as: Google books, articles, books and diaries. I will use a qualitative method attack.
Purpose: The aim of this term paper is to analyze some economic indictors such as GDP, rising prices and other economic variables from these secondary informations to see if the integrating and trade liberalization of Nigeria by IMF has heighten the economic development of Nigeria or instead distorted its development.
Keywords: Globalisation, Economic Development, IMF, Nigeria, GDP, Economic growing, Inflation, dependent theory, Liberal Theory,
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
Sap: Structural Adjustment Programme
OECD: Administration for Economic Co-operation and Development
General agreement on tariffs and trade: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
World trade organization: World Trade Administration
International monetary fund: International Monetary Fund
CBN: Central Bank of Nigeria
Need: National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
MNCs: Multi National Companies
LDCs: Least Developed Countries
PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme
FDI: Foreign Direct Investment
OAU: Administration of African Union
Man: Manufacturing Association of Nigeria
NEITI: Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
NACCIMA: Nigeria Association of Chambers of Commerce. Industry, Mines and Agriculture
NIEC: National Economic Intelligence Committee
NASSI: Nigeria Association of Small Scale Industrial
The economic of Nigeria and as other British settlements has been under great influence dating back to 1846 when the protective barriers or responsibilities on agricultural imports were abolished. By 1860, all hint of limitation on trade and duty limitations were removed and an epoch of free trade imperialism pacts begun.The infliction of the Free Trade by the British on its settlements and informal imperium to obligatory maintain low duties by pacts with the main purpose of cut downing their sovereignty in commercial affair and giving exterritorial right to aliens ( Angus Maddison, World Economy, April 2001 ) .
The two universe wars shattered this broad order and caused the prostration of capital flows and the beggar-your-neighbour trade system. However, by 1950 to 1973 a important fast growing in the universe economic system was recorded and that epoch was referred to as the aureate age. This growing was due to several grounds but chiefly because of the creative activity of a broad international order by advanced capitalist states with expressed and rational codifications of behavior and establishments for co-operation ( OEEC, OECD, IMF, World Bank and the GATT ) in order to avoid the incur of the beggar-your-neighbour behavior of the pre – war old ages ( Angus Maddison ) . However, Nigeria and the remainder of the 168 states of the universe were considered ‘falter ‘ in their economic development because of the dismaying impairment in economic public presentation of these states after the aureate age. This broad international order is known as globalization today.
The issue of the ‘faltering economic systems ‘ of this heterogenous group of 168 states has brought inquiries, sentiments and positions of pros and cons of globalization. Some believe that globalization has made the universe healthier while other believes the contrary. Theodore Leavitt ( 1983 ) to explicate globalization market province that ”We live in a rapid globalising universe and certain national identifiers like gustatory sensation, engineering, market and finance are no longer constrained by national boundaries. They operate on a planetary footing. The specifying characteristics of globalization are mutuality and connection of the economic sciences, political relations and civilization of states and non uniformity of markets and gustatory sensation of a individual state ” ( Yong M, 1989 ) .
The more these economic systems integrate, on the one manus ; the more new thoughts about political relations, instruction, amusement and services and enlargement of local civilization margins are reinforced and diffused. On the other manus, the international web becomes progressively complex and unpredictable. Beside, as is known fact that, virtually all worlds are ”opportunistic ” ; barely would states work together and non desire to overreach one another either to derive an economic, societal or military advantage.
While sing the complexness of economic growing through integrating. The inquiry will be, is it possible for developing economic systems to transform into vivacious economic systems for growing and development amidst this complexness? Well, base on the complexness and fight of the developed economic systems over those of the developing economic systems and the inexplicit backup of these developed economic systems by international planetary establishments such as the OECD, WTO, GATT, IMF, and World Bank, a sustainable economic growing of these developing economic systems is slender. This has aroused great unfavorable judgments and close scrutiny of the impact of globalization on the development procedure of these developing economic systems because of the continual deceleration of these economic systems. This relentless state of affairs has resulted to the debt crisis of many of these economic systems and had led to swerve poorness, sordidness, want, defeat and worst political instability.
