The Representation Of Religious And Social Difference English Literature Essay

The representation of spiritual and societal difference is doubtless of import to playwrights in the Jacobean Period, as audiences would be interested in the representations of the societal alterations engendered in this period. Sing play is written and performed for the amusement of audiences, the playwrights would desire to portray a realistic yet overdone representation of these alterations, which audiences could aline to and would pay to watch.

With the market economic system blossoming, the population in London tripled from 120,000 in 1550 to 375,000 in 1650, to go the ‘fastest turning economic system in Europe ‘ ; life in England was altering well, particularly London. There was besides a rise in societal power of the citizen category which finally would change both societal ethical motives and beliefs. These alterations would hold created tensenesss within society, straight impacting the playwrights ‘ lives, implicating both the manner they would compose and experience. The playwrights ‘ would hence be intrigued about the alterations in society and accordingly would desire to react to the societal transmutations in their dramas.

Shakespeare surely represented societal tensenesss in his work, for illustration, in Measure for Measure he represents the tensenesss of sex before matrimony. Yet, I believe the best illustration emerges from within the new sort of play produced in the early seventeenth century called ‘city comedy. ‘

‘City Comedy ‘ is ‘characterised by its modern-day urban subject-matter and its portraiture, frequently satirical, of middle-class life and manners. ‘[ 3 ]Ben Jonson ‘s Bartholomew Fair and Thomas Middleton ‘s A Chaste Maid in Cheapside are both categorised within the ‘city comedy ‘ genre ; and both, by some grade of simplification, represent a microcosm of the alterations, every bit good as societal beliefs within London. Middleton and Jonson deploy machinations about societal position, sex, matrimony and faith within their dramas, and both clearly find the representation of societal difference and faith critical facets of their work.

A Chaste Maid in Cheapside is preponderantly set in Cheapside in London. Significantly, the side streets are named after market trades such as Goldsmith ‘s Row – the gap scene. The scene of the drama clearly relates to the market economic system and the representation of Cheapside is all about philistinism, as I will discourse subsequently. Middleton ‘s usage of scenes encourages the audience to grok the market topographic point before the drama commences.

Middleton was surely interested in the outgrowth of the market topographic point, picturing a sense that everything and everyone within Cheapside is marketable. This is illustrated through a household struggle between the character of Moll and her male parent Yellow-shafted flicker. Yellow-shafted flicker wants to efficaciously merchandise his girl for personal addition by get marrieding her to Sir Walter Whorehound, a knight. Through organizing the matrimony, Yellowhammer would be set uping his household in the societal hierarchy, but does non see the felicity of his girl. Moll wants to get married Touchwood Junior who is from the citizen category. Touchwood Junior does non hold a high societal position but has moral values, unlike Sir Walter, a ‘whoremaster ‘[ 4 ]. Sir Walter, despite his knighthood is a delusory, lubricious animate being. He arranges a matrimony for Moll ‘s brother Tim, to finalize the matrimony trade between himself and Moll, but is in fact get marrieding Tim to a Welshman ‘whore ‘ ( 5.4.110 ) .

Sir Walter, is besides the bastard male parent of Master Allwit ‘s kids, this is established when Allwit ‘s describes his nescient kids, saying ‘they do non know/ the gentlemen that sits there ‘ ( 1.2.113-114 ) . Allwit is willing in the corruptness and even goes to the extent of depicting his grasp for the knight who ‘upholds my married woman and me ‘ ( 3.2.70 ) , strictly because Sir Walter provides his household with fiscal stableness. Here, Middleton presents a category interested strictly in economical addition instead than morality. Allwit is fundamentally selling his married woman to fulfill Sir Walter ‘s pleasances, doing her into a high category cocotte. This is heightened by the imagination of a cuckold symbolised by ‘horns ‘ ( 1.2.74 ) and that of a ‘dildo ‘ , ( 1.2.57 ) clearly associating to Allwit utilizing Sir Walter to maintain his household. The mention to ‘dildo ‘ would be humourous on the audience, as they are able to conceive of Allwit ‘s useless and possibly fresh phallus, unlike Sir Walter ‘s well used phallus.

Yellowhammer farther illustrates that he has no self-respect and would instead hold economic comfort in Act 4. Allwit ‘s [ disguised ] informs Yellowhammer of Sir Walter ‘s nefarious nature, yet Yellowhammer insists his girl to get married Sir Walter. Audiences can non assist but oppugn Yellowhammer ‘s morality as a male parent. Through Middleton ‘s representation of the extent characters would travel to derive wealth, he is able to knock those who try to derive societal wealth at any monetary value. Middleton heightens the imagination farther to picture Yellowhammer ‘s girl ‘s celibacy as marketable. Middleton ‘s representation creates a singular microcosm of a society that is altering due to a turning market economic system, encouraging audiences to see the impact on their ain lives.

