Compare the verse forms “ The Charge of The Light Brigade ” , and its lampoon “ The Last of The Light Brigade ” researching the subject of war and its glory. Explore besides the conflicting attitudes to war, propaganda and falsity that can be drawn from “ All That is Gold Does Not Glitter ” and associate this to Kipling ‘s onslaught on laureate Tennyson ‘s verse form for its ‘Dunkirk-like ‘ feel.
Man it seems, has ever wanted to laud war ; the populace would instead hear narratives of fantastic forfeits and baronial Acts of the Apostless than of the human cost. Equally good as researching the go oning desensitisation of adult male to war, this essay seeks to research and extricate the conflicting attitudes to war and war propaganda that are set out in: “ The Charge of The Light Brigade ” by A.L. Tennyson, “ The Last of The Light Brigade ” by Rudyard Kipling and eventually “ All That is Gold Does Not Glitter ” by J.R.R. Tolkien. Each provides its ain angle on the subject and uses a assortment of mechanisms ( whether subtle or distinct ) to show it.
Rudyard Kipling is believed to hold been offered the station of Poet Laureate during the latter old ages of his life, but if so he turned it down. Kipling had ended his instruction without the makings to travel to Oxford. Alternatively he became editor of ‘The Military & amp ; Civil Gazette ‘ . He wrote at that place that he had ever regretted “ war ‘s cicatrix on society ” despite warranting it enthusiastically in assorted war booklets that he wrote for World War One.
Tennyson was really awarded the rubric of Poet Laureate in 1850[ I ]. His predecessor, William Wordsworth – a adult male who had accepted the place on the footing that his capable affair would n’t be restricted – had died earlier that twelvemonth in April. However as civil war approached, Tennyson saw the return of traditional poetic subjects. His plant in this period began to have the subject of war more and more, so – unsurprisingly with such powerful and sturdy messages attached to them – they acted as propaganda.
Influenced by the sovereign, Tennyson sought to propagate thoughts about war and other foreign personal businesss whilst besides composing commemoratively about birthdays, vacations and local or national events. Upon reading “ The Charge of The Light Brigade ” 1 might inquire at how factual the history is. Inklings of bias root from the deficiency of attending to whoever “ had blooper ‘d ” whilst the poet endlessly speaks of the “ baronial six hundred ” and the purportedly honest “ alteration they made ” . The verse form can hence be interpreted in two ways: foremost a cover-up for the errors of “ person ” that resulted in a slaughter about pass overing out the full brigade ; or alternatively, as I believe one where Tennyson is seeking for replies to the loose-ended London Times article of the same rubric[ two ]. I feel Kipling may hold mis-interpreted the verse form for its first significance and missed the latter, where Tennyson seeks the same replies and justness as Kipling. In this instance the phrase “ person had blundered ” appears in the article as “ some horrid blooper ” – this indicates that the poet aimed to fault person ( perchance the lieutenant general Lord Cardigan ) for the catastrophe.
In this case ambiguity helped Tennyson to carry through his ain purposes for the verse form ( to inform the populace and by making so to arouse idea or even acquire a public response of some description ) without demoing his attitudes to war in a distinct manner. Attitudes of the kind would most surely have been considered stubborn and erroneous at the clip, particularly for a adult male appointed to show the political positions of the sovereign himself. However ambiguity has other functions to play, this is why it features so much in the really best of poesy. Upon first reading J.R.R. Tolkien ‘s verse form ‘All That is Gold Does Not Glitter ‘ I wondered to what extent the rubric and gap line are merely rephrasals of the well-known expression: “ Not all that glisters is gilded ” . As a affair of fact the first bill of exchange for the verse form did utilize this corrupted version of a line from the Shakespearean drama, ‘The Merchant of Venice ‘ .
