Waste Before It Is Disposed At The Landfill Environmental Sciences Essay

Waste before it is disposed at the landfill, undergoes many phases. These phases can be classified as aggregation, recycling, intervention and disposal itself. The direction of waste is a procedure that should be a really cost-efficient one which will better the wellness of the populace and besides reduces the environmental hazards. Proper handling of waste remains limited in urban metropoliss if the manufacturers do non presume their ain duty. Taking the instance of Phenom Penh in Cambodia, 12 % of its entire waste is recycled and reused. This is done with the aid of waste choosers, garbage aggregators without excluding the purchasers ( chhun et al. , 2012 ) .

Sanitation is of extreme importance. The Solid Waste Management of a peculiar country normally reflects the degree of sanitation of that country. Refuse aggregation is an built-in portion of Solid Waste Management and extremely contributes to a good degree of sanitation. Imagine for one second that there was no proper scavenging service in Mauritius. The state would hold been in a muss with the 1200 dozenss of solid waste that is generated daily around the whole state. We better non even think of it. Attempts are made worldwide to better the Solid Waste Management already in topographic point so as to get by with the of all time increasing solid waste burden.

The work of garbage aggregators is a really risky one. Their on the job environment can bring forth inauspicious wellness jobs such as chemical Burnss, cuts and roseolas. There are besides risky stuffs like disposable acerate leafs, broken spectacless, Canis familiaris onslaughts, plagues, bad conditions, disgusting olfactory properties and besides gnawers.

Mentioning to the United States of America, waste aggregation can be classified as one of the most unsafe occupations done manually ( Business Insider, n.d ) . Assorted beginnings show that it is so found in the top 10 most unsafe occupations to such an extent that the work of a police officer is far less unsafe than that of a waste aggregator ( Business Insider, neodymium ) .

Furthermore, the aim of this survey was to do an appraisal of the wellness and safety issues encountered by employees in the wellness section of local Governments in Mauritius. Waste aggregation is done by local governments in Mauritius. The local governments consist of 5 municipalities for urban countries viz. , The Municipality of Port-Louis, The Municipality of Quatre Bornes, The Municipality of Curepipe, The Municipality Beau Bassin/Rose-hill and The Municipality of Vacoas/Phoenix. As for the rural countries, there are 4 territory councils looking after waste aggregation. It has been found that the employees viz. the waste choosers, weedkiller sprayers and general workers suffered from diseases and accidents and even the on the job conditions were non in their favour.


Solid waste direction is a systematic control of coevals, aggregation, storage, conveyance, beginning separation, processing, intervention and disposal of solid waste ( Robinson, 1986 ) . Over the last few decennaries, the rate of coevals of waste in Mauritius has been increased to an resulting degree due to the addition in population, industrial growing and rise in populating criterion. It has been proved that in the old ages 2001-2009, the measure of domestic pay has increased by 60 % ( GOV, 2005 ) .

AA waste collectorA is a individual employed by a public or private endeavor to roll up and removeA refuseA from residential, commercial, industrial or other aggregation site for farther disposal ( Dustman, neodymium ) .

However, hazards are involved in all activities in waste aggregation, either to the worker or the occupant himself. The hazards depend on the nature of the natural waste and its composing, the nature of the waste in a decompozition and of class the manner it is handled. Waste choosers are undoubtfully exposed to occupational wellness and accident hazards. These are caused due to the stuffs handled and their working environment ( Poulsen et al. , 1995 )

There are legion occupational accidents among garbage aggregators. The hazard factors should be considered as an incorporate entity, i.e. hapless handiness to the waste, may move in concert with high working rate, hapless light taking to ocular weariness and besides musculus weariness due to frequent work burden. ( Poulsen et al. , 1995 )

Refuse aggregators suffer largely from musculoskeletal jobs. It was found that mechanical burden affected largely the spinal column and that energetic burden had a negative consequence on the cardio-pulmonary system while roll uping waste in any solid province ( Poulsen et al. , 1995 )

1.3 Purposes and Aims.

Safety and wellness issues of employees of the local governments such as garbage aggregators, weedkiller sprayers, general workers and office workers pose a menace in Mauritius. Our chief purpose is to analyze the current safety and wellness jobs that these employees face in their day-to-day life.

The set aims are:

To transport out a thorough literature reappraisal.

To acknowledge and understand the safety and wellness issues encountered by workers of the local governments.

To measure the jeopardies and the degree of hazards they represent.

To reexamine bing control measures to extinguish the safety and wellness issues.

Recommending other control measures to extinguish or replace those issues.

Flow of thesis

The survey is reported in five chapters, the following being the inside informations.

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter contains all the relevant sectors and inside informations pertinent to the country under probe.

Chapter 2: Reappraisal OF RELATED LITERATURE

Presents the reappraisal of related literature and surveies refering to the survey undertaken.

Suggested commendation for future researches

Chapter 3: Methodology

Gives a elaborate description of the method adopted for the survey, tools used for the survey, the sample taken, disposal of the tools and an history of the statistical techniques used for analysing the informations obtained from the survey.


Concerned with the analysis of the information followed by the consequences of the survey.

Chapter 5: Decision AND SUGGESTIONS

Summarizes the survey in retrospect. The of import findings and a few recommendations for farther research are presented.