Similarly, Jonson in Bartholomew Fair represents the turning market economic system. Besides set in London but in Smithfield, Jonson is able to stand for through the puting entirely the consequence of the turning population in London. Kinney describes how the ‘sights, the odors, the noises, the cheating and perspiration and peeing… characterise congested Jacobean London. ‘[ 5 ]Middleton ‘s amusing representation of the scene has a immense impact on the audience, as they are able to see immediately the consequence the growing of population could hold ; yet at the same clip Middleton ‘s amusing representation entertains the audience.

Jonson uses a calculated absence of focal point on characters to enable himself to stand for a broad assortment of people in society, from the aristocracy such as Winwife to the stealers such as Edgworth. The scene of the just smartly provides a topographic point of impermanent societal levelling, showing the rise in power of the citizen category every bit good as the thin line division between the categories. Through the representation of the merchandisers at the carnival, Jonson is able to exemplify how the lower categories in society were able to happen new ways to gain a life. Ursula the ‘pig adult females ‘[ 6 ], I believe is the strongest representation of the lower categories ability to do a life. Ursula and her booth are cardinal to the carnival ; her booth is the topographic point in which everyone meets. This undoubtedly makes her manner of life cardinal and Jonson ‘s representation of her vital to the drama ‘s message. Ursula adulterates merchandises to increase her net incomes, and ‘true fast one [ s ] ‘ ( 2.2.122 ) her clients by taking away their ale prematurely so they invest in more.

Ursula, Trash, Leatherhead amongst the other merchandisers, exploit all degrees of society rip offing anyone regardless of category ; they sell some of their goods for ‘five shillings more ‘ ( 3.3.181 ) depending on the client. They besides manage to hook from the rich, and at some points in the drama make the upper categories appear nescient. This is demonstrated when Edgworth manages to steal Cokes ‘s bag twice. Coke ‘s ignorantness that his ‘purse is gone ‘ ( 3.5.206 ) stolen by Edgworth, refers to Edgworth as ‘an honest gentlemen ‘ ( 3.5.204 ) showing his complete cluelessness. Nightingale and Edgworth so steal his blade, hat and dissemble symbolizing Coke ‘s loss of his aristocracy whilst in the just land. Jonson here represents a universe where the lower categories are deriving societal power and happening ways to do a life. Through this overdone secret plan Jonson is able to make a condensed yet realist position of how he feared the alterations in London enormously impacting an audience of that clip.

Jonson ‘s besides represents the just as a topographic point where societal position can be levelled yet at the same shows the danger of excessively much or excessively small Torahs. The merchandisers violate condemnable jurisprudence, they are stealers ‘ prostitutes ‘ and procurers yet they are able to self-regulate Torahs of their ain to make their illumination community. The community within the just seems to fulfill both basic economic demands such as doing money, every bit good as fulfilling human desire such as sex, nutrient and drink but ever ends in corruptness. Jonson ‘s representation of the merchandisers creates a contrast to his ain society, which was rupturing itself apart by both political and spiritual struggles ; this is peculiarly depicted through the character Overdo with his ‘political encephalon ‘ ( 3.5.2 ) , who is a steadfast truster in condemnable jurisprudence ; this is echoed in Trouble-All ‘s stiff lines as he polices the just saying ‘If you have Justice Overdo ‘s warrant, ‘t is good ; you are safe ‘ ( 4.1.24-25 ) . Overdo is so rigorous on the Torahs that he even adopts ‘a camouflage ‘ ( 2.1.3 ) to set up the ‘enormities ‘ ( 2.1.53 ) in society ; but rapidly demonstrates his ignorance in the universe of the carnival when he mistakes a pickpocket for a ‘civil immature adult male ‘ ( 3.3.19 ) . Within the drama Jonson creates two such contrasting images of excessively much and excessively small jurisprudence that the audience can non assist but inquiry which is better. Too rigorous of Torahs seem to keep the freedom in humanity which encourages the citizens to desire to indulge in their desires ; yet the just community that can indulge in whatever they wish show pure corruptness where they are willing to steal off each other. I believe here Jonson is exemplifying that Torahs should be in topographic point yet there should besides be some freedom for human desire as this allows people to self-regulate and larn how to populate in a community.

As Moll becomes a mercenary object in A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, Grace Wellborn in Bartholomew Fair besides becomes bound by mercenary considerations. Grace at first is unable to worsen Overdo ‘s proposition for her matrimony to Cokes because she is scared of losing her belongings. She subsequently devises a clever program to prove the earnestness of the two work forces who wish to get married her, she requests that ‘If you both love me, as you pretend your ain ground will state you but one can bask me. ‘ ( 4.3.8-9 ) Here Grace proves she is capable of make up one’s minding her ain hereafter. Likewise Moll who refuses to get married Sir Walter, and protects her organic structure from the whoremonger by making so ; Grace tries to protect her organic structure from the carnival which she has ‘no such fancy to ‘ ( 1.5.134 ) visit. The fact both adult females refuse matrimony illustrates that the adult females were resigned to the market economic system and were non traveling to be ruled by it, they both protect their organic structures from the pandemonium of London Life.