Personification is used smartly in Kipling ‘s The Last of the Light Brigade, this clip to depict the aging brigadiers whose caputs were “ scarred and lined ” ; victims of the “ Russian sabers ” . Kipling describes the blades as “ acute ” , this is rather interesting because the description is besides an illustration of “ double-entendre ” . Keen could merely be interpreted to intend crisp, or as suggested by the consecutive line that the blades themselves were acute to conflict. Clearly one must acknowledge that the actual reading of the line ( in which the inanimate blade is given human emotion ) is absurd. Alternatively, analyze the acuteness of the blades metonymically – the blade, so normally associated with its wielder is merely being used to stand for the whole.
All three verse forms use initial rhyme in a similar manner to heighten their beat ; one of the clearest illustrations being from ‘All That is Gold Does Not Glitter ‘ : “ Deep roots are non reached by the hoar ” . Another from ‘The Charge of The Light Brigade ‘ allows the sounds of the conflict to be heard every bit good as merely imagined: “ Reel ‘d from the sabre-stroke, Shatter ‘d and sunder ‘d ” . Again “ Storm ‘d at with shooting and shell ” uses sibilance alongside the harsher ‘t ‘ and ‘d ‘ sounds leting for the aforesaid onomatopoetic consequence. Both examples give the lines really disconnected tones.
This fragmentedness would fit Tennyson ‘s rime strategy which despite mostly utilizing iambic pentameter varies to trocheeic and dactylic. Furthermore Tennyson breaks the regular ten-foot line into jumping lines of four and six pess. This gives the line a lumbering rhythym which many associate with the galloping of Equus caballuss or a war membranophone. I, nevertheless, would diverge from this position ; the abnormalities alternatively conjure images of gimping soldiers – an ground forces in full retreat – to my head. Furthermore these abnormalities become more and more common after the ground forces begins to withdraw in the 5th stanza. I feel that if Tennyson had intended otherwise he would non hold broken the traditional ‘rules ‘ of poesy that if broken can go unbearable.
Although the device is non used in the other two verse forms Rudyard Kipling cleverly uses the “ kiddies at school ” as a foil to his ain mentality. This is interesting because it challenges the infantile ignorance of non merely the childs that recite the poetry but of the work forces that read the intelligence article, blinded so volitionally to the true horrors of war. In this manner Kipling reinforces his ain statement by flooring people into sing their ignorance decently.
Onomatopoeia is one literary technique used in all three of the verse forms. The best illustrations come from Tennyson ‘s work, he would hold chosen rough words like “ Cannon ” , “ Storm ‘d ” and “ Shot ” to portray an image of pandemonium in the heads of the audience. Tolkien excessively uses the technique with words like “ glister ” and “ spring ” which suggest reclamation whereas Kipling uses the device more acutely with trochaic words like “ gimping ” to reflect the asymmetric pace of a hurt soldier.
Parallelism is yet another craft technique used by Rudyard Kipling to mock Tennyson. The phrase “ into the oral cavity of snake pit ” for illustration is reflected in the 6th poetry of Kipling ‘s verse form when the writer alternate – “ the old-troop sergeant ” – says: it ‘s all come true what you wrote, sir, regardin ‘ the oral cavity of snake pit ; For we ‘re all of us nigh to the workhouse, an ‘ we thought we ‘d name an ‘ Tell ” .
Indeed analogues run on every degree throughout all three of the texts. They all revolve around the subject of war, and, in making so they cover the subject of alteration. Many of the analogues seem instead eldritch: Tolkien writes that “ The crownless once more shall be king ” . This seems to emulate how the soldiers in ‘The Last of The Light Brigade ‘ began the verse form “ death of dearth ” with “ neither nutrient nor money ” but complete with “ 20 lbs and four ” . Even though it was Kipling who wrote the “ ‘to-be continued ‘ or ‘see-next page’o ‘ the battle ” the forecasted generousness of the English allows the verse form to take on a prophetic tone. It acts proactively, seeking future amendments to past errors, and finally chainss out the ‘Dunkirk-feel ‘ from Tennyson ‘s ain misconstrued supplication for justness.