Chapter 2 Literature Review.


2.1.1 The associated wellness effects.

Pesticides are chemical substances used in the wellness sector to kill mosquitoes and other plagues that injury human existences ; and in the agricultural sector to destruct unwanted weeds, diseases that affect workss ( Damalas and Eleftherohorinos, 2011 ) . Pesticides can be grouped in term of weedkillers, insect powders, antifungals and bacteriacides.

Harmonizing to field surveies and worldwide secondary informations, unwellnesss and deceases are caused majorly due to pesticides exposure ( Wilson, 2005 ; Maumbe and Swinton, 2003 ; Wilson, 1999 ; Antle et al. , 1998 ) . Pesticides have been purely developed in a mode so as to work safety and non to jeopardize lives of people, but surveies have been demoing that in developed states being exposed to these chemical substances for long period of clip affect the wellness of workers in the agricultural sectors. This state of affairs keeps on worsening ( Maumbe and Swinton, 2003 ; Roberts et al. , 2003 ) .

The different illness that workers who are exposed to pesticides range from concerns to chest strivings. As a consequence, these workers either stop up in the infirmary for intervention or do usage of home-made natural medical specialties ( Wilson and Tisdell, 2001 ) . Sri Lanka Annual Health bulletins, 1985-2001, shows that yearly, more than 15,000 husbandmans are treated in authorities infirmaries. As per studies carried out, these people fell ill because of handling and spraying pesticides ( Wilson, 1999 ) .

Some signifier of acute unwellnesss that were common to workers working with pesticides on spraying yearss and even on non-spraying yearss ; are faintish feeling, concerns, sickness, annoyance of eyes and teguments, musculuss jerking and failing, take a breathing troubles, spasms, diarrhoea and shudder ( Maumbe and Swinton,2003 ; Wilson,1999 ) . Forms of chronic wellness effects are chest strivings, sightlessness, loss of memory, ulcers, depression and malignant neoplastic diseases ( Maumbe and Swinton, 2003 ; Keim and Alavanja, 2001 ) .

The wellness hazards associated with improper handling of pesticides are categorized in footings of ague and toxicity, carcinogens, teratogens ( Takagi et al. , 1997 ) . He besides concluded that people exposed to pesticides present non merely wellness but societal issue as the exposures result in eventful wellness upsets such as shot, respiratory upsets, encephalon and liver tumours, malignant neoplastic diseases, epilepsy and eventually decease.

Personal Protective equipment.

Covering with pesticides introduces serious wellness effects as mentioned above and occupational jeopardies such as direct chemical contact for worker responsible for their commixture, managing, lading and spraying. Observations have been made about the increasing exposure of pesticides-workers are due to inadequate personal protective devices and other safeguards non taken ( Wilson 2005 ; 1999 ) . In a study of operator ‘s attitude to put on the line carried out, it is seen that certain people believe that if pesticides are placed in market to be sold, they are non harmful to the wellness ( Landers, n.d ; Perry et al. , 2000 ) . It is believed that the quality and measure of work is more of import than taking the clip have oning personal protective equipment.

In Japan, it is reported that organophosphate agricultural pesticides caused terrible jobs to the eyes due to the absence of people have oning goggles and non merely the eyes were targeted as path of entry but besides the olfactory organ ( Dementi, 1994 ) .

However, some people are cognizant of the safety that protective equipment provides to them but decline to utilize it ( Weingart et al. , 1996 ; Partridge et al. , 1995 ; Stone et al. , 1993 ; Eggertson and Perkins, 1993 ) . The chief ground for non utilizing them is due to heat. Workers that fit in full organic structure overalls were those targeted. In the survey of Tijani ( 2006 ) , he noted that workers who were hand-spraying pesticides did non utilize any baseball mitts because of inability to see decently and boots because of their weightiness and deficiency of comfort ; and some were even put the spray nose in the oral cavity to blow thereby take stuck objects which expose them to high degree of pesticide taint. In other topographic point of work, he besides noticed that workers were given personal protective equipment that was worn-out and unfit.

In add-on to that, when there are pesticides that splashed on sprayers ‘ organic structure, workers believe that rinsing with H2O is sufficient instead than traveling to the infirmary. But nevertheless, the study shows that bulk of pesticide sprayers are cognizant of the dangers of pesticides and wear vesture such as safety places, inhalators, baseball mitts and goggles if provided to them by their employers. In another survey, it is shown that agricultural farm workers had to buy protective equipment and other precautional steps on their ain outgo and they suffered from loss ( Sodavy et al. , 2000 ) . For those who do non trouble oneself about buying their ain protective devices, they prefer have oning the traditional jerseies and denims ( Wilson, 2005 ) . But, on the other manus, this survey will non be considered methodological in Mauritius because the workers are already provided with appropriate personal protective devices.

Weather conditions.

Harmonizing to the sprayers, windy and cheery conditions pose great job in countries they work. If there is a alteration in way and they have to spray in the opposite way, they apply more chemicals to make the mark ( Mekonnen and Agonafir, 2002 ) . However, wind plays a major function in pesticide exposure to sprayers. The more the speed of air current, the greater the spray impetus and the more the sum of pesticides lost.

