The Victorian Era: Old Heroes and New Fears. The Victorian Era began when Queen Victoria ascended the British throne in 1837 and lasted at least to her decease in 1901 ; and one could reason that the values of the Victorians held sway over Western civilization for many old ages afterwards. During this period, Britain experienced rapid industrialisation and became the most politically powerful state in the Western universe. The literature of this period reflects and critiques the English nationA’ ‘s outgrowth as a dominant imperial power. Some of these plants offer nostalgic and idealised contemplations about a simpler universe of the past, while others express pride, or dismay, at the British EmpireA’ ‘s turning might, influence, and duties.
Closely connected to Britain’A’s spread outing political and military position was the development of capitalist economy, international commercialism, and rapid urbanisation in many countries of Britain. Similar to the societal unfavorable judgment that we observed in earlier writers’A’ plants, many Victorian authors sought to expose the negative effects of these developments. Ironically, one of the reactions to the countryA’ ‘s turning international influence was an addition in xenophobia ( misgiving and disfavor of aliens ) in Britain. Literature of this period is frequently didactic ( strongly moralistic ) and reveals many biass and cultural premises, under the pretense of right and incorrect.
In the readings for this lesson, we will place the types of heroes that emerged in English literature as Britain assumed the mantle of A“a universe power.A” Specifically, weA’ll look into how Victorian thoughts about gallantry were influenced by new constructs of national individuality, every bit good as altering economic and societal kineticss. Tennyson’A’s poesy will give a us a sense of patriotism and nationalism ; RossettiA’ ‘s narrative verse form, A Goblin Market, illustrates how international commercialism intensified isolationist inclinations of some British people who feared the infiltration of foreign thoughts ; and Dickens ‘ famousA Christmas CarolA presents an fable of the moral reforms necessary to counter the rough societal effects of industrialisation and capitalist economy.
Lesson Five – Reading Assignment
“ A“The Victorian Age ” A” inA Masters of British Literature, vol. B ( 567-90 )
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “ A“Ulysses ” A” ( 649-50 ) ; A“ ” Traversing the Bar ” A” ( 701-2 ) ; A“ ” The Charge of the Light Brigade ” A” ( 689-91 )
Christina Rossetti, A Goblin MarketA ( 894-907 )
Charles Dickens, A A Christmas CarolA ( 782-833 )
Tennyson wrote A“ ” Ulysses ” A” while in his twentiess. The storyteller is Ulysses, the Greek war hero ( besides known as Odysseus ) whose return place after the Trojan War took ten old ages. The talker is now an old adult male who seeks one last escapade. However, some critics argue that the talker sounds more like a immature adult male than an aging warrior, and they identify the talker with the spirit of a immature Empire, tidal bore to spread out its rule across the universe.
What is your feeling of the character of Ulysses, based on this dramatic soliloquy?
What image of gallantry does this verse form nowadays?
Compare the voice of the talker in A“ ” Ulysses ” A” with that in “ A“Crossing the Bar ” A” ( p. 701-2 ) , which was written by the aged Tennyson, shortly before his decease. How are they similar? How different?
About twenty old ages after composing “ A“Ulysses, A” ” after he had been appointed Poet Laureate, Tennyson wrote “ A“The Charge of the Light Brigade. “ A” This verse form commemorates a brigade of British soldiers in the Crimean War, most of whom were killed due to a bungled bid.
How would you depict the tone in this verse form?
Is the talker unfeignedly praising the heroism of these soldiers?
Could the speaker’A’s tone be dry?
Is there a manner to read both esteem and choler in these lines?
Christina Rossetti wroteA Goblin MarketA in 1859, apparently as a children’A’s narrative. In this narrative about two sisters who encounter foreign goblin work forces who sell exotics fruits, Rossetti weaves together allusions to the scriptural narration of the Fall and original wickedness, Victorian attitudes about female pureness and animal cognition, and English xenophobia in response to increasing international imports into Britain.
The hob men’A’s fruits are out, repeating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden. What sort of cognition do these fruits symbolize and why does such knowledge lead adult females into a downward spiral towards decease?
What happens to Laura when she gives in to enticement and trades a lock of her hair for the fruit? Why canA’’t she see or hear the Goblin work forces after this point?