The term “ globalization ” is often used but rarely defined because of the huge reading of its phenomenon and possibly its multiple manifestations of its predominating tendency. It has become a cant of the century frequently use to depict everything that is go oning in the universe today. Since its coming, a one time thought large universe is made into a much smaller topographic point – where the interaction between different states and economic systems of the universe are progressively integrated by factors like cyberspace, Television, wireless and nomadic phones and the creative activity of establishment like World Trade Organisation ( WTO ) , World Bank and International Financial Institutions ( IFIs ) has expanded international trade and besides portfolio of investing such as foreign loans, international policies
Brittan ( 1998:2 ) viewed globalization “ as a whirlwind of relentless and riotous alteration which leaves authoritiess incapacitated and leaves a trail of economic, societal, cultural and environmental job in its aftermaths. ”
My ain reading of globalization is that:
“ Globalization is the marginalization of the developing economic systems by the developed economic systems for their self sustainability intents. ”
1.2 Research Question
Has the economic integrating and trade liberalization of Nigeria by IMF enhanced its economic development?
1.3 Research Issue
This inquiry has contested several evoking and vigorous answers- following the ambiguities and contradictions of the IMF constructs that have riddled its intent, and has hence, created an tremendous uncertainness and complexness which obviously is raising new anxiousnesss and menaces to human security and development particularly in developing economic systems.
1.4 Research Objective
The aim of this term paper is to analyze some economic indictors such as GDP, rising prices and other economic variables from these secondary informations to see if the integrating and trade liberalization of Nigeria by IMF has heighten the economic development of Nigeria or instead distorted its development.
1.5 Paper Design
There are about six different research designs ( Philosophical, Literature reappraisal, and Case survey, Survey, Evaluation and Experiment ) but I will be taking two among these six research designs.
Philosophic: it ‘s frequently used to analyze a research issue from another position because it is based on bing literature.
Literature reappraisal: this design purpose at summering informations already collected for a peculiar subject. When informations are qualitative, the analysis of this informations can make new cognition and positions on the affair antecedently put frontward.
2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
Nigeria, a state located at the trigger point of Africa and the enviousness of all African provinces was forecasted by economic experts to exceed in front of most of the African provinces in her economic development to go the giant of Africa and the international economic trade Centre such as Dubai, cardinal Asia and China of today. These believe and prognosiss were non merely based on mere inactive thoughts but on concrete facts of the handiness of natural resources, human resources and immense market base in Nigeria.
With the encouragement in agribusiness and gaining top dollar from the exportation of black gold, Nigeria discovered oil ; the money spinster, at Oloibiri in present Bayelsa province in 1956. Nigeria got her independency in 1960 and was seen as “ nature goes perfect ” – blessed with good clime and huge fertile agricultural land about twice the size of England with high human resource index and immense market base. With the abundant untapped natural resources, it was logical for anyone and non merely economic expert to hold thought that the engagement of “ economic sciences experts ” such as the IMF and the World Bank in the running of Nigeria economic system will speed up its passage to attained socio-economic stableness – being that these establishments chief ends and aims are to supply avenues for proper allotment of resources, monitoring of balance of payment, measuring and rendering proficient aid through economic Structural Adjustment Program ( SAP ) .
However, as the expression goes “ aˆ¦with great wealth comes greater jobs ” . Today, the oil-rich Nigerian economic system suffers from long hobbled political instability, corruptness, unequal substructure, and hapless macroeconomic direction. There is an acute growing in income poorness and worse of all, human poverty- this implies, the denial of picks and chances to populate a tolerable life ( United Nations, 1997 ) and the cardinal freedom of action and pick to act upon cardinal determination impacting their lives.
Apart from oil, the strength of Nigeria economic system lies in its rich agricultural resource base. From the 1980s agricultural productiveness was recorded to be on changeless decline due to abandonment for oil and that gave rise to rampant rural poorness. This has rendered the economic system vulnerable to external dazes which emanates from the fluctuations in universe oil monetary values and the rise of imports monetary values, hence making an external and internal instabilities.
These instabilities manifested trouble in balance of payment, unemployment and low use capacity in all sectors, and impairment in buying power. Between 1982 and 1994, the debt stock of Nigeria rose at an mean rate of 17 % – which means, stock of external debt increased by a factor of 33 in 22 old ages aside from domestic debt ( Iyoha, 1997 ) . Today, Nigeria ‘s public debt is more than 75 % of its GDP with the effectual debt to export ratio being more than 200 % . This ironically has shoot up Nigeria to be Africa ‘s biggest debitor with about $ 28.5billion to its external creditor and debt service payments of $ 3.3billion in 2002 alone and that is expected to be on changeless rise ( Debt Management Office, 2002 ) .