In cheery conditions conditions, the temperature is high and low humidness degree significance there is rapid vaporization of the pesticides. Chiefly, pesticides sprayers have to exercise more to forestall volatility. Secondarily, workers perspire more and experience hot and uncomfortable ; they do non have on protective equipment and tend to imbibe more while spraying pesticides ( Damalas, and Eleftherohorinos, 2011 ; Gil et al. , 2008 ; Jindal et al. , 2007 ; Fenske and Day, 2005 ; Gomes et al. , 1999 ) . As a consequence of these conditions conditions, workers working with pesticides face wellness jobs such as direct tegument exposure, respiratory jobs due to inspiration. Harmonizing to the surveies performed by the former writers, their methods are favourable to be used in Mauritius since we are situated in below the equator and most of the clip the temperature is high, which leads to the same neglecting behaviours of the workers.

Personal hygiene, consciousness and degree of instruction

During the procedure of spraying pesticides, the attitude of the sprayer is of paramount importance. Papworth and Paharia ( 1978 ) say pesticides if non handled with attention can turn out toxic and harmful to users. The degree of literacy is co-related to that of consciousness and patterns when utilizing pesticides.

Harmonizing to a survey made by Mekonnen and Agonafir ( 2002 ) , they found that bulk of the sprayers are educated until primary degree. They could non understand, read or compose instructions given on bundles that are most of the clip written in other linguistic communications. As a consequence of this, these workers are more open to hazards as they ignore instructions and basic guidelines that are aboriginal for their safety and wellness. Furthermore, these workers do non even bother taking a bath after utilizing pesticides because certain specific topographic points do non suit for shower installations. Even if there have been spills on their organic structure, they believe that a mere lavation will take the chemical substances.

As per the study Wetterson ( 1998 ) , authoritiess and companies in the agrochemical industries barely give information refering safety and wellness on utilizing pesticides. Most of the clip, the linguistic communications are from foreign states that end-users can non understand. Pesticide sprayers who can neither read nor compose English either have another worker explicating the instructions or do non follow any safety guidelines. It is acknowledged that pesticide sprayers, who have knowledge about the harmful wellness effects that pesticides cause, can non interpret it into their patterns or to others ( Zyoud et al. , n.d ; Isin at Yildirim, 2007 ; Atreya, 2007 ; Damalas et al. , 2006 )

Harmonizing to the survey made by Tijani ( 2006 ) on ‘pesticides use and safety issues ‘ , he found that deficiency of instruction and consciousness in Nigeria impacted on the wellness of pesticides users. Normally, chocolate pesticides are packed in metal and plastic containers and anecdotally ; husbandmans were seen to rinse these containers for local use such as hive awaying nutrient and oil. Furthermore, these containers are kept in their sleeping room, sitting suites or kitchens. Scientifically, research has shown that hints of pesticides still remain even after rinsing, and with such insecure pattern, the husbandmans and their households are roll uping pesticides in their organic structure.

Since bulk of the clip, pesticide sprayers are found working in agricultural Fieldss for long period of clip ; they have no lavatory and rinsing comfortss. They are forced to utilize installations available in the Fieldss near the treated countries. There are still sprayers who eat, imbibe and smoke during their work. Besides, these individuals keep their repasts near pesticide containers and their imbibing beginning semen from the pesticide treated topographic point ( Mekonnen and Agonafir, 2002 ; Gomes et al. , 1999 ) .

Problems with spillage, botching and leaks.

The wellness and safety issues with pesticides happen due to misapply and mistreat, disregarding instructions given on how to safely utilize them ( Tijani, 2006 ) . The job that arises with pesticides is the spatter and spillage of the chemical. It is known that liquids are really much prone to sprinkle. Workers see jobs with pesticides spillage because either adjustment of the containers palpebras were unfit or during commixture and burden by manus into sprayers, they were straight exposed to pesticides that fell on them. Mekonnen and Agonafir ( 2002 ) .

Factors that have been found lending towards exposure to pesticides are foremost size of containment of the chemicals, secondly solid pesticide in signifier of dust when being put into manus spraying equipment and thirdly, the type of packages when opening can sprinkle on the workers ( Jaga and Dharmani, 2003 ) . In certain instances, workers negligence set them at hazard because of spillage that occurs by accident, escape or faulty using equipment ( Fenske and Day, 2005 ) .

Another wellness and safety issue that is hazardous to the workers occurs when they have to clean their equipment. Normally to mensurate and divide the pesticide and lavation of the equipment is dearly-won and clip consuming, so employers make certain that the workers themselves carry out these undertaking. As a consequence, workers hastily perform them thereby increasing their degree of taint ( Helms and Landers, 2001 ) .

Issues with banned pesticides.

Nowadays employers are more concerned with net incomes instead than costs, be it in footings of their employees ‘ wellness, safety and health. We are all life in a society where benefit outweighs cost. Yudelman et Al. ( 1998 ) say that in developed states, the chance of negative effects is mounting the ladder because of weak governmental and non- governmental ordinances. World Health Organization ( WHO ) has made clear that Dirty Dozen pesticides are highly risky to people ‘s wellness ; many states are still advancing its usage and utilizing them ( Tijani, 2006 ; Wesling et al. , 1997 ; Fajewonyomi, 1995 ) . The root cause of the increasing Numberss of the impact on the wellness of pesticide sprayers, poisoning and exposure to pesticides, is chiefly because of weak ordinances and insecure usage of the harmful pesticides in developing states such as Nigeria ( Tijani, 2006 ) . But, on the contrary, the surveies of Tijani ( 2006 ) and Yudelman et Al. ( 1998 ) , Mauritius is a little island which has severe control over chemical substances which are manufactured, handled, imported and used. Therefore, the inquiry about impact of wellness jeopardies due to ordinances or banned pesticides does non originate.