The communities presented in both dramas, clearly depict a society that appears to recognize ‘the monetary value of everything but the value of nil ‘[ 7 ], particularly that of matrimony. Arbors describes how:

material societal conditions determine single consciousness within tough and tough-minded amusing truths: Life is inexpensive. Desire is expensive.[ 8 ]

I believe Bowers sum-ups philistinism absolutely. In A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, the characters do non look entirely satisfied. The clearest illustration comes from that of the Kixes. The Kixes desire kids, they are financially affluent but hapless in kids. This causes matrimonial issues so far so that Lady Kix shouts at her hubby to ‘Be hanged! ‘ ( 3.3.58 ) , this of class would make a amusing consequence on the audience yet still shows Lady Kix ‘s hurting. The couple hear of Touchwood Seniors ‘magic Waterss ‘ that ne’er fail to bring forth a kid and pay Touchwood Senior ‘four hundred lbs ‘ ( 3.3.154 ) ; clearly exemplifying the disbursal of desire. Of class, it is non merely a fiscal disbursal, Middleton ‘s usage of dual entendre in linguistic communication such as ‘yours must be taken lying ‘ ( 3.3.177 ) clearly signifies another cost, a cost in which Sir Oliver Kix becomes cuckolded. Interestingly the lone chaste brotherhood in the drama which is between Moll and Touchwood Junior is allowed because of ‘the Acts of the Apostless of criminal conversation ‘ ( p.595 ) ; Moll parents are distracted at their boy ‘s delusory matrimony, and Moll has betrayed everyone by forging her decease. Middleton ‘s representation of matrimony and human demand for desire, illustrates the transmutations in moral and societal normalcy that were go oning in London during this clip.

It is of import to observe that Middleton was non entirely in the representation of matrimonial battles. Jonson besides depicts in Bartholomew Fair a universe where matrimony at first seems the value of everything, but so of nil. The drama begins with Cokes sing the metropolis to obtain a licence to get married Grace Wellborn, but ends in good married womans such as Win Littlewit turning into prostitutes, and matrimony licences being stolen and changed.

The larceny of these licences represents that all right line between a citizen and a condemnable. Quarlous witnesses the larceny but instead than describing it he uses it to his ain benefit for a ‘piece of service ‘ ( 3.5.290 ) , blackjacking Edgworth to steal the matrimony licence. This aligns Quarlous a adult male of English aristocracy, to the same degree of the low category felons at the carnival. However, the fact that Quarlous is disguised suggests that possibly he does non recognize himself in the universe of the carnival.

Bartholomew Fair and A Chaste Maid in Cheapside represent how human desire can besides pervert faith. A Chaste Maid in Cheapside is set during Lent ; this is important in the representation, as Lent is a clip when people are meant to command their enticements and fast from nutrient and celebrations. Despite this spiritual and devoting clip, the people in Cheapside can non assist themselves ; the characters are engulfed by consumerism interested in personal addition, and are indulgent in meat. Even the Promoters are happy to take payoffs ; in Act 2 the audience witness the boosters taking meat off a citizen, but disregarding the basket of meat containing, ‘A rack of mouton… [ and ] … half a lamb ‘ ( 2.2.135 ) off their ‘benefactors ‘ ( 2.2.138 ) .

Bartholomew Fair represents faith in a much more interesting manner, picturing how the spiritual were able to happen moral grounds to indulge in their ain desires. Zeal-of-the-land Busy rationalises his presence at the just despite it being against all his spiritual beliefs. Jonson satires against Busy, a Puritan by stand foring him as hypocritical ; Busy is able to ‘exceedingly ‘ ( 1.6.115 ) eat the porc at the carnival to ‘process… [ his ] hatred and abhorrence of Judaism ‘ ( 1.6.113-114 ) . Busy consumes two whole hogs, clearly showing his hatred of Judaism as an alibi for him to indulge in his ain desires. Jonson exaggerates the idiosyncrasies of all members in society to show his anxiousnesss of a altering society.

Through Jonson ‘s usage of metadrama at the beginning of the drama, he is able to support the theater at the terminal. Busy claims during the marionette show that the show is an ‘abomination ‘ ( 5.6.115 ) because of the cross dressing, where work forces are dressed as adult females. The marionette so lifts up his garment to uncover he is neither male nor female ; Busy claims to be ‘converted ( 5.6.135 ) . Again, Jonson demonstrates the importance of representation as here he is able to support his art.

Middleton and Jonson hence illustrate the importance of the representation of faith and societal difference, non merely to convey their ain anxiousnesss in society but besides to portray their ain beliefs. Through overdone amusing state of affairss both are able to picture the consequence that the alterations in England, specifically London, were holding on civilization. They besides create a sense that if people were able to understand the alterations in society, without going mercenary and corrupt so possibly civilization could stay. This is heightened at the closing of both dramas which end in matrimony and supper, both images of civilization.

Word count: 2,498