The growing rate of Nigeria external and domestic debt was 9.4 % in 2002 against the GDP growing rate of 3.3 % and the external growing rate of -6.7 % with the mean GDP per capita one-year growing rate of -0.4 % ( CBN Annual Report, 2002 ) .
Figure: Growth Rate of GDP, Income Per Capital and Total Dept
Beginning: CBN Statistical Bulletin 1999 and CBN Annual Reports and Statements of Histories 2002
During the 1960s, Nigeria ne’er observed double- digit rising prices. By 1976, the rising prices rate stood at 23 % . It decreased to 11.8 % in 1979 and gun shoot to 41 % and 72.8 % by 1989 and 1995 severally which marked the early period of the IMF Structural Adjustment Programm ( SAP ) .
Tendency of gross domestic merchandise of Nigeria at market monetary values
Table: Inflation, GDP and Exchange Rate
Gross Domestic Product
US Dollar Exchange
( 2000=100 )
Per Capita Income
( asA % of USA )
For buying power para comparings, the US Dollar is exchanged at 150.00 Nigerian Naira merely. ( IMF )
Based on the impact of rising prices, the per capita GDP today remains lower than in 1960 when Nigeria declared independency. By 2005, Nigeria ‘s rising prices rate was estimated to be 15.6 per centum and the GDP was composed of the undermentioned sectors: agribusiness, 26.8 per centum ; industry, 48.8 per centum ; and services, 24.4 per centum. ( NEEDS )
It is to be observed in the first graph ; the growing in GDP from 1970-1978 was recorded to be 3.1 % yearly and 1972 to 1973 was the oil roar epoch ; there was a singular growing in GDP of about 6.2 % yearly. However, in the 1980s to the 90s, Nigeria started to hold negative GDP growing rates. This period constitutes the Structural Adjustment Program and economic liberalization in Nigeria by the IMF and since so the economic has responded to a 4.0 % positive GDP growing rate.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the structural Adjustment Programmes introduced by IFIs ( IMF ) through globalization on economic development of the developing economic systems ( Nigeria as instance survey ) . This will be by the application of two economic theories ( dependence, broad ) and observation of the three economic development variables. The two economic sciences theories will assist to give more visible radiation on the analysis of the relentless poorness in the developing universe, Nigeria particularly, while the variables to show economic development. My pick of Nigeria as a instance survey is due to its idyllic background as a state of huge natural and human resources but 70 % of its population live below the poorness line ( World Bank ) . I will concentrate on IMF conditionality and its influence on the economic development of Nigeria.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Economic Development
There are legion definitions for economic development as there are people who pattern it. Economic development means different things to different people, which today makes the definition of economic development harder than of all time in a more concrete and outstanding footings.
Goncalo L Fonsesca at the New School for Social Research defines economic development as “ the analysis of the economic development of states. ”
The University of Iowa ‘s Centre for International Finance and Development provinces that:
“ ‘Economic development ‘ or ‘development ‘ is a term that economic experts, politicians, and others have used often in the twentieth century. The construct, nevertheless, has been in being in the West for centuries. Modernization, Westernization, and particularly Industrialization are other footings people have used when discoursing economic development. Although no 1 is certain where the construct originated, most people agree that development is closely bound up with the development of capitalist economy and the death of feudal system. ”
From other position, economic development involves the allotment of scarce resources – land, labor, capitol and entrepreneurship in ways which has positive consequence on the degree of concern activity, employment, income distribution forms, and financial solvency.
3.1.1 The Imperative of Economic development
Professor Dudley Seers argues development is about results and development occurs with the decrease and riddance of poorness, inequality and unemployment within a turning economic system.
The twenty-first century position of development encompasses a state ‘s consensus to accomplish sustainable growing, poorness decrease, gender equality, human development, environmental protection, institutional transmutation and human right protection. To set it briefly, development is the ultimate aspiration of modern economic systems, it is the upward motion of a state ‘s full societal system. More to the point, development is the remotion of any host of unwanted status that may commit a province of underdevelopment.
Economic growing is a requirement for economic development. Facilitating addition in the end product of major sectors of production of the economic system, such as natural resource and fabrication either by the betterment of the structural system such as engineering, will take to economic growing. ( Todaro, 1994 )
Kuznets ( 1971 ) defined economic growing as “ a long term rise in capacity to provide progressively diverse economic goods to its population ; this turning capacity is based on progressing engineering and the institutional and ideological accommodations that it demands ”
The obstruction confronting most of these developing states is the ability to make a more contributing ambiance for indispensable usage and harnessing of economic resources. The obstruction has increase anxiousness by the addition of economic liberalism that promotes free motion of capital that tends to sabotage and marginalize faineant economic systems.