During the pre-industrial period, waste was disposed of in land and will move as compost. Populations was smaller and less heavy, therefore waste was non that much of an issue. However, as population began to increase, the infinite for waste disposal diminished and governments had to develop new waste disposal system. Peoples were incognizant of the environmental and wellness impacts that waste could hold if they were non right disposed of. Accretion of waste resulted in high proliferation of gnawers such as rats, mosquitoes and other varmint. History even provided the fact that the pestilences that affected humanity in the yesteryear was due to non-disposal of waste ( environmentalist.org ) .

2.2.1 Adverse effects due to the non-collection of wastes.

Solid waste, if non collected within sensible hold, can hold many inauspicious effects. Microbial decomposition occurs within a short hold, particularly when nutrient waste is concerned. There can be besides be non-pathogenic microorganisms nowadays in kitchen waste but which can go a potentially deadly beginning of toxic or disease bring forthing beings within a affair of hours in a warm temperature. The environment is usually contaminated with spores, bacteriums, viruses and other vectors which can do the micro-organisms to multiply, doing them to go a menace to public wellness. Waste hemorrhoids are eyesores and can represent a danger when found on waysides by arousing accidents.

There are environmental and wellness jeopardies which occur when wastes are non collected on clip.

Environmental impacts

When aggregation of waste is non done on a regular footing, it sometimes happens that the garbage bin is overloaded and dwellers merely dump their inordinate wastes on route sides in forepart of their wall. Accidents can besides happen when roads are blocked by garbage hemorrhoids on waysides.

Uncollected wastes are sometimes dumped into drains or canals. This consequences in deluging and insanitary conditions.

Foul odors are normally emitted from refuse which is non collected within hold.

Health impacts

Proliferation of flies that spread bacterial, viral or anthelmintic diseases. Fliess, particularly house flies, are normally found on exposed family waste.

Mosquitos breed in rain H2O that remains in tins, Surs, and other unfastened objects. Mosquitos dispersed diseases such as malaria and chickungunya.

Rats proliferate and find nutrient in waste and since they are first-class vectors, they can distribute diseases such as rat bite febrility and pestilence.

Fungi and pathogens can be spread by aerosols and dusts because of non-collected and decomposing waste


2.3.1 Curbside/ back street aggregation.

The occupants are responsible to put their bins in the cub/ back street on the aggregation twenty-four hours. Refuse aggregators have as undertaking to empty the bins and return them to the aggregation point until following aggregation. Refuse aggregators need non enter private belongings thereby cut downing intruding and clip but nevertheless, aggregations have to agenda and occupants have the duty to seting and returning their ain bins.

2.3.2 Set out / Backyard set-out.

This method makes usage of two particular crews. One responsible to come in private belongings to take the bins to the lorries and the other empty the bins and returning back the bins to the proprietor ‘s topographic point. Collections need no programming but since it requires two crews, it is labour demanding, clip consuming and the hazard of garbage aggregators to endure from hurts is high.

2.3.3 Backyard aggregation

Garbage aggregators are to come in private belongings, collect and empty the occupant ‘s bins and return them back. This method makes usage of fewer workers, need no agenda and no duty of occupants but it is a beginning of intruding thereby doing hurt to workers and cause spillage of leachates when aggregators take bin till the lorry.

2.3.4. Drop off aggregation.

Residents have as duty to transport their unintegrated waste to a common location point for disposal. This method makes segregation easier but nevertheless it requires clip and duty from occupants to drive to disposal site.

Waste aggregation is an of import activity in whole universe and the obliteration of waste in urban and rural countries is a occupation consists of several jeopardies. In developing states, waste and family waste are being collected manually and this occupation requires heavy physical activity such as forcing, transporting, drawing, and raising. A survey was conducted on musculoskeletal upsets among municipal solid waste workers which showed that a sum of 65 % of workers complained that they had been suffered from musculoskeletal symptoms during one twelvemonth ( R. Mehrdad et Al ) .


Garbage aggregators play an progressively of import function in recycling and pull offing waste and protecting our environment. Refuse aggregators, nevertheless, face many safety and wellness hazards associated with their aggregation work such as managing heavy and unsafe waste, exposure to hot and cold working environment, or traffic accidents.