How does Lizzie salvage her sister? Why do the juices of the toxicant fruit become the counterpoison to this toxicant? What is the true counterpoison in this verse form?
Why are the Goblin work forces described as holding the faces of animate beings? What sorts of animate beings are they? What do these mentions to animals typify?
What attitudes does Rossetti adopt about aliens and international commercialism? Why would international trade be viewed as endangering to English society?
Describe the messages that this narrative conveys to its readers, peculiarly to adult females.
Charles Dickens published his now famousA A Christmas CarolA in 1843. The notoriously tight-fisted banker, Ebenezer Scrooge, personifies the cold indifference of capitalist economy itself and its inanimate forces of supply and demand.
Merely as the Ghost of Christmas Past appears at Scrooge’A’s bedside, the storyteller says:
“ The drapes of his bed were drawn aside ; and Scrooge, get downing up into a half-recumbent attitude, found himself face to face with the spiritual visitant who drew them: A as near to it as I am to you, and I am standing in the spirit at your cubitus. “ A ( 797, accent added )
What is the consequence of this direct reference from the storyteller to the reader at this precise minute in the narrative? Think about how this rhetorical technique places the reader in ScroogeA’ ‘s place ; why might Dickens wish to make this feeling?
Mentioning specific transitions from the text, explain howA A Christmas CarolA is both a merchandise of a capitalist society and how it critiques such a society. For one illustration, you might see why Scrooge’A’s fiancee interruptions off their battle. How does she depict Scrooge?
See the information you have read about Victorian society and the poesy that we have studied. Then, explicate how Dickens epitomizes a Victorian writer. How is his work similar and/or different from the verse forms that we have read?
Lesson Five – Writing Assignment
Short Answers about Victorian literature
In about 500-750 words entire, answer each of the following four inquiries about the readings:
See TennysonA’ ‘s verse form “ A“Ulysses ” A” and Rossetti’A’s poemA Goblin MarketA and depict how they present distinguishable images of maleness and muliebrity, severally. In other words, use these two verse forms to explicate Victorian ideals of manhood and muliebrity. Quote specific phrases in each verse form to back up your analysis.
See the undermentioned transition and so reply the inquiries below:
But the strangest thing about it was, that from the Crown of its caput at that place sprung a bright clear jet of visible radiation, by which all this was seeable ; and which was doubtless the juncture of its utilizing, in its duller minutes, a great asphyxiator for a cap, which it now held under its arm. . . .
A‘Are you the Spirit, sir, whose coming was foretold to me? ‘ asked Scrooge.
‘I am. ‘
The voice was soft and soft. Singularly low, as if alternatively of being so near beside him, it were at a distance.
‘Who, and what are you? ‘ Scrooge demanded.
‘I am the Ghost of Christmas Past. ‘
‘Long Past? ‘ inquired Scrooge: observant of its dwarfish stature.
‘No. Your past. ‘
Possibly, Scrooge could non hold told anybody why, if anybody could hold asked him ; but he had a particular desire to see the Spirit in his cap ; and begged him to be covered.
‘What! ‘ exclaimed the Ghost, ‘would you so shortly put out, with secular custodies, the visible radiation I give. Is it non plenty that you are one of those whose passions made this cap, and force me through whole trains of old ages to have on it low upon my forehead? ‘
Scrooge reverentially disclaimed all purpose to pique or any cognition of holding wilfully bonneted the Spirit at any period of his life. He so made bold to ask what concern brought him at that place.
‘Your public assistance! ‘ said the Ghost.
Scrooge expressed himself much obliged, but could non assist believing that a dark of unbroken remainder would hold been more contributing to that terminal. The Spirit must hold heard him believing, for it said instantly:
‘Your renewal, so. Take attentiveness! ‘
It put out its strong manus as it spoke, and clasped him gently by the arm.
‘Rise! and walk with me! ‘
It would hold been in vain for Scrooge to plead that the conditions and the hr were non adapted to prosaic intents ; that bed was warm, and the thermometer a long manner below freeze ; that he was clothed but lightly in his slippers, dressing-gown, and nightcap ; and that he had a cold upon him at that clip. The appreciation, though soft as a adult female ‘s manus, was non to be resisted. He rose: but happening that the Spirit made towards the window, clasped his robe in invocation.