This interdependent planetary economic dispensation has given rise to disparities among states of the universe on the attainment of economic growing.
3.1.2 Growth versus Development
However, before I go farther, I will wish to province that ; there is a considerable difference between economic growing and development. I may merely frankly province that, economic development is a nomenclature used to mention to the developing states and while economic growing refers to the developed states.
Economists Peter Bearse and Roger Vaughan write that:
Development is a qualitative alteration, which entails alterations in the structural system of the economic system, including inventions in establishments, behaviors, and engineerings which enhance growing,
While Growth is a quantitative alteration in the graduated table of the economic system – in footings of investing, end product, ingestion, and income ”
Amartya Sen province that:
“ Development requires the remotion of major beginnings of poorness every bit good as dictatorship, hapless economic chances every bit good as systematic societal want disregard of public installations every bit good as intolerance or over activity of inhibitory statesaˆ¦ . ”
Hence, on one manus, economic development can non be achieve without growing because it can be conceived as a multi-Dimensional procedure or phenomena-increase in per capital income, addition in GNP and better populating criterion of the population but, on the other manus, growing is possible without development for the mere fact that it is measured as the addition in GNP, it does non hold any other parametric quantity.
3.1.3 Historical development of the term
To go on it will be necessary to demo how this term ‘economic development ‘ has evolved over clip to include a wider assortment of variables and non merely concentrate on economic growing.
Economic development is a term conceptualised as a subdivision of economic sciences in the early twentieth century in fear to growing and industrialization in the capitalist society by the classical school of economic sciences. However, this school of idea did non set to consideration states like Africa, Latin America and Asia but instead an opposite contemplation of the developed universe that will catch up in clip. ( History of Economic idea, 2008 )
Economists after the World War II go more concerned about the low criterion of life in so many states, particularly due to decolonization. The purpose of the term changed to include non merely the Western universe but besides the less developed which in fact made most of the population of the Earth. Therefore, of import reserves were made as opposed to the ultimate aim of the survey of economic sciences to include other variable instead than merely economic growing.
With fast alteration in the political geographics of the universe, the demand for the formation of supranational organic structures ( IMF, OECD and World Bank ) that would supervise the smooth advancement of the underdeveloped states became necessary. The duties of these establishments are to work hand-in-hand with the local authorities of the developing states to prolong and speed up growing – rushing up advancement of economic development of these states.
Many believed that economic development started as capitalist economy but as clip went by and alterations occurred, the term shifted from capital oriented construct to place human capital gifts developed by Schultz ( 1951 ) as the primary obstruction to the realisation of the possible economic systems of graduated table inherent in the industrialisation of developing states. Singer ( 1964 ) contributed farther more to this societal development by including wellness and birthrate into the image. Integrating riddance of poorness, inequality and unemployment in the equation by Dudley Seers ( 1969 ) gave a noteworthy alteration in specifying the term economic development
By 1977 Seers developed a structuralised theory which included societal development and economic growing to the overall definition of economic development. As of this point, reserves were made for the 3rd universe states because of the typical feature that differentiated them from the western states.
Subsequently on, denationalization was introduced such as foreign MNCs as a factor in the economic development of least developed states ( LDCs ) by the Neo-Liberals in the 1980s. ( History of Economic Thought, 2008 )
Definition of Economic Development
I decided to set a definition of Economic Development that would outdo fit my analysis of a 3rd universe state.
Economic development is the cardinal procedure of increasing the factors of productive capacity- land, labor, capital, and engineering -through sustainable growing from a simple, low-income to a modern high-income national, province or local economic system. Its range includes the procedure and policies of utilizing its resources and powers to cut down the hazards and costs which could suppress investing but improves the economic, political and societal wellbeing of its peoples.
3.2 Economic Theories
The crisis confronting the developing states can non be accurately and decently analysed without the scrutiny of some theories underpinning the job. These crises have triggered scholar and authors with different theories, accounts and research undertakings aimed at work outing and conveying to illume the causes and complexnesss environing these crises. ( Baran, 1957, Frank, 1971 ) maintained that dependence theory is the best for understanding the causes of the crises. While others argue that development theory ( Rostowe, 1960 ) or economic accounts ( Offiong, 1980 ) give a more limpid position. Yet, there are others who contended that political accounts ( Migdal, 1988 ) or the broad theory ( Burchil, 1996 ) is of most of import.