Refuse aggregators ‘ lives are most in danger from fatal and non-fatal accidents at their workplace. In 1998 the United States Bureau of labour Statistic studied that in 1996 most the human deaths experienced by was the garbage aggregators of US, 48.8 % human deaths of 100,000 workers. During 1992-1997 the per centum of accidents at the workplace was 46 % of 100,000 garbage aggregators. This per centum was 10 times much higher than the overall per centum human deaths in the USA. However, in 1998 the US Bureau of Labor Statistics has made an analysis which demonstrated that 42 garbage aggregators faced decease at the workplace which was the result of transit incidents. Surveies have besides been made that deceases have occurred due to reach with object or equipment. ( PPFM Kuijer, MHW FringsDresen, 2012 )

In Denmark, during 1989 to 1992 there were no fatal accidents reported among garbage roll uping workers. With mention to the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents, 9.5 % of 1000 garbage aggregators experienced accidents at work. ( PPFM Kuijer, MHW FringsDresen, 2012 )

A survey was conducted in Canada which showed that the organic structure parts largely injured of the garbage aggregators are their dorsum, weaponries and legs. Other surveies mentioned that most of the hurts occur in instances of strains or sprains, writhing, laceration, cutting hurts by crisp objects in waste, hurts from contusions, tendosynovitis. The causes of the hurts are largely during autumn, faux pas or strip ; struck by vehicles or objects ; and seting an overload of objects on the organic structure.

In Brazil, Denmark, Taiwan, Netherland, and USA, most of the garbage aggregators have made ailments that they largely suffer from musculoskeletal upsets. They are largely affected at their low back, shoulder, articulatio genus and cervix, depending on their method of aggregation. The most of import hazard factor of these musculoskeletal upsets is the high biomechanical work load in garbage collection. The high biomechanical work load is where the garbage aggregators have to use greater force to raise extra waste in garbage pokes, bins and membranophones of waste. ( PPFM Kuijer, MHW Frings-Dresen, 2012 )

In India manual garbage aggregators are barely provided with safety equipment. The Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai carried out a survey on manual garbage aggregators in Gujarat and happen out that 90 % of the manual garbage aggregators were non provided with proper equipment, such as baseball mitts, masks and boots, to protect them from feces-borne unwellnesss. Unfortunately, garbage aggregators frequently faced assorted wellness jobs. Manhole workers may endure from skin roseolas and oculus tenderness, respiratory and liver jobs. However, a recent national survey was conducted on manual garbage aggregators which determined that the most of garbage aggregators suffer from anaemia, diarrhoea, and purging. Furthermore, diseases such as TB, enteric fever and malaria are common among manual garbage aggregators. For illustration, two work forces employed by a municipal corporation in Gujarat, they were asked to do reparation work in the valve of a chief cloaca pipe which was blocked, the cloaca pipe was connected to a manhole. After two hr, they were both found dead due asphyxiation inside the manhole. ( Samuel D.Permutt, 2011 )

Health Risks for Refuse Collector

There is a widespread of infective diseases among garbage aggregators because they are chiefly exposed to risky stuff such as containers with chemical residues, heavy metals from batteries, contaminated acerate leafs, toxic stuffs and faecal affair ( Cointreau,2006 ) .

The garbage aggregators get contact with toxic and risky stuffs from seeking into the potentially unsafe waste sites without have oning their protective baseball mitts in their custodies. They besides get injured from contusions and acquire soft tissue film editing by crisp objects in the waste. When they ingestion contaminated nutrient they may endure from GI upsets. During manual transit and lifting of heavy tonss they may endure from musculoskeletal upsets. Sometimes they become victims of force, such as ; they are being abused verbally and assaulted physically by people who are involved in hooliganism. A legion of wellness and jeopardies are being experienced by the workers since they have a hapless lodging and life conditions, furthermore, they suffer from malnutrition and unfavourable health care which affect their physical development.

chemical wellness hazards

The wellness of garbage aggregators may be at hazard from unsafe chemicals in the waste collected. They suffer from respiratory job due to inspiration of toxic gases evolved from uncomplete burning of poly aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH ) , dioxins and gasified heavy metals. Leachate from waste cause taint of the surface land H2O, when it is by chance ingested it may do gastro-intestinal infection. Chemicals from waste and decomposition of some waste cause development of smells which is a nuisance in the society and for human wellness.

The biological wellness hazards

The biological hazards that the workers faced are chiefly that they are exposed to healthcare waste. Animals which feed on waste that carry disease vector are: rats, which carry swamp fever, chaparral typhus, cholera and virus ; flies which cause bacterial infections ; and mosquitoes which cause diseases like malaria, chikungunya, dandy fever febrility. Rodents, bird and insects which feed on waste create nuisance.

The physical wellness hazards

The garbage aggregators can be injured by waste hemorrhoids when it collapsed down this is due to miss of aggregation service and uncontrolled dumping of waste. Cuts and scratchs may take topographic point if the waste collected contains crisp objects. They may besides acquire struck by the waste aggregation lorry. They may besides fall from truck and acquire injured badly.

Harmonizing to my point of position the Occupational Health and Safety duties should be made clear to all the workers at the workplace. Employers should ever confer with their employees about wellness and safety issues that counteract their public presentation at work. A plan of development and execution of a preparation program should be put in topographic point so that the employees become adept and therefore can keep a safe workplace. Injuries should be managed rapidly and suitably in the workplace and there should be record maintaining of any accident happening at work.

Safety and Health issues faced by garbage aggregators in the least underdeveloped states.

