What Are The Problems Of Food Toxins Environmental Sciences Essay

As universe populations grow, many societies struggle to apportion sufficient resources such as workss, animate beings and fishes to run into human BASIC demands which are critical for endurance and good wellness. Our nutritionary position, wellness, physical and mental modules depend on the nutrient we eat and how we eat it ( FAO of the United Nation, 2005 ) . Many societies are challenged to supply good quality nutrient. Safety of nutrient is a basic demand of nutrient quality which implies that nutrient for ingestion must be safe from contaminations, adulterators, of course happening toxins or any other substance that may do nutrient deleterious to wellness on an ague or chronic footing. If non complied, food- borne diseases arise.

Food-borne diseases can arise from nutrients contaminated with viruses or bacterial pathogens, toxic substances and parasites ( FAO of the United Nations, 2005 ) . Consequently, these non-pathogenic and infective bacteriums have been found on the tegument, gills and bowels of fish ( Alisarli et al. , 2008 ) . Illnesses associated with seafood are an of import public wellness concern worldwide because fish are of great importance for human nutrition. Seafood has been implicated in 10-25 per centum of food-borne disease eruptions in developed states ( FAO of the United Nations, 2005 ) .

Histamine toxic condition is the most common nutrient borne job caused by biogenic aminoalkane ( Wohrl et al. , 2004 ) . It is formed in a assortment of nutrients, including natural fishes by the histidine decarboxylation activity of Gram-negative enteral bacteriums such as Morganella morganii, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp ( Alvarez et al. , 2006 ) . At atoxic doses, nutrient borne histamine can do intolerance symptoms such as diarrhoea, hypotension, concern, pruritus, and flowers. Merely 75 mgs ( milligram ) of histamine, a measure normally present in normal repasts, can bring on symptoms in the bulk of healthy individuals with no history of histamine intolerance ( Wohrl et al. , 2004 ) in confirming that histamine, aside for holding toxicological belongingss, could besides be an index of nutrient quality.

Around the universe, one most common cause of nutrient poisoning is the histamine nowadays in fish. This nutrient borne poisoning is caused by seafood and normally nowadayss as an allergic reaction ( Gonzaga et al. , 2009 ) . Some instances of histamine toxic condition occurred in February 2006 in Tainan Prefecture, Southern Taiwan where histamine toxic condition caused unwellness in the three victims due to consumption of dried milkfish ( Tsai et al. , 2007 ) . In Japan, Canada, United States and other states with high dietetic consumption of fish reported eruption in histamine toxic condition in fish. Most of these eruptions were caused by fish incorporating high degrees of histamine ( Malison et al. , 1987 ) . In add-on, Bakovic ( 2008 ) cited that in June 2007, several instances of histamine toxic condition were reported but prompt medical intercession has saved the lives of the victims.

In the Philippines, there are about 60 reported food-borne eruptions for the period of 1995aa‚¬ ” 2004. Some of these nutrient poisonings were caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins, paralytic shellfish toxic condition ( PSP ) toxins and histamine ( Azanza, 2004 ) .

It is for these grounds that fish sectors in General Santos City are working closely with the national authorities to convert the European Union ( EU ) to follow a more broad showing procedure that will vouch good quality of nutrient specifically fish merchandises. General Santos City as the Tuna Capital of Asia provides the Generals and pampers its guest with dozenss and dozenss of different fish species as its chief merchandise. It accounts for a large ball in the planetary tuna market. From its individual airdrome, immense sums of tuna and other fish species are sent to local markets and worldwide. To guarantee nutrient safety, exported fishes undergo laboratory analysis ; nevertheless, fish and fishery merchandises delivered to its local markets has no routinary process to look into histamine degree of natural fishes, which constitute a serious hazard for human wellness. In this instance, the research worker intend to carry on a study to find possible presence and degree of histamine in commercial fish samples from the chief public market of General Santos City and to measure conformity with the Food Standards Code. Findingss of the survey can function as footing for a local nutrient safety plan.

Statement of the Problem

This survey aims to find the histamine degree of selected natural fish species sold at the chief public market of General Santos City.

Specifically, this survey seeks to reply the undermentioned inquiries:

1. What is the degree of histamine in natural fish species sold at the chief public market of General Santos City, viz. :

a. Decapterus maruadrsi Temminck & A ; Schlegel ( Round scad )

b. Selar crumenophthalmus Bloch ( Bigeye Scad Atulai )

c. Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus ( Tilapia )

d. Chanos chanos Forsskal ( Milkfish )

2. Make the degrees of histamine degree in selected natural fish species sold in the chief Public market of General Santos City conforms to the criterion set by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources ( BFAR ) and European Union ( EU ) ?