For the intent of this paper, I will see the dependence and broad economic theories
3.2.1 Dependency theory
The economic system of Nigeria is in stagnations from the recent pandemic crisis of capitalist economy. Though it has ever been a beat-up economic system which has been enduring from a signifier of Dutch Disease socio-economic adversity and where the hapless multitudes benefited nil from the roar in the annals of Nigeria. Nigerians naively thought that for non being to the full integrated into the universe economic system, they could at worst receive a mere abrasion from this contagious capitalist economy crisis. However, this economic whirlpool was made genuinely planetary by globalization.
Andre Gunder Frank, one of the earliest dependence theoreticians, made it rather clear on this point, … historical research demonstrates that modern-day underdevelopment is in big portion the historical merchandise of past and go oning economic and other dealingss between the orbiter underdeveloped and the now developed metropolitan states. Furthermore, these dealingss are an indispensable portion of the capitalist system on a universe graduated table as a whole. ( Andre Gunder Frank, “ The Development of Underdevelopment, ” in James D. Cockcroft, Andre Gunder Frank, and Dale Johnson, eds. , Dependence and Underdevelopment. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1972, P ) .
This position shows that capitalist economy promotes greed and blind chase of net income. The enforcement of international division of labor is the one cogent evidence but the most expressed manifestation of this philosophy is the ‘Comparative Advantage ‘ feature. This division of labor ( dependent and dominant provinces ) is mostly responsible for the underdevelopment of big countries of the universe. The osmotic act that occurs in this system provides at big an ultimate account for the continuity of poorness in these countries of the universe. The dependent provinces are made to provide inexpensive minerals, agricultural trade goods, and cheap labor and these economic systems besides serve as the depositories of excess capital, obsolescent engineerings and manufactured goods. This flow of goods, money and service into the dependent provinces are considered maps which orient these economic systems towards the exterior. However, these dependent provinces have small or no influence to find the allotment of their resources ; it is instead determined by the economic involvements of the dominant provinces. This division is considered by the capitalist a necessity for efficient allotment of resources.
Dependency theory can be an account of economic development of a province in term of the external influences ( political, economic, and cultural ) on national development policies. ( Osvaldo Sunkel, The Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 6, no. 1, October 1969, p. 23 )
Dependence can be define with accent on historical dimension asaˆ¦ an historical status which shapes a certain construction of the universe economic such that it favours some states ( Dominant provinces ) on the hurt of others ( dependant ) and hence limits the development possibilities of the subsidiary economic sciences. This a state of affairs which the economic system of a certain group of states is put under unfavorable status by the development and enlargement of another economic system, to which their ain is subjected. ( Theotonio Dos Santos, Readings in U.S. Imperialism, 1971, p. 226 )
However, there are serious dissensions among the assorted strains of dependence theoreticians. Although there are some nucleus propositions which seem to underlie the analyses of most dependence theoretician, however there are vigorous and ambitious arguments among the broad reformists ( Prebisch ) , the Marxists ( Andre Gunder Frank ) , and the universe theorists ( Waller Stein ) on the dependence theory.
184.108.40.206 The Core Propositions of Dependency Theory
There are contestable Numberss of propositions, which form the nucleus of dependence theory. I will take two out of these legion propositions because the suit my paper:
1. Underdevelopment is a status basically different from undevelopment. The latter term merely refers to a status in which resources are non being used, while Underdevelopment refers to a state of affairs in which resources are being actively used, but used in a manner which benefits dominant provinces and non the poorer provinces in which the resources are found.
2. The differentiation between underdevelopment and undevelopment topographic points the LDCs states of the universe in a deeply different historical context such as “ behind ” or “ catching up ” to the developed states of the universe.