2.5.1 Scavenging and waste disposal

Dumping the waste generated, in landfills, has been the most ancient and it is still the commonest manner of disposing waste, by about everyone in developing states ( Komilis, Ham and Stegmann, 1999 ) . There are three types of landfills that accommodate landfills viz. : the unfastened shit, the semi controlled landfill and the healthful landfill. About all African states by and large opt to improperly dispose the waste which will be burned, putrefaction or rust ( Simon and Phatshwe, 2003 ; Rushbrook, 1999 ) . The local governments adopt this disposal method as they are frequently unassisted financially and the population keeps on increasing and they have no strong support to let them to travel for proper landfills.

Finally the deficiency of care and hapless direction of such dumping leads to the encompassing of serious wellness hazards to decline aggregators. Therefore it is imperative to utilize landfills in an efficient manner so as to minimise the likely wellness effects that refuse aggregators are prone to, from the wantonness of the waste mopess.

Practices of garbage aggregators at the garbage dumps

The patterns at the unfastened garbage dumps are uneffective as they accommodate several classs of wastes such as agricultural, domestic, industrial and medical ; all dumped hap-hazard. Sometimes we have refuse aggregators who do non waver to delve into the landfills to salvage any valuable stuffs from being lost or remain in it.

In add-on as the wastes thrown over there are non compiled and covered therefore the proper care of the landfills is a persisting job ( Agunwamba, 1998 ) . The undertakings of garbage aggregators are assumed to be damaging to their wellness as they are largely prone to respiratory jobs such as asthma, dermatological jobs for case dermatitis, eyesight jobs and they are besides at hazard of holding a low life anticipation as they work au naturel custodies and are non provided with protective vesture.

Respiratory disfunctions among garbage aggregators

Multiple analysis have been conducted with a group of garbage aggregators where all of them complained holding respiratory symptoms ( Thorn, Beijerand and Rylander, 2002 ; Rylander, 1999 ; Nethercott and Holness, 1988 ) . Though manual scavenging will non be abolished, regular consciousness runs should be held to maintain garbage aggregators aware about the dangers predominating and what they need to cognize so that they are able to follow safe working processs and do efficient usage of effectual personal protective devices handed over to them. The garbage aggregators therefore suffer largely from biological and chemical jeopardies ; therefore they are required to undergo wellness monitoring exercisings on regular intervals.

Scavenging and exposure to harmful gases:

The harmful gases to which garbage aggregators are exposed to, during their class of work are chiefly ammonia, C dioxide, H disulfide and methane. In a survey conducted ( Watt et al, 1997 ) , some garbage aggregators participated and more than half of them were already demoing sub-acute symptoms such as coughs, take a breathing troubles, annoyances, etc. This was a consequence of the long hours of exposure and besides due to the dosage related.


Garbage aggregators are more likely to be contaminated with harmful substances during work. There are 3 chief ways they can be infected: foremost, through the custodies – oral cavity contact ; when they are eating, imbibing or smoke. Second through cuticular contact ; when crisp objects cut the tegument or penetrates lesion. Third done inspiration as dusts. Sometimes it does go on that the garbage aggregators are infected via their eyes.

Musculo-skeletal jobs faced by garbage aggregators:

Many people working as garbage aggregators have complained enduring from spinal jobs such as cervix hurting, low back aching, etc ( International Labour Organisation, 1970 ) . The spinal jobs tend to increase with age.

2.6 Pesticide sprayers: Occupational Health and Safety facets in the least underdeveloped states.

Approximately 10 % of the pesticides are used as healthful control steps by pesticide sprayers for public wellness publicity ( World Health Organisation, 1993 ) . In most hapless states, the whole process of using pesticides to the mark is non to the full comprehended ; as a consequence, it is non good handled. These arise due to some major factors such as no proper policies for chemicals in usage and besides the degree of instruction the sprayers and this leads to a really hapless cognition. There is besides less consideration for such activities due to fiscal restraints.

Supplying weedkiller sprayers with proper personal protective devices and guaranting they are being used in the right manner is the best method to protect the sprayers, but they can merely make so when they receive the proper counsel and preparation about utilizing them. Furthermore, it is extremely recommended that the pesticide sprayers go for medical showing as this jeopardy is promoted from the components of the pesticide.

However it should be noted that sometimes even though the waies of usage are mentioned, pesticide sprayers are non able to understand as they are non much educated in hapless states.

In the tropical parts, the usage of pesticides for domestic and agricultural intents is still increasing ( Agrow, 1998 ) and there is no strict control or ordinances over their usage ; sprayers use them perfectly ignorant about their quality and the menace they pose ( Vereno, 1999 ) . Thus it is recommended that the usage of pesticides to be regulated and controlled by implementing the FAO Code of Conduct ( FAO, 1996 ) .

Field worlds to pesticide sprayers:

In developing states, one time the pesticide sprayers are on field to execute their occupation, their conditions of work is far off than the coveted and needed, as they do non provide for human wellness facets, unlike in rich states.

They are given insecure equipment, wrongly adjusted which consequences in the careless crop-dusting of the pesticides. This most of the times leads to an overdose concentration in some parts whereas some parts are non treated consequently. Manual crop-dusting is the most insecure and polluting manner of using pesticides ( Spunogli and Vieri 1998 ) and if the equipment is faulty, the opportunities of taints are even higher. Some old ages back, an appraisal conducted in African states concluded that escapes and spillages of the sprayer armored combat vehicle over the individual ‘s back lead to poisoning ( Van der Meijden, 1998 ) . The grounds attributed to these conditions of work relate to sloppiness and besides fiscal barriers.