‘I am mortal, ‘ Scrooge remonstrated, ‘and apt to fall. ‘
‘Bear but a touch of my manus at that place, ‘ said the Spirit, puting it upon his bosom, ‘and you shall be upheld in more than this! ‘
Explain the significance of the visible radiation that radiates from the caput of the Ghost of Christmas Past ; why does Scrooge desire the spirit to set on his cap, and why does this petition make the Ghost angry?
Explain the significance of the Ghost’A’s bid: A“ ” Rise! And walk with me! A” ”
When Scrooge realizes that the spirit intends to go forth with him through a window, he exclaims in a terror, A“I am a person. . . and apt to fall.A” Explain the significance of ScroogeA’ ‘s words.
Describe howA A Christmas CarolA criticizes the effects of capitalist economy. Compare DickensA’ ‘ concerns with Rossetti’A’s fright of foreign influence on English society.
Briefly describe each of these authors’A’ representations of gallantry, based on the plants weA’ have read in this lesson.
Ulysses of Ireland is a literature of the watercourse of consciousness published in 1922, written by James Joyce ( James Joyce ) . The fresh takes the clip as the order, describes the supporter, the advertisement salesman ‘s all the day-to-day experience of interior Dublin Leopold Blum ( Leopold Bloom ) on June 16, 1904 one twenty-four hours. Joyce chose this twenty-four hours to depict because on this twenty-four hours he and his married woman Nora Barnacle ( Nora Barnacle ) foremost dated. The rubric of the novel comes from the Greek myth of hero Odysseus ( Odysseus, the Latin name for Ulysses ) , and “ Ulysses ” chapters and content are besides frequently show the parallel relation with the content of Homa epic “ Odyssey ” . Leopold Blum is a modern reproduction of Odysseus ‘s anti-hero, his married woman Morley Blum ( Molly Bloom ) matching to Odysseus ‘s married woman, Pa Nero Per ( Penelope ) , the immature pupil Stephen Dedalus ( Stephen Dedalus, Joyce ‘s early works “ portrayal of the creative person as a immature hero ” , by Joyce herself ) matching to Odysseus ‘s boy, Twiller Marko J ( Telemachus ) . Joyce Bloom will be in the Dublin streets twenty-four hours rolling likened to Odysseus overseas ten old ages down. The fresh utilizations of a big figure of inside informations and the watercourse of consciousness technique to build a staggered mussy infinite, linguistic communication and forms a sort of alone manner.
“ Ulysses ” and Joyce ‘s other plants largely have their life paradigm in characters. Joyce was born in a good economic status of the Catholic household, but subsequently as a consequence of the Irish civil rights leader Parnell ‘s ruin and the male parent of the household is in straitened fortunes. Alcoholism makes Joyce besides choose to give up the Catholic religion. In 1902 Joyce left for Paris to analyze medical specialty, and out of the Catholic rebellion Joyce had refused to kneel. Joyce subsequently put this experience to compose the first chapter and rendition of “ Ulysses ” . In 1904 Joyce left once more, and met a immature medical pupil, the poet Olive Sanjohn Gogati. Although non to swear him, Joyce is still attracted by his endowment, Gogati subsequently became Mulligan paradigm in the “ Zhuang cervid ” of “ Ulysses ” . Gogati rented a house in Dublin Bay, Ireland against Napoleon Bonaparte onslaught edifice Martello, to be used as originating the Irish Literary antediluvian Hellenistic Culture Movement, Joyce was in the invitation in the rock garrison. But the two have frequent clash, subsequently Gogati a British friend in Oxford besides moved into the rock garrison. He likes Gail, and gives a individual ‘s name to a Gail, he became Hayes paradigm in the Joyce book. One dark he dreamed of being Panthers trailing incubuss, half awaken he about had grabbed the gun and pulls the trigger, which about hits Joyce. Joyce decided to go forth instantly stone garrison and non come back, though it was the center of the dark, this experience is besides written “ Ulysses ” the first chapter by Joyce subsequently.