3.2.2 Broad Economic Theory
Capitalism has failed to develop Nigeria, despite it immense natural and human resources. The Nigerians with necessary lesson incur from capitalist economy needed an option for economic -oriented revolution. The neo-liberal proverb this as an chance to show itself as an economic option system for Nigeria and Africa as a whole. Since so, Nigeria has been compelled to get down one economic prescription after the other such as IMF and World Bank imposed reforms ; SAP ( Structural Adjustment Program ) , PRSP ( Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers ) etc. and now NEEDS ( National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy ) , yet poorness still prevail. The World Bank ‘s seminal study rubric: Sub -Sahara Africa ( 1999 ) signified an political orientation that retain both accent upon domestic beginnings of economic unease and the religion in broad economic policies which has a duplicate resemblance to belated centrality of province and accountable authorities to prolong the capitalist development. ( Sandbrook, 1993:2 )
This study claim that Africa needs non merely good administration but better authoritiess that will concentrate more on trade liberalization and non on direct intercession. Hence, a proposal of the transition of the monopolistic Africa provinces by IMF and World Bank into broad democracies linked to enlarge and rejuvenated private sector and to construct a Reformed provinces institutional capacity are preparations of neo-liberal capitalist to learn hapless states the good old – manner financial subject.
To state in a clear statement, broad economic theory is manoeuvre of the western capitalist to hold uninterrupted clasp on the developing states championed by the Financial Institutions ( IFIs ) . The major statement is that economic liberalisation has provided the flow of foreign investing into the developing states, as the agencies of cut downing trade and exchange limitations. This thought was that in the procedure of homogenising the political economic system of every member provinces of the international community, the creative activity of a market society on a planetary graduated table is achieved ( Biersteker, 1993 ) .
Professor Mason Gaffney, a renowned America economic expert stated that the neo-classical economic sciences present us with picks frequently excessively difficult a quandary. Harmonizing to him, these quandaries are picks of forfeits that are non favorable for authorities to set about and at the same clip developed. For efficiency, authorities must give equity ; to pull concern authorities must take down revenue enhancements so much as to do the closing of libraries and hunger the schools ; to forestall rising prices authorities must maintain a immense unfortunates rate of unemployment ; to do occupations authorities must masticate up land and foul the universe ; to actuate workers there must be unequal wealth distribution and so on.
These quandaries have provided the solid grounds that contribute to the present poorness in the developing states and these are by infliction of free market stenosiss on the developing states by the powerful trans -national organic structures ( IFIs ) which personify free trade liberalism as portion of their government political orientation. They lock peripheral provinces into understanding which forces them to take down their protective barriers thereby forestalling the developing states from developing trade profiles which diverge from the theoretical account dictated by their supposed ‘comparative advantage ‘ .
Burchill et Al, ( 1996 ) stated that ; the IMF and the World Bank for illustration, are responsible for the proviso of finance aid ( or more accurately ‘debt ‘ ) to developing societies upon the credence of the one-sided of free market regulations for their economic systems, the conditionality of the so called – Structural Adjustment Programme ‘SAP ‘ ( ibid ) .
3.3 The variables of Economic Development
3.3.1 Structural Change
Structural alteration is the key to economic growing ( Anonymous, 2006 ) . structural alteration means the accretion of physical and human capital and the acceptance, and accommodating of bing engineerings, permutation of imports and the entrance of the universe markets for fabricating goods and services.
Structural alteration is the alteration in industry such as addition in service sectors that is damaging to alter in the construction of production with the purpose to accomplish overall higher economic growing taking to an addition in end product and employment.
The most important difference drawn between the developed states and the developing states is the absence of structural alteration. However, whenever there is a structural alteration, for case technological invention, it is accordingly control by external forces such as MNCs. ( Ibid )
3.3.2 External Influence on Government
With the universe coming together economically ( globalization ) under liberalism theorem, authorities strength are been reduced in the production sector and worse authorities can be influence by external administrations. External administrations such as the World Bank and the IMF every bit good as MNCs, have the possible to act upon authorities and to rob it ‘s of control in the province hence doing a loss of legitimacy ( Riddell, 1992 ) . This loss of creditability by the province authorities can attest a drastic side consequence as political instability thereby taking to the decrease in effectual execution of economic development policies.
Miller ( 1992 ) outlined political and policy instability as the two type of possible side consequence of External influence on local authoritiess. Political instability is the possible alteration in the political system and the chances that evolve from such alterations and piece policy instability refers to the instability in Government policies.
Government engagement in the running of its economic affairs is the bedrock to effectual step to implement functional policies and to accomplish stableness. The major job frequently observed in relation to the developing states is the diminution capacity of provinces to implement effectual Economic development policies due to the profound impacts of the external force exerted on the province authorities by these administrations.