3. What is the per centum of sample fishes with histamine degree beyond the standard set by BFAR and EU?


It is theorized in this research that degree of histamine in selected fish species for analysis will transcend the allowable bound of this compound. The elevated degree of histamine in these merchandises will be due to the undermentioned unmanageable factors one time fishes are sold in the market. These factors include temperature, storage clip and status. Since, the authorities lack the resources to invariably supervise the degree of histamine, the research worker gestate this theory by carry oning a trial on the degree of histamine in selected fishes sold in the Public Market of General Santos City. The diagram below shows the conceptual model of this research.

Histamine degree in four different types of fish

Fluorometric finding

Degree of histamine in parts per million

Scope and Boundary line

This survey is limited to the finding of histamine degree of natural fish species sold at the chief public market of General Santos City utilizing the fluorometric method, irrespective of temperature storage and beginnings. The fish samples to be considered for histamine analysis will be Decapterus maruadsi, Selar crumenophthalmus, Oreochromis niloticus and Chanos chanos. Three tests with three reproductions of sample per species will be considered for the analysis. Sampling will be conducted for three back-to-back hebdomads. The analysis will be conducted by the research worker and laboratory analyst of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources ( BFAR ) Laboratory, Lagao, General Santos City.

Significance of the Study

Excessive degrees of histamine in fish and fishery merchandises constitute a serious hazard for human wellness. It is appropriate to follow community degree steps of piscary merchandises to guarantee effectual and unvarying protection for all the members of society. This survey will measure the histamine degree of most consumed natural fish species sold at the chief public market of General Santos City. The consequence of the survey will function as footing for the governments to transport out necessary cheques, peculiarly the finding of histamine degree in fish and fishery merchandises in public markets to safeguard public wellness and supply them the nutrients that are safe and unadulterated. This survey is besides necessary to update the criterions set by Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources ( BFAR ) for natural fresh fishes.

Furthermore, the cognition gained from this survey will advise both fish Sellerss and consumers that hygienic quality of fish should be instituted to command the histamine degree of fish and fishery merchandises within the criterion.

Definition of Footings

The undermentioned footings are operationally defined for the intent of understanding the significance of the footings used in the survey.

Chanos chanos Forsskal. This refers to a species of fish is normally known as milkfish making a length of about 150 centimeter ( about 5 foot ) and a weight of 14 kilograms ( 30 pound ) , with a slender big organic structure, silver graduated tables, a light-green dorsum, and a white belly. It has large eyes, a little, toothless oral cavity, and a big, profoundly bifurcate tail.

Decapterus maruadsi Temminck & A ; Schlegel. This refers to a species of fish normally known as Round Scad which has an elongated organic structure, upper jaw making to merely below oculus forehead border, dentitions in jaws in a individual series, those of upper jaw confined to anterior terminal of jaw and vomerine dentitions in a cross strip.

Fish. This refers to fresh or saltwater fish which is intended for human ingestion.

Foodborne disease eruption. This refers to the happening of two or more instances of a similar unwellness ( fish toxic condition ) ensuing from the consumption of fish.

Histamine. This refers to the white crystalline compound ( C5H9N3 ) formed when bacteriums produce decarboxylase, which acts on free histidine in the fish musculus. The degree of this compound in natural fish samples will be determined.

Histidine. This refers to a of course happening chemical that is present in larger measures in some fish than in the others.

Histidine decarboxylase. This refers to an enzyme produced by certain bacteriums during growing. This reacts with free histidine, ensuing to the formation of histamine.

Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus. This refers to a species of fish normally known as Tilapia which has laterally flattened organic structures that range from about 10 to 30 centimeter ( about 4 to 12 in ) in length and normally sold at the chief public market of General Santos City.

Potentially risky nutrient. This refers to a nutrient that is natural or man-made and that requires temperature control because it is in a signifier capable of back uping the rapid and progressive growing of infective or toxigenic micro-organisms.

Selar crumenophthalmus Bloch. This refers to a species of fish normally known Bigeye Scad Atulai which has an elongated organic structure, really big oculus, upper jaw reasonably wide ; teeth little and recurved, upper jaw with a narrow set, tapering posteriorly ; lower jaw with an irregular individual row. This is one of the four fish species to be analyzed.