Functioning of the Municipal Councils in Mauritius.

The Municipal Council is divided into two parts. There is the political portion with the Mayor and other elected council members who are the policy shapers and the administrative portion which is headed by the Chief Executive and which is responsible for determination execution.

Structure of the Council and Committees

At present the Municipal Council is composed of 20 four Councillors elected in three wards every five old ages, as per the Local Government Act 1989. The Mayor and Deputy Mayor are elected every twelvemonth by the Council. The latter is constituted of four chief commissions, viz. the Finance Committee, the Public Health Committee, the Public Works Committee and the Welfare Committee. These commissions have a Chairman, a Deputy Chairman and twelve ordinary members, all elected by the Municipal Council. There may besides be a figure of other commissions created by the four chief commissions. Examples are the Bills and Quotation Committee, the Human Resource Committee and the Library Committee, amongst others. Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen and members of Committees alterations every twelvemonth. The Chief Executive, the Deputy Town Clerk and all Heads of Department are present during the meetings of these commissions. The latter have the responsibility of discoursing affairs related to the smooth running of the Council. Propositions are brought by councilors and debated. If accepted, they are implemented by the Chief Executive together with his squad. For illustration, a councilor may convey forward a proposal for upgrading the Quatre Bornes Market. This proposal will be debated in the Public Health Committee and so referred to the Finance Committee for fiscal facets. All determinations taken by any Committee have to be ratified in the Quarterly Meeting of the Council. However, it may go on that an pressing determination is implemented foremost and so ratified later in the Quarterly Meeting of the Council.

Structure of the Public Health Department

The Public Health Department of Quatre Bornes plays a critical function in the life and general wellness of the dwellers of the town. The section has several maps like forming and commanding the scavenging service ( in house and contracted out ) , commanding of markets found in the town and bringing of trade licences ( after review by Municipal Health Inspectors and blessing by the Permits and License Committee ) amongst others. The organisation of the section is as follows:

aˆ? The Head of Department -The Chief Health Inspector

aˆ? The Principal Health Inspector

aˆ? Senior Health Inspectors

aˆ? Health Inspectors

aˆ? Assistant Health Inspectors

aˆ? Overseers

aˆ? Gang adult male

aˆ? Manual Workers ( garbage aggregators, general field workers and office attenders )

Overseers, as mentioned above, are responsible for commanding scavenging services. They perform the work distribution every twenty-four hours and exercising a close control on the scavenging service being carried out daily. Health inspectors and Assistant Health Inspectors are besides responsible for commanding the scavenging service and describing any mishappening in the service such as the non-completion of a peculiar subdivision. Each part of the town is under the duty of an inspector/assistant inspector and an superintendent and they have to make full a scavenging chart every twenty-four hours to measure the advancement of work. However the whole section is one manner or the other involved in the scavenging service. For illustration, the Principal Health Inspector carries a random surprise review every twenty-four hours to find the truth of the scavenging charts submitted.

2.7 Refuse aggregators and general workers in Mauritius.

In Mauritius, as stated in the local Government Act, it is the duty of local governments to roll up waste over the island. This includes any waste from family to industrial waste. In contrast with developed states, in Mauritius waste aggregation is performed manually. The garbage aggregators foremost remove the waste from the bins and set them in baskets, which are so lifted to be deposited in the cabin of waste Lorries. It is of import to detect that there are merely two types of waste bearer Lorries viz. tipper Lorries and compactor Lorries which are illustrated in the images below.

Figure 1: tipper lorry

In the image above, the employees are runing on a tipper lorries. It clearly shows how the workers are exposed to possible jeopardies such as biotechnologies and biological jeopardies as when they are workin on tipper lorries, garbage aggregators are invariably exposed in the cabin while they are executing the occupation.

For the compactor lorries, the garbage aggregators have merely to empty the basket of waste in the lorry emmet so the waste is automatically compressed in the cabin as shown in the image below.

figure 2: compactor lorry

Dumping sites and Transfer Station

Till 1975, waste collected was dumped at a municipal dumping site which was found merely on the boundary of Quatre Bornes and Vacoas Pheonix. The Sir Abdool Raman Osman State Secondary School now stands on these evidences. In 1975, the Municipal Council decided to switch to Beau Songe, at a topographic point known as Bassin Papaye. This site has been used till the twelvemonth 2000. The crevasse at Bassin Papaye was so large that, even after dumping of over two 100 1000s of dozenss of waste, it has ne’er been filled up. This was chiefly due to the fact that much internal burning took topographic point, firing the waste and emancipating infinite for ‘fresh ‘ waste. In 2000, waste collected started to be dumped at the St Martin Transfer Station where it is compacted and sent to the Mare Chicose landfill. As from that day of the month, a proper monitoring has been possible for the sum of waste collected since the transportation station is a well-structured station with a weighbridge to find tunnage of waste carried to the station by each and every lorry. The transportation station is used by different councils and private companies besides. It sometimes happens that the transportation station is non working decently and in these instances, the garbage collected is carried to the Transfer Station of La Brasserie.

General Workers.