3.3.3 Environment Conditionss
Environment conditions are the direct consequence of economic development. The alteration in the character of the environment is intertwined with addition in economic activities. The concerns for these alterations, being it positive or negative, has become an issue in the last few decennaries and that has manifested an addition in the consciousness on the function of planetary administrations. ( Mastel 1999 )
These environment alterations are on the addition in the development states because of the increased engagement of the international administrations activities. The increased activities in those economic systems have an impact on the local environment. The abundant mineral resources in these underdeveloped states are the beginning of involvement for concern conductivity to these international administrations.
These international administrations have the capacity and capableness to act upon local authoritiess to implement policies that lone favours net income maximization and non for the improvement of the environment. This causes an inauspicious consequence on the environment such as depletion of mineral and other natural resource, debasement of land, H2O And air pollution due to production and ingestion activities. ( Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh, 2004 )
3.4 A Factor
Developing states and the universe economic system can mostly suit from the immense potency of globalization, particularly from the reform of international fiscal establishments such as WTO, IMF and World Bank ( Stiglitz, 2001 ) . Schumann ( 2001 ) asserted that this impact of globalization on states is through different factors such as IFIs and MNCs, my focal point will be on one of the interesting factor ( IFIs ) .
3.4.1 International Financial Institution ( IFI )
The really thought behind the formation of the International Financial Institutions after the post-cold war is to supply fiscal relieve through loans to its members, in the signifier of a province. Administration like commercial Bankss and international administration such as IMF whose chief service is to supply recognition internationally are defined as IFIs. I will be analyzing IMF as portion of the IFIs due to it taking function in the developing states as a supranational organic structure for development.
3.5 Conceptual Model
Supranational organic structures like IFIs and others factors have come to play a centre function in the economic development of Nigeria. The impact of globalization can be seen on theses states by analyzing IMF as supranational organic structure of the IFIs because they have become the chief instrument for the execution of the neo-liberal docket.
The economic development of the developing states can non be analyse decently without the application of the two economic theories reference and defined in the literature reappraisal:
Dependency Economic theory and,
Broad Economic theory
The historical background and the suited definition of economic development have been stated in the literature to demo the connexion of the three economic variables:
External influence on Government and,
These three variables are the component of economic development. IMF impact on these three variables will be analysed individually in order to mensurate their impact on economic development. When the economic development is positive so the three variable combined is positive.
The full three variables are dependent on each other. Any alteration in one leads to the alteration in the others because no economic variable is analysed independently.
4. EMPIRICAL DATA
4.1 Background on Nigeria
Nigeria with Area: 923.8 thousand sq. kilometer. ( 356,700 sq. myocardial infarction. ) about the size of California, Nevada, and Arizona, is located on the Gulf of Guinea on the west side of the Africa continent. It has a population of about 150 million, it ‘s the most thickly settled state in Africa and the continent ‘s prima oil manufacturer. A former British settlement, the state additions its independency in 1960. Abuja is the new capital metropolis replacing Lagos as the former capital metropolis in December 1991 ( Metz 1991 ) . Since from 1960 to 1999 the state has been staggering from one military putsch to another, which was all followed by seven bloody putschs and three ended in blackwash. In October 1995, the procedure of passing over power to civilian authorities was initiated and it eventually came to be in 1999 when the military authorities handed over power to a democratically elective authorities.
Till now, the state is under civil administration but it faces the turning challenge of forestalling Africa ‘s most thickly settled and 2nd largest economic system after south Africa from interrupting apart. Although Nigeria is considered a underdeveloped state, it ‘s GDP as for 2008 is estimated at $ 183 billion ( agriculture 33 % ; industry 39 % ; services 28 % ) . Real GDP growing rate ( 2009 ) : 4.4 % .
Oil growing: -18 % . Non-oil growing: 3 % .
Per capita GDP ( 2009 ) : $ 1,418.
Inflation ( 2009 ) : 11.5 % .
Foreign direct investing ( FDI, 2008 ) : 29.5 % of GDP
Currency: Naira ( 150 Naira = U.S. $ 1 as of March 23, 2010 ) .
( May 12, 2010, Bureau of African Affairs )
4.1.1 Economic History of Nigeria
International trade have been impacting Nigeria economic development dating as far back as 1000 AD. This started when the major lands and imperiums initiated a terminus of north – south trade between north African Barbers and forest people who exchange slaves, tusk, and kola nuts for salt, glass beads, corals, fabrics, arms, brass rods, and cowrie shells used as currency. Among these trades merely the slave trade boosts the economic of Nigeria, even though it ‘s considered immoral. The European established coastal ports in the 17th through 19th centuries for the increased on traffic of slaves destined for the Americas. With the slave trade declare illegal, Nigeria turn to trade good trade, particularly in palm oil and lumber, to replace the slave trade, peculiarly under the anti-slavery action by the British Navy.
The British expanded trade with the Nigeria inside to the Napoleonic wars. About 1885, the British claimed a domain of influence in the western portion of Nigeria which received international acknowledgment. By 1900 the district came under the control of the British authorities, which instantly consolidates its clasp over the country of modern Nigeria. In 1914, the country was officially united as the “ settlement and Protectorate of Nigeria ” .
As for all settlements in Africa, Nigeria started to provide ( export ) the British with natural stuffs ( primary goods ) on a really low duty while the concluding manufactured goods ( secondary goods ) are import back to Nigeria on a really high duty. There was a growing in the construction of economic system which helped do Nigeria a net exporter which gave the domestic makers a opportunity to dominant a place over the imported merchandise. Although about 80 % of the state ‘s population depending on the agricultural sector can gain merely plenty to last ; globalization of industry was considered a positive impact to Nigerians by the British ( Ekundare, 1976 ) .
The British administered northern and southern Nigeria individually ; the northern part retained their faith – based administrative constructions under an “ indirect regulation ” agreement with the colonial governments. While it administered direct regulation in the West, and south ; therefore the influence on instruction system by the British was established more strongly in the South and west than in the North, with the societal, cultural, and political effects still apparent today.
The economic expert created the international economic order after the war universe II in order to avoid the happening of the “ beg- thy- neighbor ” policy which caused the great depression in the 1930s ( ITO, 241 ) . With the war universe II over, the demanded for independency by Nigerians resulted in consecutive fundamental laws legislated by the British Government – traveling Nigeria toward a representative self-determination. With the find of oil one will presume that with a stabilised economic and political policies Nigeria should be stepping into its independency with the hope of shortly go a state of major wealth.
4.2 IMF Background
The International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) was established from 1st -22nd July 1944 by 44 states subscribing the Article of Agreement in Breton Wood at the United Nation Monetary and Financial Conference, New Hampshire. At 27th December 1945 the Article of Agreement enter into force after confirmation by 20 -nine states and by 8th -18th March 1946 ; the administration held its first of all time meeting in Savannah, Georgia to follow bylaws and elect its first executive managers. The fund ‘s central office location was decided upon by governors to be Washington D.C and by 6th May 1946 the 12 executives held their first meeting in Washington D.C.
At 1st March 1947 operation eventually began with the intent of keeping on a model of exchange rate for international free trade. With the universe shifted off from the gilded criterion in the 1970s which caused the fixed exchange rate system collapsed, IMF faced crisis of intent. Because of this, IMF so bit by bit transformed from a currency modulating establishment to a policymaking strategic establishment to integrate poorness decrease policies every bit good as making economic stableness ( BBC, 2008 ) , ( de Vries 1986:14 ) .
The creative activity of the LDCs made IMF ‘s to concentrate on fiscal aid to these developing states which are termed “ disadvantage in their development ” . However, this fiscal aid comes with a weight burden of conditions which are imposed on the recipient authorities and these loans are normally provided in foreign currency.
Since the 1970s, the IMF has quickly transformed and today it engages in set uping macroeconomics policies to poorest parts of the universe. Unfortunately, It ‘s became preoccupy with the power to order wide plans to sovereign states. By the twelvemonth 2000, about 60 states participated in IMF plans with the purpose of poorness obliteration, publicity of international fiscal stableness and national prosperity. However, the fiscal instability of East Asian ( 1997-8 ) , distributing to Thailand, Korea, and Japan, followed by Russia and Brazil where million of lives were affected and the economic convulsion threaten the remainder of the universe, brought strict and closed examination on the answerability and transparence of IMF operations.
One out of the legion cardinal jobs of the IMF operations is the marginalization of the developing states represented in the administrational degree. In other words, the ability of these developing states to take part in the policy devising is impossibly obstructed, and hence, precedences of the IMF do non needfully reflect the position of these developing states. This means that the developed states can fundamentally dominant board determinations doing it impossible for the developing states representatives to act upon the board docket on their precedences. ( Carin and Wood, 2005 )