In Mauritius, ‘general workers ‘ are that type of worker who provides aid to the local governments ‘ staff to finish their undertaking. They are indulging in presenting H2O, aggregation of sewerage and refuse when garbage aggregators are unavailable, cleansing tools and equipment and executing any other manual undertaking.

Actually, the general workers face jobs of musculoskeletal upsets, low back aching, shoulders and cervix hurting frequently because they have to raise and draw heavy objects such as roll uping and disposing over-size refuse that refuse aggregators can non take. Most of them do non care about safe raising methods that are taught to them. The grounds behind are because some forget, neglect the dangers they will confront and others want to complete their occupation before by following insecure methods.

The other issue faced by the general workers is they have to work in different conditions status such as utmost heat and cold and these conditions most of the clip necessitate them mental aptitudes to cover with the occupation efficaciously. Furthermore, they deal with the populace who do no act calmly. They are frequently capable to force and aggressive behaviours.

As per the strategy of responsibility of general workers, they have to clean stuffs, cod sewerage and refuse, they are at times exposed to jeopardies and toxic substances because they do non have on all the appropriate personal protective equipment such as boots and baseball mitts provided. Some of these workers feel uncomfortable with the baseball mitts because of hot and cheery conditions which increase their sweat degree. As a consequence of this sloppiness, these general workers get eyes, tegument and nose infection and annoyance and cuts, assholes and contusions from crisp and broken objects.

Another common job is the lavatory and rinsing comfortss. The latter are unavailable where the general workers are on responsibility on sites. After working in the unpleasant and soiled environment and during interruptions for tiffin, the general workers are deprived of rinsing installations and they have their nutrient without rinsing their manus. As a consequence, they suffer from gastro-intestinal jobs due to bacteriums consumption with dirty custodies.

Chapter 3


Research methodological analysis is an of import tool in any research undertaking or survey. It is the portion that describes how the research has been carried out. Research is all about the assemblage of informations in such a manner that it will supply utile information to assist in our survey.

In the preceding chapters, an effort has been made to paint a image of the topic under survey and finally, hypotheses have been formulated. The testing of these hypotheses will hold to be made and this will be possible merely if relevant informations are gathered. A study has already been carried out and the information collected would supply the footing for the testing of the hypotheses. This chapter aims at specifying the different phases involved in the research procedure. In drumhead, the undermentioned points are covered:

Specify the research job

State the research aims

Determine research design

Decide on the informations aggregation method and trying design

Collect informations

Analyse and construe informations

For our survey, we have chosen the action based to carry on our research. This will include questionnaires and interviews on site of work of employees of the local governments.

3.1 Sample Design

Sample Design is concerned with the choice and size of the sample to be drawn out of the population. For this survey, a study was carried out within the different municipalities around the island.

Though the municipalities have a reasonably defined figure of employees, analyzing the whole population would non be possible. Sekaran ( 1995 ) points out that “ in research probe affecting several 1000s of elements, it would be practically impracticable to roll up informations from, to prove or to analyze every element. “ This would be prohibitory in footings of clip, costs and other human resources while sometimes analyzing a sample may take to more consistent consequences owing to less fatigue and fewer mistakes in informations aggregation ( Sekaran, 1995 ) . The following subdivision gives a description of one of the local governments found in the part of Grand Port/Savanne and its activities.

3.2 The Grand Port/Savanne District Council

The territory council and some of the small towns of Grand Port/ Savanne took organize some 50 old ages back so as to let occupants of the South to affect themselves keenly in the enlargement of their peculiar small towns. The responsibilities developing and looking after the good ongoing work for small towns falling under the control of the territory council of Grand Port/Savanne was allocated to a “ Commissaire civil ” , helped by some workers as declared in the regulation of local authorities in 1951. In these yearss, the District Council had merely 5 employees but the small town council did non.

Nothing had happen until the new regulation of the authorities of 1962 ” was brought frontward that more authorization was given to the District Councils, later which Grand Port/Savanne prepared a development program for their hereafter. This program at first consisted of the public assistance of the dwellers by supplying all the necessary installations such as market, resort area and other comfortss.

Concentrating on our object of survey, as per subdivision 51 of the Local Government Act of 1989, the territory councils shall within the bounds of the country under its legal power be responsible for: capable to any ordinances under subdivision 156A ( 5 ) , the aggregation and remotion of waste to disposal sites.

3.3 The Health Department

The Principal Health Inspector heads the Health Department which comprises of some 30 inspectors organized by country and supervised by a senior inspector.

This section takes attention of assorted maps which are handled by different subdivision. Based on our subject of survey, our involvement was situated around the scavenging subdivision.

The scavenging services are provided by the Health Department e.g garbage aggregation from families, trade and industrial premises. Actually fees are charged for these services merely to some economic operators.

The apparent purpose of trying design is to win in obtaining a figure of responses that represents a mendicant and dependable image of the whole population targeted, in a timely method and at low costs ( Ghauri et al, 1995 ) . In order to accomplish proper consequences, assorted trying design are available, each of them transporting qualities and defects.

For this survey, chance trying method would be adopted. In chance sampling, the variables in the population have some possibility of being chosen as a theoretical account topic. Probability trying can either be unrestricted or restricted in nature ( Sekaran, 1992 ) .

With the sample size known to be 307, the sample was prepared harmonizing to the 3 chief activities in the Health Department.